How We Know What We Know About The Brain
In the middle of the twentieth century, two things happened almost simultaneously that forever changed our understanding of the brain. One of those is the tragic accident of Phineas Gage.
Gage worked on a railroad when an 1848 accident sent a metal implement through his left cheek and out the top of his head – right through his brain. Had this been the end of the story, history would’ve forgotten Mr. Gage. However, Gage lived for several years after the accident. Following the accident, Gage’s doctor realized that he had changed. He had a short temper and seemed unable to tell right from wrong where before he had been a kind and upstanding citizen. Gage’s accident – and his remarkable survival – suggested for the first time that different parts of the brain have different functions.
Eleven years later and across the Atlantic, Charles Darwin published his book “On the Origin of Species.” The now famous work utilized years of research on Darwin’s part to cement what is now known as the theory of evolution. Before Darwin’s theory that humans evolved from less sophisticated animals, most people accepted that humans had always existed as they do now. While this didn’t prevent an understanding of how the human body works, Darwin’s theory did give us new and interesting questions about where we came from. This eventually leads to the school of psychology called Evolutionary Psychology.
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Balance And The Brain: A Review Of Structural Brain Correlates Of Postural Balance And Balance Training In Humans
aWaisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
bNeuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
cDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6001 Research Park Boulevard, Madison, Wisconsin, 53719, USA.
What Are The Regions Of The Brain And What Do They Do
The brain has many different parts. The brain also has specific areas that do certain types of work. These areas are called lobes. One lobe works with your eyes when watching a movie. There is a lobe that is controlling your legs and arms when running and kicking a soccer ball. There are two lobes that are involved with reading and writing. Your memories of a favorite event are kept by the same lobe that helps you on a math test. The brain is controlling all of these things and a lot more. Use the map below to take a tour of the regions in the brain and learn what they control in your body.
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Where Does Anxiety Come From
When treating any form of anxiety disorder, it is important to determine where the anxiety is stemming from or what imbalances in the brain or body are fueling the anxiety. There are many risk factors when it comes to the odds of developing an anxiety disorder. These include:
- Learned behavior.
It is in our opinion to approach anxiety from a top down approach. Whether anxiety is caused from environmental factors, a functional neurological deficit, or a neurochemical imbalance, addressing anxiety from a neurological standpoint has been proven to be very beneficial. This may be done by assessing electrical activity within the cortex of the brain or assessing deeper structures that may be involved.
The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act
Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .
Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!
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The Cerebellum And Motor Coordination
Old ideas about the role of the cerebellum as the focal point for muscle activation have not been disproved.
Today it is still considered that this structure has a leading role in the coordination of movements, maintenance of balance and monitoring of neuronal signals aimed at activating muscles.
As the cerebellum is connected to many areas of the brain, it crosses the motor information elaborated in the higher regions of the brain with the more concrete and operational motor information aimed at activating muscle fibers, and checks that there are no inconsistencies between the two.
In addition, there is a debate generated around the possibility that one of the functions of the cerebellum is motor learning, that is, the ability to refine a pattern of movements so that it is perfected more and more.
The cerebellum has connections with different parts of the central nervous system, thanks to which it carries out multiple functions:
In the different connections of the cerebellum with the other areas, it almost always acts as a regulator. It records information and regulates the movements of different parts of the body, depending on the structure to which it is connected. Functions such as maintaining balance or learning a movement could be difficult if these pathways are broken.
Verbal Language And Mathematics
Related to both its verbal and symbolic abilities, the left hemisphere is capable of identifying groups of letters and interpreting them as words that, in turn, form groups of them and form meaningful sentences.
Thanks to this, it also plays an important role in speech, writing, mathematical problem solving, numbering and logic.
Other aspects in which this hemisphere is significantly involved are verbal memory, grammar, organization of syntax, phonetic discrimination, planning, decision-making, long-term memory
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Which Part Of The Brain Controls Balance And Posture
Standing straight, maintaining balance, and walking are all natural processes for humans. We dont usually think about them in our daily lives. But, did it ever occur to you how do you manage to do any sport or stand on one foot? Or how quick your reflexes are that you dont fall down every time you stumble? In this article, we are going to explore which part of the brain controls balance and posture. Read on to know some interesting facts!
How Can I Keep My Brainstem Healthy
Some lifestyle changes can keep your entire brain healthier. To keep your mind sharp and support your brain health, you may:
- Drink alcohol only in moderation.
- Eat a diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats and lean protein.
- Exercise regularly.
A strong social network has also been linked with brain health. Healthy relationships can help lower your blood pressure, decrease stress and increase your life span.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Your brainstem is the bottom part of your brain. It looks like a stalk that connects the rest of your brain to your spinal cord. Your brainstem sends signals from your brain to the rest of your body. It controls many subconscious body functions, like breathing and maintaining your heart rate. Brain tumors, strokes or traumatic brain injuries may damage your brainstem. You can lower your risk of these conditions by adopting healthy habits like exercising and eating a nutritious diet.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/21/2021.
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Pituitary Gland Controls Growth
The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.
This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.
The Part Of The Brain Controlling: Balance And Posture
As we mentioned earlier, the cerebellum does not work alone. It controls your equilibrium by combining sensory information from the outside world.
