Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
Which Region Of The Brain Is Necessary For Consciousness
For thousands of years, everyone from great thinkers, priests and philosophers to psychologists and neuroscientists have battled to understand human consciousness.
As far back as the ancient Maya and Inca four millennia ago, whole civilizations have struggled to define consciousness. Countless philosophers since then as well as many leading minds in many different fields today continue to do so.
There are many questions relating to what consciousness is from a philosophical standpoint
But, up until recently, there were just as many questions on the physical side too:
Specifically, which region of the brain is necessary for consciousness?
In the past few years, scientists think they might have found at least part of the answer to this latter question
To understand the answer though, we need to know a little about how the human brain works:
Causes Of Auditory Deprivation
One common way people develop auditory deprivation is by avoiding hearing loss treatment. For example, if hearing aids remain in their case , then auditory deprivation can result.
This mostly comes about when someone has a diagnosed hearing loss and they dont treat that hearing loss, Pulido says. Over the time of not getting that auditory stimulation that connection between the ears and the brain gets weak.” The auditory nerve begins to atrophy and weaken, she says.
Another reason it may occur is when people have hearing loss in both ears, but only wear a hearing aid in one ear, she says.
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Our Brain Adapts To Hearing Loss
Another study carried out by the University of Colorado Boulder found that the brain adjusts to hearing loss, even if the issue is only mild. Researchers used scanners to study the brain of people with hearing issues and discovered that shortly after they began to lose their hearing, their other senses began to play a more prominent role. The scan results showed the activation of the frontallobe, where the memory is located, when these people were preparing to hear sounds.
Additionally, the study highlighted the fact that continuous use of hearingaids also caused the patients brains to adjust and come to resemble the brain of a person with healthy hearing.
Results Of Damage To Auditory Cortexes
Any damage to these areas of the brain involved in hearing which prevent processing can result in a persons inability to perceive analysis and location of sound information. Although lesions in the auditory cortex can end in total deafness, they can also produce deficiencies that impair sound perception that does not leave the person deaf. Examples include patients who suffered lesions in these areas that no longer had the ability to recognize what the sounds were, the location of the sound and even what made the sound. Lesions that cause problems with music can result in a condition known as amusia. This is the inability to perceive melody and rhythm. This can compromise the ability to differentiate between unpleasant and pleasant music. It can also result in ones inability to produce or understand melody and rhythm .
References for Areas of the brain involved in hearing
The Brain Connection. . The Anatomy of Movement . Retrieved from http://brainconnection.brainhq.com/2013/03/05/the-anatomy-of-movement/
Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. . Physiology of Behavior . Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
The Free Dictionary. . Somatotopic. In Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health . Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/somatotopic
Price, M. . The risks of night work. Monitor on Psychology, 42, 38. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/01/night-work.aspx
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The Basics Of The Vestibular System
Think of the vestibular system as a messenger service. Located in the inner ear, the vestibular system provides your brain with information on things like motion, the position of your head, and sudden movements. This helps you maintain your balance by ensuring that your brain processes your bodys position every time it changes. Overall, the vestibular system helps you maintain a sense of equilibrium, preventing falls and dizziness.
What Are The Parts Of Our Hearing System
The hearing system consists of many different parts and sections. Successful hearing requires all of these parts and sections to function properly.
- Outer ear: The pinna sits on the side of your ear and collects the sounds in the environment. The ear canal funnels the sounds to your eardrum.
- Middle ear: The sound from the ear canal hits and vibrates the eardrum a membrane that divides the outer ear from the middle ear. The eardrum is connected to a series of three tiny bones. You may know them as hammer, anvil and stirrup. As the eardrum moves, so do the tiny bones.
- Inner ear: The third bone in the series of tiny bones in the middle ear is connected to another thin membrane that divides the middle ear from the inner ear. The inner ear consists of a spiral shaped structure known as the cochlea . Within the cochlea sits the organ of hearing where we have thousands of tiny cells, known as hair cells. The hair cells are stimulated and send messages to the auditory nerve.
- Auditory nervous system: The auditory nerve runs from the cochlea to a station in the brainstem . From that station, neural impulses travel to the brain specifically the temporal lobe where sound is attached meaning and we HEAR.
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S Of The Brain Involved With Hearing
When one listens to music or hears someone speak, the brain must process what it has heard 5. In order to be understood, sounds must first be converted to vibrations in the middle ear and then to electrical impulses in the inner ear. These electrical impulses are then relayed to different sites in the brain for interpretation.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
How The Brain Hears
As weve shown in our post showing pictures of the cochlea, the cochlea is filled with thousands of nerve cells. Each of these cells connects directly to the auditory brainstem, which is a part of the brain responsible for processing sound information.
But what does it look like when this information is processed? And how exactly do we see it? Here, were going to show you how, because we think its cool to be able to see exactly where and how someone hears.
Its all done with a special brain scanner called a Positron Emission Tomography scan. PET scans make it possible to watch brain activity without surgery, and allow doctors to study someones brain activity in real time. As we know exactly which parts of the brain are responsible for understanding sound, we can focus on these parts of the brain when looking at the scan results. When PET scans are used to watch someone with a CI, we can see exactly how their brain responds to the sound signals coming from their implant.
What do these scans look like? Good thing you asked! Heres a scan that shows the brain responding to sounds from a CI: the colored sections show where the brain is working, with brighter areas indicating more activity.
You can see that the two parts of the brain responsible for hearing are on either side of the brain. Its these two sections that light up when you hear, whether its with a CI or hearing implant, or as with normal hearing.
