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What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Movement

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Conflict Of Interest Statement

Parts of Brain

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Original Source Article

Mutha, P. K., Sainburg, R. L., and Haaland, K. Y. 2011. Left parietal regions are critical for adaptive visuomotor control. J. Neurosci. 31:697281. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6432-10.2011

References

Vingerhoets, G. 2014. Contribution of the posterior parietal cortex in reaching, grasping, and using objects and tools. Front. Psychol. 5:151. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00151

Newport, R., Brown, L., Husain, M., Mort, D., and Jackson, S. R. 2006. The role of the posterior parietal lobe in prism adaptation: Failure to adapt to optical prisms in a patient with bilateral damage to posterior parietal cortex. Cortex. 42:7209. doi: 10.1016/S0010-945270410-6

Wolpert, D. M., Goodbody, S. J., and Husain, M. 1998. Maintaining internal representations: the role of the human superior parietal lobe. Nat. Neurosci. 1:52933.

Aflalo, T., Kellis, S., Klaes, C., Lee, B., Shi, Y., Pejsa, K., et al. 2015. Decoding motor imagery from the posterior parietal cortex of a tetraplegic human. Science. 348:90610. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5417

What Part Of The Brain Controls Balance

Its easy to take the balance system for granted. Depending on your ability level, you probably dont think twice about standing upright, walking around, and sitting up straight. But while these processes might seem effortless, the reality is that your brain is constantly working to keep your balance system functioning properly. Your brain is responsible for helping you walk, run, and even stand on one foot. But what part of the brain controls balance?

Related Problems And Disorders

As we have indicated previously, the motor cortex is a very important brain region when it comes to being able to carry out practically any action. That is why an injury to these brain areas can have severe repercussions on the lives of patients.

One of the problems that the injury or destruction of the cortex or motor area can generate is paralysis and loss of mobility, whether in a specific part of the body, in a half body or in the whole body.

Hemiplegia or tetraplegia may appear. If the injury is only in one hemisphere, the paralysis will occur contralaterally: that is, if the right motor cortex is injured, the left hand will be paralyzed.

With regard to secondary motor areas, the effects of injury to them often alter the ability to perform movements in a coordinated and sequential manner. We are talking about the emergence of possible apraxias, or aphasias or dysarthria when we refer to problems in the production of the movements necessary to communicate.

Agrafia can also occur, as the movements necessary to write cannot be carried out correctly, eating problems or even visual problems due to the lack of proper regulation of the movement of the facial organs and muscles.

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S Of The Brain And Their Functions

Cognitive Educational Psychologist Practitioner. Founder, Consultant of Rising Brains. Ltd Brain Health Care Consultant

The human brain is a complex organ that holds the most importance in the entire human body. The objective of this article is to give you an introduction about the parts of the brain and their functions rather than a detailed review of the research that has been done on the brain. The brain weighs just 3 pounds but is responsible for controlling behavior, interpreting the senses and initiating body movement. It is the source of intelligence in our body and is located in a bony shell that is protected by brain fluid. The brain is the reason for all of the qualities we possess that make us human beings.

One of the questions that you could be asking yourself might be “what are the main parts of the brain”. Well, the following is an explanation of the parts of the brain and their functions.

Neuroplasticity And Movement Rehabilitation

brain

As with other parts of the brain, when neurons of the primary motor cortex are damaged they will never regrow or repair. However, the brain can heal itself and regain some lost function through neuroplasticity. This means undamaged parts can change their connections and remap to other areas of the body to take over function, compensating for damaged parts of the motor cortex.

Neuroplasticity is the fundamental principle in physical rehabilitation, such as physiotherapy for patients following stroke, that allows patients to regain motor function and recover. Through neuroplasticity, the more a particular movement is performed, the stronger the brain pathways for that movement become and the easier it gets to perform that movement in the future.

Lets look at an example of a stroke patient, Harry, who has problems with movement in his left leg. Harry might have altered patterns of walking due to damage in the leg area of the motor cortex of the right side of his brain. To help Harry regain efficient walking ability, the physiotherapist helps him perform sequences or patterns of walking by practising activation and control of specific muscle groups in his left leg.

Further reading:Were capable of infinite memory, but where in the brain is it stored, and what parts help retrieve it?

This article was co-written with Zita Arends, who is a physiotherapist in stroke rehabilitation and aged care.

Read other articles in our Brain Control series, here.

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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

The Motor System And Primary Motor Cortex

The brains motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. It starts with premotor areas, for planning and coordinating complex movements, and ends with the primary motor cortex, where the final output is sent down the spinal cord to cause contraction and movement of specific muscles.

The primary motor cortex on the left side of the brain controls movement of the right side of the body, and vice-versa, the right motor cortex controls movement of the left side of the body.

Different areas of the primary motor cortex connect to, and control, movement of different parts of the body, forming a kind of body map known as the homunculus.

The size of the area on the homunculus determines the level of fine movement control we have with that part of the body. So, for instance, a large proportion of the motor cortex is devoted to our thumb, fingers, mouth and lips, as they are vital for manipulating objects and speech articulation.

