Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Consciousness

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Structure Of The Brain

Does Consciousness Arise in the Brain?

The cerebrum is the large folded area of the brain and is responsible for conscious thoughts, reasoning, memory and emotions.

The cerebellum is found at the rear of the brain below the cerebrum and controls balance and coordinated movement.

The medulla is found at the top of the spinal cord and contains groups of neurons that transmit electrical impulses to the heart and lungs to control heart rate, breathing rate and peristalsis.

Areas Involved With Social Interpretation

In addition, they were also able to verify that sexual desire not only sets in motion brain areas involved in the perception of sensory and emotional stimuli from the person but also the structures related to the social interpretation of the emotions and desires of others, he explains. the investigation.

When comparing love with sexual desire, activity in the ventral striatum, hypothalamus, amygdala, somatosensory cortex, and inferial parietal lobe was reduced.

These reductions are in line with sexual desire as a state of mind with a very specific goal, while love could be seen as a behavior with a more abstract, flexible and complex goal, less dependent on the physical presence of another person.

In addition, love is associated with certain areas of the brain that are related to motivation, expectation, and habit formation.

Although love and desire share a pattern of emotional, motivational and cognitive activation of the brain areas, our review also reveals specific patterns of activation of each of these phenomena.

That love is located in a certain area of the striatum, associated with drug addictions, could explain that love is really a habit that is formed by a sexual desire that is fed back through a reward. It works the same the way drugs do in the brain in addicted people, says Pfaus.

Of course, the addiction relationship occurs when the object of our love leaves abruptly. We enter a state of withdrawal in which we feel depressed and we long for the other .

Psychology In Everyday Life: Why Are Some People Left

Across cultures and ethnic groups, about 90% of people are mainly right-handed, whereas only 10% are primarily left-handed . This fact is puzzling, in part because the number of left-handers is so low, and in part because other animals, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis .

At least some handedness is determined by genetics. Ultrasound scans show that nine out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth , and the mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome . It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems .

But culture also plays a role. In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left-handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as Canada and the United States. For example, India has about half as many left-handers as the United States .

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Mechanisms That Allow The Functioning Of Attention: Attentional Neural Networks

For a stimulus from outside to enter our field of attention and be processed correctly, these attentional circuits must put into operation a series of mechanisms to correctly perform the action of attending.

The sources of care are therefore divided into these three independent and differentiated anatomical and functional mechanisms or systems: orientation or selection, surveillance and executive control, which in turn are divided into functional networks, that is, neural networks that are related integrating different areas of care.

The three networks are independent but work interrelated:

Multiple Traits Define Arousal States

Which parts of the brain are most responsible for ...

The success of sleep neurobiology has been derived, in part, from deconstructing states into their component traits and then characterizing the mechanisms regulating those traits. Those data, and the lack of support for a unitary hypothesis of anesthesia,, make clear that characterizing the mechanisms generating anesthetic traits provides a powerful paradigm for gaining insight into the regulation of anesthetic states. The desirable anesthetic state is a constellation of reversible traits that include analgesia, amnesia, unconsciousness, blunted sensory and autonomic reflexes, and skeletal muscle relaxation. In addition to the characteristic of reversibility, another goal of anesthesia is the temporal coordination of the foregoing five traits. Ideally, the onset of these drug-induced traits occurs at approximately the same time. Undesirable anesthetic complications often are characterized by temporal dissociations in the offset of drug-induced traits, such as failure of a seemingly awake, postanesthetic patient to maintain upper airway patency. As with successful anesthesia, normal sleep also requires the temporal coordination of multiple traits. In fact, the nosology of many sleep disorders is characterized by the intrusion of sleep traits into the state of wakefulness or the expression of waking traits during sleep .

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The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

Research Focus: Identifying The Unique Functions Of The Left And Right Hemispheres Using Split

We have seen that the left hemisphere of the brain primarily senses and controls the motor movements on the right side of the body, and vice versa. This fact provides an interesting way to study brain lateralization the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions. Gazzaniga, Bogen, and Sperry studied a patient, known as W. J., who had undergone an operation to relieve severe seizures. In this surgery, the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres, known as the corpus callosum, is severed. As a result, the patient essentially becomes a person with two separate brains. Because the left and right hemispheres are separated, each hemisphere develops a mind of its own, with its own sensations, concepts, and motivations .

