Sunday, May 22, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Is Affected By Depression

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The Location Of The Stroke Impacts Recovery

What Depression and Anxiety Look Like in the Brain

If you are a stroke survivor, its important to talk to your neurologist. Ask him/her about the location of your stroke, as it may help you to identify and understand what secondary effects to expect.

Once you understand the location and effects of your stroke, rehabilitation can proceed with more efficiency.

The stroke recovery process is unique to each individualbecause every stroke is different. The most important thing to do is never giveup hope.

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The hippocampus is part of the brains limbic system, or whats otherwise known as its emotional centre. The system also contains the amygdala, another part of the brain shown to be affected by depression.

While the hippocampus plays an important role in consolidating and forming new memories, Professor Hickie explained that memories werent just about remembering passwords.

Your whole sense of self depends on continuously understanding who you are in the world your state of memory is not about just knowing how to do Sudoku or remembering your password its the whole concept we hold of ourselves, he said.

Weve seen in a lot of other animal experiments that when you shrink the hippocampus, you dont just change memory, you change all sorts of other behaviours associated with that – so shrinkage is associated with a loss of function.

Professor of psychiatry at Monash University Paul Fitzerald said while the findings of the study were important, they were unlikely to immediately affect clinical treatment.

I dont think theres anything thats really, fundamentally going to change overnight but its an important part of the jigsaw puzzle to put together a better understanding of whats going on in depression and that obviously has implications for developing better treatments down the track, he said.

The hippocampus is one of the most important regenerative areas of the brain, said Professor Hickie.

What Part Of The Brain Is Affected By Depression

brain affected by depressionpartbrain

The body releases cortisol during times of physical and mental stress, including during times of depression. Problems can occur when excessive amounts of cortisol are sent to the brain due to a stressful event or a chemical imbalance in the body.

Additionally, how does depression affect the prefrontal cortex? Though depression involves an overall reduction in brain activity, some parts of the brain are more affected than others. In brain-imaging studies using PET scans, depressed people display abnormally low activity in the prefrontal cortex, and more specifically in its lateral, orbitofrontal, and ventromedial regions.

Herein, does depression give you brain damage?

Brain damage is caused by persistent depression rather than being a predisposing factor for it, researchers have finally concluded after decades of unconfirmed hypothesising.

Does your brain age faster when depressed?

Research shows your brain physically ages faster when you’re depressed. New research out of Yale University shows depression can physically change a person’s brain, hastening an aging effect that might leave them more susceptible to illnesses associated with old age.

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Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms

Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the ;effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.

The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a;full list of the secondary effects;of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.

Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:

Effect Of Depression On The Brain


Now its time to have your hands on the information youve been looking for. As per previously mentioned information you might have got an idea about the physical effects of depression. So, depression has a physical impact and symptoms, but can depression cause brain depression? The answer youll find below. The long-term effects of depression on the brain include the following.

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For Many Years People Thought That Antidepressants Worked Primarily Because They Affected The Neurotransmitter Serotonin But The Latest Research Indicates That Antidepressants Influence Neurogenesis By Starting The Formation Of New Nerve Cells

Professor Poul Videbech

While depression can have serious consequences for the patient, Videbech says there is hope as the brain can be forced to heal itself in many cases.

Treatment with antidepressants and electroshock seem to be able to start the formation of new nerve cells, so areas that have shrunk can be built up again. Videbech expects that future studies will document the same effects with psychotherapy.;

Studies at the Centre for Psychiatric Research, where people suffering from depression have been followed for more than ten years through brain scans, certainly show that shrinking of the hippocampus is reversible if the depression is treated.

Experience from own practice

Videbech started his studies after he had diagnosed and treated many depression patients at the hospital. A symptom typical of the disease is difficulty in concentrating and remembering.;

The Hippocampus , is a convolution of the brain, located in the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampus is important for our short-term memory.

But he discovered that the symptoms often continued when the patient had officially recovered.

Their symptoms were very uncomfortable, at times crippling, and after I had heard the same story many times I started wondering about the cause,. So I started scanning their brains.

Studied all the literature

The discovery came as something of a surprise, and Videbech thought that other researchers may have made the same discovery in recent years.

