Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Controls Thinking

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Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

How to ACCESS ALL PARTS OF THE BRAIN, for real creative thinking

The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

What Kind Of Computer Is This

The types of mental representation discussed above, such as the continuous monitoring of the spatial surround by the parietal lobes, illustrate a vital point that is often overlooked when comparisons are made between the human brain and the computer. The fact is that the human brainor the brain of many other animalsis solving quite difficult computational problems at every moment, just in seeing, recognizing a voice, or moving in a coordinated fashion on four limbs, or two limbs, or two wings. Most of these problems are so complex that they have yet to be formulated in explicit terms by computer scientists, which is why machines that can perceive and move and communicate as animals doand perform all these functions at onceare still largely the stuff of science fiction.

Of course, organization is crucial to managing such a vast resource, and the brain exhibits this feature at several levels, as discussed throughout this book. Research conducted on the simpler nervous system of invertebrates, as well as on nonhuman primates, other vertebrates, and humans, has indicated how learning brings about structural changes in nerve cells and how the neurons in turn form regions, which take part in networks. The networks are organized into distributed systems, which collaborate with other systems, both sensory and associative, to produce the total working effect.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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The Brain Has Three Main Functions

  • Unconscious or automatic functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion and control of body temperature.
  • Conscious or motor functions, such as movement, gesturing, balance, posture and speech.
  • Thinking, emotions, behaviour and senses .
  • Did you know that the average adult brain is about the size of a medium cauliflower? It accounts for about 2% of total body weight, yet receives 20% of our blood supply and uses 20% of our total calorie intake.

    Thinking Walking Talking: Integratory Motor And Cognitive Brain Function

    • 1The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth, Israel
    • 2Facultad Manuel Fajardo, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de la Habana, Havana, Cuba
    • 3School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Marcs Institute for Brain and Behaviour, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    • 4Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, Graduate School of Creative Arts Therapies, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other.

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    What Part Of The Brain Controls Happiness

    Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.

    Imaging studies suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.

    A 2015 study found that people with larger gray matter volume in their right precuneus reported being happier. Experts think the precuneus processes certain information and converts it into feelings of happiness. For example, imagine youve spent a wonderful night out with someone you care about. Going forward, when you recall this experience and others like it, you may experience a feeling of happiness.

    It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.

    As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

    Dopamine is associated with your bodys reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.

    Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. Its also involved in social bonding with a partner.

    What Part Of The Brain Controls Judgement And Reasoning

    3.9/5brainreasoningarea of the brainjudgmentgiven here

    For example, the frontal lobe controls personality, –making and reasoning, while the temporal lobe controls, memory, speech, and sense of smell.

    Additionally, what part of the brain controls organizational skills? The frontal lobe is responsible for initiating and coordinating motor movements higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving, thinking, planning, and organizing and for many aspects of personality and emotional makeup. The parietal lobe is involved with sensory processes, attention, and language.

    In this way, what part of the brain is responsible for thinking reasoning and memory?

    frontal lobe

    What part of the brain is most active in decision making?

    The Prefrontal Cortex Shows Activation During All –Making. In 2014, researchers in Switzerland discovered that the prefrontal cortex not only shows increased activity during requiring self-control, but during all –making processes.

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    Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

    Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

    The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

    Functions Of The Cortex

    ICPS #2 Thinking and Emotional Brain

    When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.

    Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.

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    The Brain Is Flexible: Neuroplasticity

    The control of some specific bodily functions, such as movement, vision, and hearing, is performed in specified areas of the cortex, and if these areas are damaged, the individual will likely lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For instance, if an infant suffers damage to facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he or she will never be able to recognize faces . On the other hand, the brain is not divided up in an entirely rigid way. The brains neurons have a remarkable capacity to reorganize and extend themselves to carry out particular functions in response to the needs of the organism and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and rewires existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers to the brains ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. Neuroplasticity enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.

    Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate themselves as skin or blood vessels can, new evidence suggests that the brain can engage in neurogenesis, the forming of new neurons . These new neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate to other brain areas, where they form new connections with other neurons . This leaves open the possibility that someday scientists might be able to rebuild damaged brains by creating drugs that help grow neurons.

