What Part Of The Brain Controls Handwriting
The left hemisphere controls the writing.
Like all cognitive activities, the tasks in which writing is involved from writing letters, syllables, and words to productive writing depend on good brain function.
There are several reasons why it is important to understand the neural substrates of written language production. First, when it is effective, it serves the purpose of communication and effective performance in everyday life .
Second, although it is often stated that reading is more necessary than writing, in recent years its importance has increased due to the rise of electronic communications .
Which implies that a deficit in writing can result in an important or significant impact on individuals, both in those who have acquired it through a brain injury and in those children who have developmental dysgraphia.
Third, the understanding of the neural substrates of the production of written language can help in the prognosis and even in the way of intervention of these difficulties in writing.
Writing and reading are the greatest inventions of mankind. This statement may surprise some people dazzled by the splendor and utility of certain technology products. None of these products would have been illuminated without those scribbles that represent concepts.
To speak of reading and writing is to tell the history of the thought of humanity, 6,000 years of written word.
The Evolution Of Language
The auditory dorsal stream also has non-language related functions, such as sound localization and guidance of eye movements. Recent studies also indicate a role of the ADS in localization of family/tribe members, as a study that recorded from the cortex of an epileptic patient reported that the pSTG, but not aSTG, is selective for the presence of new speakers. An fMRI study of fetuses at their third trimester also demonstrated that area Spt is more selective to female speech than pure tones, and a sub-section of Spt is selective to the speech of their mother in contrast to unfamiliar female voices.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech
Your brain is responsible for nearly all functions of your body and for interpreting sensory information from the world around you.
Your brain has many parts but speech is primarily controlled by the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.
The cerebrum can be divided into two parts, called hemispheres, which are joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
Your speech is typically governed by the left side of your cerebrum. In about a third of people who are left-handed, however, speech may actually be controlled by the right side.
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Larynx And Its Peripheral Nervous Control
The larynx as a structure is phylogenetically much older than its role as a vocal organ. The first vertebrate larynx appeared in the lungfish more than 400 million years ago however, the first vocalizations appeared much later with the evolution of anurans about 250 million years ago.
From a phonatory point of view, voice is produced when the expiratory airflow from the lungs sets the closed vocal folds of the larynx into vibration, converting aerodynamic power generated by the thoracic and abdominal muscles into the basic sound wave . This sound wave is further filtered and amplified by oral articulators, such as pharynx, tongue, palate, lips, and jaw , and is emitted from the mouth and nose as sound of voice .
Schematic view of the vocal and respiratory tracts
Voice onset is required for production of vowels and voiced consonants , while voice offset is necessary for production of voiceless consonants . During speech production, voice onset is precisely timed, which allows linguistic distinctions between voiced and voiceless consonants, such as /d/ versus /t/. Changes in the subglottal pressure due to changes in lung volume, the elastic properties of the chest wall and the active contraction of the intercostal and abdominal muscles lead to modulations of voice intensity, whereas the resonance characteristics of the supraglottal region influence the spectral properties of the sound.
S Of The Brain Involved In Speech
In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into language processing in the brain. Its now generally accepted that the control of speech is part of a complex network in the brain.
The formation of speech requires many different processes, from putting thoughts into words, forming a comprehensible sentence, and then actually making the mouth move to make the correct sounds.
There are several areas of the brain known to play a role in speech:
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Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
History Of Speech Production Research
Until the late 1960s research on speech was focused on comprehension. As researchers collected greater volumes of speech error data, they began to investigate the psychological processes responsible for the production of speech sounds and to contemplate possible processes for fluent speech. Findings from speech error research were soon incorporated into speech production models. Evidence from speech error data supports the following conclusions about speech production.
Some of these ideas include:
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The Utterance Generator Model
The Utterance Generator Model was proposed by Fromkin . It is composed of six stages and was an attempt to account for the previous findings of speech error research. The stages of the Utterance Generator Model were based on possible changes in representations of a particular utterance. The first stage is where a person generates the meaning they wish to convey. The second stage involves the message being translated onto a syntactic structure. Here, the message is given an outline. The third stage proposed by Fromkin is where/when the message gains different stresses and intonations based on the meaning. The fourth stage Fromkin suggested is concerned with the selection of words from the lexicon. After the words have been selected in Stage 4, the message undergoes phonological specification. The fifth stage applies rules of pronunciation and produces syllables that are to be outputted. The sixth and final stage of Fromkin’s Utterance Generator Model is the coordination of the motor commands necessary for speech. Here, phonetic features of the message are sent to the relevant muscles of the vocal tract so that the intended message can be produced. Despite the ingenuity of Fromkin’s model, researchers have criticized this interpretation of speech production. Although The Utterance Generator Model accounts for many nuances and data found by speech error studies, researchers decided it still had room to be improved.
What Are The Benefits Of Handwriting For The Brain
With the advancement of technology, handwriting has been relegated to the background. However, when you know its benefits, you may decide to reincorporate it into your life.
Since the advent of computers and other electronic devices, handwriting has taken a back seat. Many people hardly use it in their day to day life, as the pen has been replaced by the keyboard.
However, it is possible that after learning the benefits of handwriting, you will return to this traditional method in some areas of your life.
Typing on a keyboard is faster, more comfortable, and easier. With this, we save time, but we also lose that personal imprint that each of us captures when writing by hand. It is precisely those qualities that seem advantageous to us, which make typing a less beneficial option for brain processes.