The connection from the primary motor cortex to muscles of the body is so important that any damage leads to an impaired ability to move. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Laughter

At least once a day we all laugh for one reason or another, to a lesser or greater extent. But did you ever wonder what laughter is or why we laugh? What happens in your brain while you laugh? Laughing is something very important in our lives and the body derives its benefits from it.

In this article we are going to answer the question What part of the brain controls laughter? We will discover why human beings laugh and what happens in the body and brain while we laugh.

In What Regions Is The Motor Cortex Divided

Brain 101 | National Geographic

The motor cortex integrates various areas, through which movement is possible. Lets look at them:

  • Primary motor cortex. It is the main area that is responsible for generating the nerve impulses that are needed for the production of voluntary movement. In addition, it is responsible for sending orders to the voluntary muscles of the body. In this way, they contract or tighten. It is a region with a low excitation threshold.
  • Supplementary motor area. It consists of an area that coordinates the movements of the postures. Thus, the sequence of movements in large muscle groups collaborates.
  • Premotor areas. They are areas with a high threshold of excitation. In addition, it is responsible for storing movements that come from past experiences.

Thus, it coordinates and at the same time programs the sequence of movements and the activity of the primary motor cortex. It is located in front of the primary motor cortex and close to Sylvian fissure. It is also related to the movements required for speech.

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S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

Of The Brain That Controls Muscle Movement

Thanks to our brain we can plan, eat, run and even smile. It is through the complex but fascinating functions of the cerebral motor cortex that we carry out various actions on a daily basis. It is a part of our brain that helps us control, execute, and plan movement.

In addition, it allows us to react to stimuli, which is essential for our survival. But this part of our brain does not act alone. These movements can happen thanks to the various connections and association with other areas of our body.

Through the article we will talk about the Part of the brain that controls muscle movement, we will see: what is its location and what are its structures and functions. In addition to associated pathologies when there is an injury or when it does not work properly. Lets explore the motor cortex, also called the motor cortex.

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

The Importance Of Laughing

The Brain

Happiness, joy, humor and laughter are positive phenomena necessary for our body. In most cases, and provided that it occurs in the appropriate contexts, these emotions have a clear adaptive function, on a personal and social level.

Normally, when we laugh with other people we are acting in a clearly prosocial way, giving them signals that we enjoy being with them, something that enhances relational bonds.

Laughter is a very important non-verbal component when it comes to communicating. It is the non-explicit way of indicating that what we are saying is either a joke or something that should be interpreted with humor.

For example, if we say something that seems to be serious but, at the same time, we laugh, it is as if we are taking iron out of the matter. Soften the blow and avoid having an awkward moment with other people, maintaining relationships.

And this is where it acquires its evolutionary importance. Laughter is a phenomenon that has been observed in other species, many of them close to humans and has also been seen in foxes.

Laughter in the animal world serves to indicate that, when a certain action is being carried out, it is not serious, for example in fights or biting between foxes. It is his way of saying that they are only playing, that there is nothing to worry about.

The same would happen with laughter: when we saw another person laugh, these neurons would be activated and we would replicate their behavior.

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What Did We Find

Figure 3A shows that all four groups were performing the same at the beginning of the adaptation condition. The two control groups, RNC and LNC, and the RPD group showed similar adaptation over the session. The RPD groups learning was normal. However, the LPD group did not show adaptationthey did not change the movement of their arms as much as the other three groups.

  • Figure 3 – Shows the errors in the direction of movements when people are first exposed to the motor task.
  • Each cycle represents eight consecutive movements. In cycle 1, when participants were first exposed to the task, participants make a 30° error, and as they practice, the error goes down. Both control groups and the Right Parietal stroke group adapt to the task the same. In contrast, the left Parietal stroke group does not decrease their error through training. Shows the errors that occur when the rotation of the visual feedback is turned off, referred to as after-effects. The three groups that adapted to the rotation show large after effects, while LPD patients do not.

We saw the same pattern in the aftereffects data . Again, it was only the LPD group, not the RPD group that did not show an after effect, which supports the conclusion that the LPD group did not develop a new motor representation during adaptation. And again, the RPD group and the two normal control groups performed normally, showing that they developed new motor representations.

The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

References For Areas Of The Brain Involved In Movement

Introduction to The Brain | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool

The Brain Connection. . The Anatomy of Movement . Retrieved from http://brainconnection.brainhq.com/2013/03/05/the-anatomy-of-movement/

Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. . Physiology of Behavior . Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

The Free Dictionary. . Somatotopic. In Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health . Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/somatotopic

Friel, K. M., Barbay, S., Frost, S. B., Plautz, E. J., Stowe, A. M., & Dancause, N.,Nudo, R. J. . Effects of a Rostral Motor Cortex Lesion on Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation Topography in Primates. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21, 51-61. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1177/1545968306291851

Price, M. . The risks of night work. Monitor on Psychology, 42, 38. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/01/night-work.aspx 201701270716291328087211

Purves, D., Augustine, G. J., & Fitzpatrick, D. . . Neuroscience . Summerland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10796/

Stewart, L., Von Kriegstein, K., Warren, J. D., & Griffiths, T. D. . Music and the brain: disorders of musical. Brain, 129, 2533-2553. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl171

Disorders

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