    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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    The Left And Right Hemispheres

    âThe cerebrum is split into two halves , colloquially referred to as the left and right sides of the brain. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, whilst the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. This explains why victims of right-hemisphere strokes experience paralysis or sensory impairment on the left side of the body.

    The left hemisphere is credited for logic, analytical, reasoning, language and numerical skills. Conversely, the right hemisphere takes charge of creativity, imagination, intuition and spatial awareness.

    As the two sides constantly communicate through the corpus callosum, a collection of nerve fibers between linking the two halves, youâre able to engage both hemispheres simultaneously, necessary for countless cognitive feats and voluntary movements.

    The Brain Is Structured Into Three Main Parts


    1. The cerebrum

    The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and comprises two halves. The right half controls the left side of the body and the left half controls the right. The outer surface of the cerebrum is known as the cerebral cortex. Its highly folded to increase its surface area and is organised on each side into four areas the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Together, they are responsible for thinking, behaviour, movement, feelings, personality and senses e.g. sight and hearing.

    2. The cerebellum

    The cerebellum, located above the back of the neck, is responsible for co-ordination and balance.

    3. The brain stem

    The brain stem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and controls unconscious functions including breathing, heartbeat, digestion and temperature control.

    Image provided by Macmillan Cancer Support

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    What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger

    Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.

    Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.

    Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.

    Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes

    How Does The Brain Work

    The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

    Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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    The Brain Acts As A Highly Complex Communication System

    In the grey matter, the brain cell bodies generate information in the form of electrical signals and the axons carry the signals to other cells. White matter tracts connect different parts of the cerebral cortex and other structures, allowing communication across the brain network.

    In this way, information is carried around the brain itself and, via the spinal cord and nervous system, to and from every other part of the body, e.g. muscles, glands and sensory organs .

    Brain stats

    • The average adult brain contains around 100 billion brain cells.
    • Each is connected to around 1,000 others.
    • Thats 100 trillion connections.
    • There are billions of axons in the brain, but only a handful of primary white matter tracts.

    S Of The Brain And Their Functions

    Brain Science for Kids – Thinking and Feeling


    The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain, and contains tools which are responsible for most of the brain’s function. It is divided into four sections: the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe and frontal lobe. The cerebrum is divided into a right and left hemisphere which are connected by axons that relay messages from one to the other. This matter is made of nerve cells which carry signals between the organ and the nerve cells which run through the body.

    Frontal Lobe: The frontal lobe is one of four lobes in the cerebral hemisphere. This lobe controls a several elements including creative thought, problem solving, intellect, judgment, behavior, attention, abstract thinking, physical reactions, muscle movements, coordinated movements, smell and personality.

    Parietal Lobe:Located in the cerebral hemisphere, this lobe focuses on comprehension. Visual functions, language, reading, internal stimuli, tactile sensation and sensory comprehension will be monitored here.

    Occipital Lobe: The optical lobe is located in the cerebral hemisphere in the back of the head. It helps to control vision.

    • Broca’s AreaThis area of the brain controls the facial neurons as well as the understanding of speech and language. It is located in the triangular and opercular section of the inferior frontal gyrus.


    Limbic System

    Brain Stem

    Hope this guide on parts of the brain and their functions help you understand the issue more clearly.

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    The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

    The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

    Brain Areas And Their Functions

    The brain is divided into areas which are each responsible for different areas of functioning.

    The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain.

    These areas are: Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Frontal lobe.Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus,Thalamus,Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Amygdala, Hippocampas and the Mid- brain.

    The image below indicates where the areas are.

    Occipital lobe: This is found in the back of the brain. The area is involved with the brain’s ability to recognise objects. It is responsible for our vision.

    Temporal lobe: The temporal lobes are found on either side of the brain and just above the ears. The temporal lobes are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.

    Parietal lobe: The parietal lobes are found behind the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain. They are connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. They also have language functions.

    Frontal lobe:It is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, and problem solving, and planning

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    Which Part Of The Smell Activates The Brain

    Parietal lobe

    From the five senses of sight, touch, smell, hearing and taste, it works out the messages you get. This part of the brain tells you what is part of the outside world and what is part of the body.

    In this article we explained the part of the brain that controls emotions and how it develops to make decisions. We also talked about how the brain developed in different circumstances when making decisions.

    If you have any questions or comments please let us know!

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