Those pieces of information come from the eyes , ears , and your bodys muscles and joints . After the information is sent to the cerebellum, it processes it and relays the information back to your body instructing it on how to stay balanced during a specific movement.
For example, Consider standing on one foot. Your joints and muscles use receptors, called proprioceptors, to gather information about the spacial position of your body.
These receptors then send the information back to the cerebellum adjusting your position by making you shift body weight, or even stretching your arms out to help maintain your balance.
Now, continue standing on one foot but close your eyes. It is much more difficult to stay in that position, isnt it?
This is because you have limited the information coming to the cerebellum. Its now unable to use visual information from the eyes and has lost a little of the spatial orientation.
Usually, we are not aware of these processes they happen reflexively. But we often become aware of them when we exercise especially exercise that involves a high degree of coordination.
Take the example of a ballerina doing a pirouette on one leg. She has to learn how to use her surroundings in order to perform the movement without losing balance. And thats no easy feat!
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Analytical Thinking
The left hemisphere controls analytical thinking, in addition, it works together with other regions of the brain such as the cerebellum for this process.
It is well known that the brain consists of two halves or hemispheres connected to each other by an extensive bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The left hemisphere manages analytical thinking while the right side is more inclined to intuition. The predominance of one over the other influences our personality and our way of acting.
Cerebral laterality refers to the different functioning of each of the hemispheres of the human brain. But this laterality is not total and both parties share many functions and collaborate and communicate with each other to perform each specific task well.
Analytical thinking is a type of thinking that involves reasoning and reflection on a certain situation or problem. We use it to decide what to do with a specific task or simply to reflect on something general.
It operates through the division of the object of study or problem into smaller parts that can be identified, categorized and analyzed, in order to obtain an answer or an adequate solution to what we want to solve.
When can we use analytical thinking? Practically always not only when it comes to solving mathematical or scientific problems, but also in everyday life or even in other areas of knowledge. We can use it to make decisions, resolve conflicts, reflect on an issue, understand the nature of a problem, etc.
What Part Of The Brain Analyzes
Occipital lobe: The lateral boundaries of the parietal and temporal lobes are delimited. It is interested in detecting and manipulating graphics. It processes and interprets what we see. To view and draw assumptions about visual images, the Occipital lobe analyzes factors such as form, colour, and movement.
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How Does The Ear Affect Balance
The inner ear is composed of two parts: the cochlea for hearing and the vestibular system for balance. The vestibular system is made up of a network of looped tubes, three in each ear, called the semicircular canals. They loop off a central area called the vestibule.
The vestibular system detects movement through special sensory cells which are activated as you tilt or move your head. The vestibular system is very sensitive to small movements of the head. If you make large, fast or prolonged movements they can take a while to settle down afterwards. This is why the room can appear to continue to spin when we stop spinning. The vestibular system sends signals to the vestibular nerve, which joins the cochlear nerve and carries electrical signals to the brain.
Show/hide Words To Know
Disorder: something that is not in order. Not arranged correctly. In medicine a disorder is when something in the body is not working correctly.
Electroencephalogram: visual recording showing the electrical activity of the brain … more
Emotion: any of a long list of feelings a person can have such as joy, anger and love… more
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The Functions Of The Cerebellum
Thus, it was considered that the task of the cerebellum was, basically, to make it possible for us to maintain balance, for us to coordinate simple and complex movements and, in general, for the muscles of our body to respond faithfully and effectively to the orders issued by the brain.
For example, one of the main symptoms of changes in the cerebellum was considered to be loss of balance after drinking too much alcohol.
However, in recent years it has been discovered that the idea that the role of the cerebellum has to do with motor coordination is too simplistic. Thus, the cerebellum is not only involved in motor processes, but also plays an important role in many other functions.
Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More
Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.
Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!
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What Are The Parts Of The Brainstem
Your brainstem consists of three parts:
- Midbrain: The top part of the brainstem is crucial for regulating eye movements.
- Pons: The middle portion of the brainstem coordinates facial movements, hearing and balance.
- Medulla oblongata: The bottom part of the brainstem helps regulate your breathing, heart rhythms, blood pressure and swallowing.
Your brainstem also contains your reticular activating system . The RAS is a network of neurons . Your RAS controls your sleep and wake cycles. It also helps you stay alert and attentive to your surroundings.
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The human brain is hugely interconnected but three major components can be identified: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
The brainstem which includes the medulla, the pons and the midbrain, controls breathing, digestion, heart rate and other autonomic processes, as well as connecting the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body.
The cerebellum plays an important role in balance, motor control, but is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention, language, emotional functions and in the processing of procedural memories.
The cerebrum , which makes up 75% of the brain by volume and 85% by weight, is divided by a large groove, known as the longitudinal fissure, into two distinct hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres are linked by a large bundle of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum, and also by other smaller connections called commissures.
Lobes of the cerebral cortexPicture from Wikipedia The Limbic System and Basal GangliaPicture from How Stuff Works
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The Basics Of The Vestibular System
Think of the vestibular system as a messenger service. Located in the inner ear, the vestibular system provides your brain with information on things like motion, the position of your head, and sudden movements. This helps you maintain your balance by ensuring that your brain processes your bodys position every time it changes. Overall, the vestibular system helps you maintain a sense of equilibrium, preventing falls and dizziness.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger
Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.
Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.
Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.
Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes
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