Stem cells form new nerve cells

Conclusion And Future Direction

In vivo MRI scans have made great achievements in the study of psychiatric disorders, which have resulted in the dawn of the understanding of the pathophysiology of psychosis, especially of MDD. Many brain region alterations have been reported, and some crucial circuits have also been revealed via imaging studies. The discovery of brain network put forward new ideas in the understanding of the disease of depression, providing effective stimulation sites and efficacy evaluations for the commonly used transcranial magnetic stimulation or deep brain stimulation techniques. In addition, these findings also suggest that MDD is not only due to local lesions but is also a multiloop disorder. However, previous studies still had limitations, and more research is needed in the future. First, most of the studies mentioned small sample sizes, which could have increased the falsepositive and falsenegative rates of the results. Therefore, multicenter cooperation not only would solve this problem of sample content but also could result in more indepth research. Second, the identification of significant lesions relies on longterm followups and the comparison of treated and nontreated patients. Future studies need to conduct longitudinal studies with larger samples. Moreover, using animal experiments to verify the neuroimaging findings and applying the results to humans is very important and will be a big step in the application of neuroimaging to the clinical field.

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Sleep Disturbances And Emotional Issues

The cortisol influx caused by depression can cause your amygdala to enlarge, increasing its activity. Since it helps control your emotions, damage to your amygdala can throw your emotions off balance. You may experience uncontrollable mood fluctuations as a result, causing you to experience both negative and positive emotions very intensely.

An enlarged amygdala doesnt just impede your emotional health and your mood stability its increased activity can also cause other issues, like sleep issues and disturbances. Sleep deprivation, in turn, can worsen your overreactions to stimuli. Poor sleep also causes you to develop a more negative mood and mindset, which can cause your depression to worsen.

Since this creates a feedback loop, issues with your amygdala can be one of the most dangerous things about major depressive disorder.

How To Help Symptoms Of Depression

Where Depression Affects Your Brain

Although you really cant control the onset of depression, or what its doing to your brain, there are things you can do to make it better. You can work with a psychologist, get on medication, or you can use neurofeedback to train your brain back to a healthier, happier state.

You dont have to struggle through depression alone. Call our office today at for a free consultation to see how our neurofeedback can help!

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Are The Changes Permanent

The long-term answer to how long the brain is affected by major depressive disorder , as well as what type of effects can be expected, is still being studied. But research suggests the effects can be lasting.

Clinical depression at any level might have a significant impact on the brain, but the result of continued or repeated depression can be especially negative. Theres some evidence to suggest that the effects of depression on the brain compound over time, and some of these changes in people diagnosed with lifelong major depressive disorder might be present even after years of a depressive episode.

Additionally, levels of translocator proteins also increase in people with depression. These brain chemicals are linked to inflammation in the brain, and studies show they can:;

  • Kill or hurt brain cells
  • Prevent new ones from growing
  • Interfere with thinking
  • Accelerate brain aging;

Even if levels return to normal, even temporary periods of reduced new growth and increased aging can still have potential lifelong impacts. One thing is clear: ongoing depression probably does cause significant, long-term changes to our brain.;

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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How Common Is Depression After Tbi

Depression is a common problem after TBI. About half of all people with TBI are affected by depression within the first year after injury. Even more are affected within seven years after injury. In the general population, the rate of depression is much lower, affecting fewer than one person in 10 over a one-year period. More than half of the people with TBI who are depressed also have significant anxiety.

How Depression Affects The Brain

What causes depression?

When we think about depression, what comes to mind are feelings and emotions or, for some, the absence of feelings and emotions. In order to really understand depression, however, its important to be aware that the condition has physical aspects as well. Most people understand what depression looks like on the outside, in terms of a persons behavior, but our medical understanding of the actual progression of the disease and its treatments continues to evolve. ;

What we know right now is that, on a chemical level, depression involves neurotransmitters, which can be thought of as the messengers that carry signals between brain cells, or neurons. ;

The current standard of care for the treatment of depression is based on what we call the monoamine deficiency hypothesis, essentially presuming that one of three neurotransmitters in the brain is deficient or underactive, says Rachel Katz, MD, a Yale Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry. ;

But according to Dr. Katz, this is only part of the story. There are about 100 types of neurotransmitters overall, and billions of connections between neurons in each persons brain. ;

There remains much to learn.