Although Gazzanigas research demonstrated that the brain is in fact lateralized, such that the two hemispheres specialize in different activities, this does not mean that when people behave in a certain way or perform a certain activity they are only using one hemisphere of their brains at a time. That would be drastically oversimplifying the concept of brain differences. We normally use both hemispheres at the same time, and the difference between the abilities of the two hemispheres is not absolute .

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Consciousness And Energy In The Brain

We do not fully understand the biological function of energy in the brain or how it relates to the presence of consciousness in the person3. Given that the human brain accounts for only 2% of the bodys mass it demands a large portion of the bodys total energy budget, some 20% . Most of this energy is derived from the oxidization of glucose supplied to the cerebral tissue through the blood. Roy and Sherrington were the first to propose a direct correspondence between changes in cerebral blood flow and functional activity . Many features of human brain anatomy, such as the number of blood vessels per unit of space, the lengths of neural connections, the width of axons, and even the ratio of brain to stomach size are thought to be determined by the high metabolic demands associated with complex cognitive processing .

Hunting Down The Brain Area Responsible For Consciousness

Brain 101 | National Geographic

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Why Is This Useful

For people in an unconscious state that are unable to wake up, there may be a possibility for some sort of therapy as scientists start understanding what parts of the brain control consciousness and thus, what parts to target. This would be similar to the way deep brain stimulation is currently being experimented with as a treatment for Parkinsons Disease.

It also might be possible to stimulate some parts of the brain to address depression as well as a variety of consciousness disorders.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

In order to comprehend what part of the brain controls consciousness, it is useful to understand a little more about what the different parts of the brain are and what they do.

The brain consists of three major parts and a couple of minor but important ones. These include:

  • The cerebrum: this takes up the majority of the brains volume. It controls intelligence and reason, emotions and memory as well as other sensory and cognitive abilities.
  • The cerebral cortex: the main part of the outer part of the cerebrum is your cerebral cortex, which is the part which processes the sensory and motor data. Of interest to us and the study of consciousness, it may also be responsible for controlling our awareness.
  • The cerebellum: The cerebellum is smaller and is positioned towards the rear of the brain. It controls things like movement and balance.
  • The brain stem: connects both hemispheres of your brain to the spinal cord. Your sleep, blood pressure, breathing and several other involuntary functions are controlled here. Critically, to the study of consciousness, the brain stem is also thought to control arousal.
  • The thalamus: situated beneath the cerebrum, the thalamus is a group of neurons which passes sensory data to your cerebral cortex.

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Unconscious Vision And The Intentional Action Inference

Blindsight and DF show that damage to specific regions of the braindisrupts normal visual processing, yet subjects can access visualinformation in preserved visual circuits to inform behavior despitefailing to report on the relevant visual contents. The received viewis that these subjects demonstrate unconscious vision. One implicationis that the normal processing in the ventral stream, tied to normal V1activity, plays a necessary role in normal conscious vision. Anotheris that dorsal stream processing or visual stream processing thatbypasses V1 via subcortical processing yields only unconscious visualstates. This points to a set of networks that begin to provide ananswer to what makes visual states conscious or not. An importantfurther step will be to integrate these results with the generaltheories noted earlier .

Still, the complexities of the empirical data bring us back tomethodological issues about tracking consciousness and the followingquestion: What behavioral data should form the basis of attributionsof phenomenal consciousness? The intentional action inference is usedin a variety of cases to attribute conscious states, yet the resultsof the previous sections counsel us to be wary of applying thatinference widely. After all, some intentional behavior might beunconsciously guided.

The Global Neuronal Workspace

Which parts of the brain are most responsible for ...

One explanation of generic consciousness invokes the globalneuronal workspace. Bernard Baars first proposed the globalworkspace theory as a cognitive/computational model , butwe will focus on the neural version of Stanislas Dehaene andcolleagues: a state is conscious when and only when it is present in the global neuronal workspace making the state globally accessible to multiple systems includinglong-term memory, motor, evaluational, attentional and perceptualsystems . Notice that the previouscharacterization does not commit to whether it is phenomenal or accessconsciousness that is being defined.

Access should be understood as a relational notion:

A system X accesses content from system Y iff Xuses that content in its computations/processing.

The accessibility of information is then defined as itspotential access by other systems. Dehaene introduces a threefold distinction: neural states that carryinformation that is not accessible states that carry information that is accessible but not accessed and states whose information is accessed by the workspace and is globally accessible to othersystems. So, a necessary and sufficient condition for a statesbeing conscious rather than not is the access of a state or content bythe workspace, making that state or content accessible to othersystems. Hence, only states in are conscious.