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Speaking Slowly Or Slurring Words
If Brocas area is damaged, a person might find it difficult to produce the sounds of speech or may speak very slowly and slur their words. Speech is often limited to short sentences of less than four words. This is called Brocas aphasia or nonfluent aphasia.
Another cause is if stroke or injury damages the areas of the brain that control movements of the muscles of the mouth or tongue.
What Is The Auditory Cortex And What Does It Do
The auditory cortex plays a critical role in our ability to perceive sound. It is thought to be integral to our perception of the fundamental aspects of an auditory stimulus, like the pitch of the sound. But it is also important in various other aspects of sound processing, like determining where in space a sound originates from as well as identifying what might be producing the sound. The auditory cortex is also thought to be involved in higher-level auditory processing, such as recognizing aspects of sound that are specific to speech. Damage to the auditory cortex can disrupt various facets of auditory perception. For example, damage might cause deficits in the ability to detect changes in pitch, localize sounds in space, or understand speech.
The auditory cortex primarily receives auditory information from a nucleus in the thalamus called the medial geniculate nucleus, which is where all incoming information about hearing is sent before it is processed by the cerebral cortex. Cells in the primary region of the auditory cortex are arranged so they form what is known as a tonotopic map. What this means is that different areas of the auditory cortex are involved in processing different sound frequencies.
Overall, there is still much to be learned about the fine details of auditory processing in the auditory cortex. It is clear, however, that this part of the brain plays a critical role in creating the rich sensory experience of hearing.
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Right Brain Left Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
General Inability To Speak And Understand Language
Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.
People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .
PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.
Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.
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Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
- Information and support
- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
What To Do If You Have Hearing Aids
If you already have hearing aids, use them consistently. Make your hearing aids a part of your daily routine, even if you are staying at home. Hearing is important for safety, and regular use of your devices will keep your brain active and healthy.
Using your hearing aids every day will also help establish a routine, so you will be less likely to leave home without them.
Talk to Discover Hearing to learn more about how your existing hearing aids can help you exercise your brain and maintain your hearing health. A hearing aid practitioner can help maximize the effectiveness of your hearing technology by ensuring you are using it correctly.
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How Much Of The Brain Is Dedicated To Visual Processing
The retina, which contains 150 million light-sensitive rod and cone cells, is actually an outgrowth of the brain. In the brain itself, neurons devoted to visual processing number in the hundreds of millions and take up about 30 percent of the cortex, as compared with 8 percent for touch and just 3 percent for hearing.
Also know, which region of the brain helps with vision?
The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision. Temporal lobe.
Which part of the brain is responsible for hearing and memory?
Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement. Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum.
Where is vision in the brain?
Also known as the striate cortex, or simply V1, the primary visual cortex is located in the most posterior portion of the brain’s occipital lobe . In fact, a large part of the primary visual cortex cannot be seen from the outside of the brain, because this cortex lies on either side of the calcarine fissure.
Brain Areas And Their Functions
The brain is divided into areas which are each responsible for different areas of functioning.
The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain.
These areas are: Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Frontal lobe.Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus,Thalamus,Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Amygdala, Hippocampas and the Mid- brain.
The image below indicates where the areas are.
Occipital lobe: This is found in the back of the brain. The area is involved with the brain’s ability to recognise objects. It is responsible for our vision.
Temporal lobe: The temporal lobes are found on either side of the brain and just above the ears. The temporal lobes are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.
Parietal lobe: The parietal lobes are found behind the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain. They are connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. They also have language functions.
Frontal lobe:It is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, and problem solving, and planning
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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain
In order to comprehend what part of the brain controls consciousness, it is useful to understand a little more about what the different parts of the brain are and what they do.
The brain consists of three major parts and a couple of minor but important ones. These include:
- The cerebrum: this takes up the majority of the brains volume. It controls intelligence and reason, emotions and memory as well as other sensory and cognitive abilities.
- The cerebral cortex: the main part of the outer part of the cerebrum is your cerebral cortex, which is the part which processes the sensory and motor data. Of interest to us and the study of consciousness, it may also be responsible for controlling our awareness.
- The cerebellum: The cerebellum is smaller and is positioned towards the rear of the brain. It controls things like movement and balance.
- The brain stem: connects both hemispheres of your brain to the spinal cord. Your sleep, blood pressure, breathing and several other involuntary functions are controlled here. Critically, to the study of consciousness, the brain stem is also thought to control arousal.
- The thalamus: situated beneath the cerebrum, the thalamus is a group of neurons which passes sensory data to your cerebral cortex.
Areas Of The Brain Involved In Hearing
-By Timothy Lyons
The main areas of the brain involved in hearing are called the primary and secondary auditory cortexes. The primary auditory cortex is part of the superior temporal gyrus in the temporal lobe. These are the internal brain structures responsible for processing but the inputs are fed through a series of brain areas. The data is transported from the cochlear nerve to the superior olivary nucleus . This is processed and sent to the inferior colliculus, the medial geniculate nucleus , and finally to the auditory cortex .
From we can see that the primary auditory cortex which is areas of the brain involved in hearing, is divided into sections that are a map which is topographical but because the information has already been processed into differentiated sounds it is called tonotopic. These divisions correspond directly with their inputs.
Another one of areas of the brain involved in hearing is the secondary auditory cortex is less accurate and receives signals that are diluted. Sound information is processed in two flows known as anterior and posterior. The anterior analyzes sound and the posterior is used in sound localization. These areas in the brain are also responsible for musical perception such as harmony, beat and rhythm patterns .
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