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How Does Depression Cause Memory Loss

Scientists think theres a link between depression and memory loss because several studies have found that people with depression are less able to take in new information.

For example, studies on people with depression indicate that depressed individuals struggle to match objects on a screen with ones they had previously seen.

Scientists think this is happening because the hippocampus, the part of the brain that deals with emotions and memory, shrinks.

MRI scans show reduced brain activity in the hippocampus, but its not known exactly why depression causes this reaction. Researchers suggest that floods of cortisol upset hormone balances, cause biochemical changes, and interrupt neurotransmitters.

And dont forget that depression often means a lack of quality sleep. Memory loss and the ability to think coherently are made even worse through tiredness.

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Heart Disease And Depression

Another outstanding question is why people with depression also have increased risk of heart disease. While theres undoubtedly lifestyle and socioeconomic factors linking heart disease and depression, we wanted to test whether sgACC over-activity itself could disrupt cardiovascular function. We thought this region might be important because its connected to the brainstem, which regulates our heart rate and blood pressure.

We found that sgACC over-activity not only exaggerated marmosets blood pressure response to threat, it also increased heart rate and reduce heart rate variability even at rest. Heart rate variability is an important measure of how rapidly the heart can adapt to changes in the environment, especially cues which predict reward or punishment.

These changes mirror some of the cardiac dysfunction seen in depression and anxiety. The elevated heart rate and reduced heart rate variability suggests that over-activity in sgACC promotes the bodys fight-or-flight response, which if lasting over long periods of time puts the heart under extra strain and might explain the increased incidence of heart disease.

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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Prenatal Depression Is A Common Problem

What Causes

It’s estimated that up to 1 in 5 women have some type of pregnancy-related mood or anxiety disorder, and this can be due to a number of risk factors according to Kecia Gaither, MD, MPH, FACOG, director of perinatal services at Lincoln Hospital in the Bronx, New York. Those include:

  • History of depression or mood disorder
  • Lack of familial or social support
  • Issues with significant other
  • Anxious or negative feelings about the pregnancy
  • Pregnancy occurring at a young age

Physicians address depression with screening questions, appraisals by family members, behavioral monitoring during prenatal visits, and discussions with patients, says Gaither. Any findings that raise an alarm are referred for further evaluation with a psychiatrist, often along with assessment for an underlying medical cause for the issue, such as thyroid dysfunction.

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Current And Future Depression Treatments

Understanding the chemistry of depression may help people better understand the treatments available. While psychotherapy is helpful for some people with depression, if there is a chemical imbalance in the brain, it may not be enough to address their symptoms.

If a person finds that therapy alone is not helping them manage their depression, they may want to try medication. For some people, antidepressants combined with psychotherapy proves especially effective for addressing their symptoms.

To complicate treatment further, medication does not always work for people with depression. One study evaluating the effectiveness of currently available antidepressants found that these medications only work in about 60% of people with depression.

Even if your depression is primarily linked to an imbalance of chemicals in the brain, depression affects both your internal and external life. Therefore, medication alone may not be sufficient to address all the ways in which depression can affect you.

There is also research that suggests neurotransmitter levels can be affected by factors other than medication and that psychotherapy can help a person learn about them. For example, stress may contribute to low levels of certain neurotransmitters.

While taking an antidepressant medication might help with the symptoms, it doesn’t necessarily address the cause of the low levels. In this situation, therapy to improve stress management and reduce stress could potentially be helpful.

The Brain’s Impact On Depression

Popular lore has it that emotions reside in the heart. Science, though, tracks the seat of your emotions to the brain. Certain areas of the brain help regulate mood. Researchers believe that more important than levels of specific brain chemicals nerve cell connections, nerve cell growth, and the functioning of nerve circuits have a major impact on depression. Still, their understanding of the neurological underpinnings of mood is incomplete.

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What Causes Depression The Truth Is Many Mental Disorders Are Produced By Physical Changes In The Brain Or Body

What causes depression? Multiple factors can contribute, among them chemical imbalances involving the “big three” neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

What causes depression? is a question many of us have asked. Responses are all over the map, but its fair to say that depression is a disease. Research supports this by demonstrating key differences in the brains of those who are depressed and those who are not.

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