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How Wernickes Area Was Discovered
Early neuroscientists were interested in discovering where certain abilities were localized in the brain. This localization of brain function suggests that certain abilities, such as producing and understanding language, are controlled by certain parts of the brain.
One of the pioneers of this research was a French neurologist named Paul Broca. During the early 1870s, Paul Broca discovered a region of the brain associated with the production of spoken language. He found that damage to this area resulted in problems producing language.
Broca described how one patient known as Leborgne could understand language although he could not speak aside from isolated words and a few other utterances. When Leborgne died, Broca conducted a postmortem exam on the man’s brain and found a lesion in an area of the frontal lobe. This area of the brain is now referred to as Broca’s area and is associated with the production of speech.
About 10 years later, a neurologist named Carl Wernicke identified a similar type of problem in which patients were able to speak but were not able to actually comprehend language. Examining the brains of patients suffering from this language problem revealed lesions at a junction of the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
This region of the brain is now known as Wernicke’s area and is associated with the understanding of spoken and written language.
Strokes Of Dominant Vs Non
People who have experienced brain injuries to the dominant hemisphere typically experience problems on the opposite side of their body, as well as trouble with language, which is called aphasia. Aphasia can affect the ability to find the right words, the ability to understand what others are saying, and the ability to read or write.
People who have experienced brain injuries to the non-dominant hemisphere typically experience problems on the opposite side of their body, as well as problems with spatial judgment, and with understanding and remembering things.
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Speech Networks At Rest And In Action: Interactions Between Functional Brain Networks Controlling Speech Production
Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
Department Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: K. Simonyan, Dept. of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1137, New York, NY 10029 .
What Does Singing Do For You
These days we mostly sing for fun, or as a vocation. But in ancient times it was used as a way of communicating vital information, show loyalty to the group or tribe and even scare off enemies. It was a vital life skill. Now were much more focused on tech, something that can negatively impact our health. Singing gets us away from screens and in touch with our heritage and natural rhythms.
Functions Of The Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe plays a key role in future planning, including self-management and decision-making.
People with frontal lobe damage often struggle with gathering information, remembering previous experiences, and making decisions based on this input.
Some of the many other functions the frontal lobe plays in daily functions include:
One of the most infamous frontal lobe injuries happened to railroad worker Phineas Gage.
Gage survived after a railroad spike impaled a portion of his frontal lobe. Though Gage survived, he lost his eye and much of his personality.
Gages personality dramatically changed, and the once mild-mannered worker struggled to stick to even simple plans. He became aggressive in speech and demeanor and had little impulse control.
Much of what we know about the frontal lobe comes from case reports on Gage. Those have been called into question since, however. Little is known for sure about Gages personality before his accident, and many stories about him may be exaggerated or false.
The case demonstrates a larger point about the brain, which is that our understanding of it is constantly evolving. Hence, it is not possible to accurately predict the outcome of any given frontal lobe injury, and similar injuries may develop quite differently in each person.
In general, however, damage to the frontal lobe due to a blow to the head, a stroke, growths, and diseases, can cause the following symptoms:
- speech problems
Organization And Interaction Between Speech
Both SPN and RSN established extended networks involving bilateral cortical and subcortical brain regions . During speech production, bilateral shared networks included the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex/SMA, IFG, ventrolateral/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, operculum, STG, MTG, middle/posterior CC, occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobule , encompassing the angular gyrus and SMG, the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum . The shared RSN had similar organization but did not involve the IPL and cerebellum . While the resting-state overlapping networks were symmetrically and widely distributed in the right and left hemispheres, speech production was associated with a more focused overlap around the cortical motor-processing brain regions, such as the LMC, IFG, SMA, and their input/output subcortical regions, the putamen and thalamus. Notably, a full 100% overlap between all networks was found in the bilateral LMC, left SMA, and right STG regions. Moreover, the LMC network was the only one to establish the most homogeneous connectivity, which fully overlapped with all other networks during both speech production and resting state. These data demonstrate the full integration of LMC within large-scale networks controlling speech production.
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Two Pathways Controlling Voice Production
Central control of voice production is carried out by two parallel pathways: the limbic vocal control pathway, which is responsible for the control of innate non-verbal and emotional vocalizations, and the laryngeal motor cortical pathway, which regulates the fine motor control of voluntary voice production, such as speech and song, as well as voluntary production of innate vocalizations. These pathways are organized hierarchically, building from the basic levels in the lower brainstem and spinal cord to the most complex levels in the anterior cingulate cortex and LMC, respectively .
Hierarchical organization of central voice control in humans and non-human primates
For proper coordination of learned vocal patterning and voice initiation, the LMC and ACC-PAG pathways converge in at least two regions, as found in neuroanatomical studies in non-human primates. One such region is the ACC itself, which has direct reciprocal connections with the LMC . The other region is the reticular formation of the brainstem, which projects directly to the phonatory motoneurons . Thus, the vocal motor control system seems to be separated into two parallel pathways for learned and innate vocalizations, coordination and interactions of which are indispensible for proper voice control.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Happiness
Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.
Imaging studies suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.
A 2015 study found that people with larger gray matter volume in their right precuneus reported being happier. Experts think the precuneus processes certain information and converts it into feelings of happiness. For example, imagine youve spent a wonderful night out with someone you care about. Going forward, when you recall this experience and others like it, you may experience a feeling of happiness.
It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.
As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Dopamine is associated with your bodys reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.
Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. Its also involved in social bonding with a partner.
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