Figure 2. The Global NeuronalWorkspace

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Ascending Reticular Activating System And Consciousness

Revising history of arousal in modern medicine document as one of the first described structures responsible of enhanced arousal . After decades of researchers efforts we know that what was described as is not a structure of brain stem nuclei per se but is a group of specialized nodes in a complex network and pathways that controls arousal. This network includes the cholinergic nuclei in the upper brainstem and basal forebrain, The posterior hypothalamus histamine projection, and noradrenergic nuclei, especially the locus coeruleus. The dopamine and serotonin pathways that arise from brain stem are thought to be part of . The thalamus which constitute crucial synaptic relay for most sensory and intracerebral pathways is located strategically at the apex of and have mediated major control on most of its activities . Thalamic burst discharges are generated through extensive inhibitory axon collaterals, produced by special thalamic, ARAS coordination. Those discharges are responsible for gating specific reticular information which is in turn transmitted back to the cortex, and this reverts the information back to the brainstem . Positron emission tomography investigation during slow-wave sleep and anesthesia documented selective thalamic and ARAS hypometabolism through studying functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep and studying the neurophysiologic basis of anesthetic induced unconsciousness.

The Ascending Arousal System Induces Wakefulness

Contemporary models of the wake-sleep regulatory system are based on the seminal research conducted by von Economo, Moruzzi, and Magoun. In 1930, von Economo reported that a viral illness known as encephalitis lethargica was caused by lesions of the posterior hypothalamus and rostral midbrain . Consequently, he hypothesized that wakefulness is mediated by an ascending arousal system beginning in the brainstem, which remains active following midbrain interruption of the classical sensory pathways.

A schematic drawing showing key components of the ascending arousal system. Adapted from Saper 2005, pg 1258 .

In sum, cholinergic neurons, monoaminergic cell populations, and orexin/hypocretin nuclei of the lateral hypothalamus located along the two branches of the ascending arousal system, discharge in a stereotypical and coordinated manner to promote cortical arousal, with each making unique, though overlapping and redundant, contributions to achieve and sustain wakefulness. During sleep, these circuits are blocked by neurons of the VLPO.

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Neurocardiology And The Heart Brain Neurodynamics

The field of neurocardiology is relatively new discipline which was discussed first time in a scientific conference in King of Organs 2006,Saudi Arabia. The meticulous and sophisticated neurological afferent pathways as well as energetic dominance of the heart over the brain was astonishing for the modern scientific communities. The amplitude of the cardiac electrical signal is about 60 times greater in amplitude compared to the brain while the electromagnetic field of the heart is approximately 5000 times stronger than the brain and can be detected six feet away from the body with sensitive magnetometers. Other ways the heart communicate the brain are hormonal and biophysical.

Figure 4.

The currently known afferent pathways by which information from the heart and cardiovascular system modulates brain activity. The nucleus of tractus solitarius direct connection to the amygdala, hypothalamus and thalamus is shown. In addition there is emerging evidence of the presence of a pathway from the dorsal vagal complex that travels directly to the frontal cortex.

Where Is Consciousness In The Brain

GCSE Biology – The Brain #70

Scientists trying to figure out which part of the brain is responsible for consciousness already understand some of the basics which are required for consciousness. These include:

  • Arousal
  • The state of being awake, psychologically and physiologically
  • Awareness
  • Being able to know and perceive things

They have also looked at patients at times when consciousness was absent in order to see the differences.

A great many studies have been conducted. In recent years, theyve started to show clear results

Perhaps none more so than the team under Michael Fox at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, which is part of Harvard Medical School.

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What Part Of The Brainstem Controls Consciousness

4.1/5brain stemcontrolsconsciousnessquestion here

The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world.

Beside above, what are the 3 parts of the brainstem and their functions? So the medulla, pons, and the midbrain, those are the 3 parts of the brain stem. Now, let’s look at the functions of those 3 parts. First we have the midbrain, and that’s involved in processes such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement.

Secondly, which part of the brain controls unconscious activities?

The brainstem is connected to the spinal cord at the back of the brain. The brainstem controls unconscious functions such as respiration, digestion, and pulse. Three structures comprise the brainstem: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. The midbrain controls eye movement and focus.

Where is the brainstem located and what is its function?

The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons. Motor and sensory neurons travel through the brainstem allowing for the relay of signals between the brain and the spinal cord.

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