Substructures Of The Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning and Brocaâs area, which is essential for language production.
The prefrontal cortex is primarily responsible for the âhigherâ brain functions of the frontal lobes, including decision-making, problem-solving, intelligence, and emotion regulation.
This area has also been found to be associated with the social skills and personality of humans.
This idea is supported by the famous case study of Phineas Gage, whose personality changed after losing a part of his prefrontal cortex after an iron rod impaled his head.
The frontal cortex has also shown to be activated when an experience becomes conscious. Different ideas and perceptions are bound together in this region, both of which are necessary for conscious experience.
Concluding that this area may be especially important for consciousness.
Cognitive disorders that have shown to be linked to this region are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , Autism, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia.
The prefrontal cortex can be further divided into the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex.
Motor and Premotor Cortex
The motor cortex is critical for initiating motor movements, as well as coordinating motor movements, hence why it is called the motor cortex.
Figure 807 The Amygdala Is Involved In Fear And Fear Memories The Hippocampus Is Associated With Declarative And Episodic Memory As Well As Recognition Memory The Cerebellum Plays A Role In Processing Procedural Memories Such As How To Play The Piano The Prefrontal Cortex Appears To Be Involved In Remembering Semantic Tasks
Long term memory represents the final stage in the information-processing model where informative knowledge is stored permanently . Memories we have conscious storage and access to are known as explicit memory and are encoded by the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the perihinal cortex which are important structures in the limbic system. The limbic system represents a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebral cortex, and is important for a variety of functions including emotion, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction.
In contrast to the memory systems covered above related to explicit encoding and retrieval memory processes, implicit memory as discussed in the previous section refers to memories that are acquired and recalled unconsciously. Modern research has suggested that the cerebellum, the basal ganglia , the motor cortex, and various areas of the cerebral cortex are related to the storage and retrieval of implicit memory.
Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
You May Like: Ischemia And Hemorrhage Kill Neurons By
Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Thinking: The Cerebellum
Although it isnt directly involved in thinking, the cerebellum plays an important role in this process. This part of the brain takes up to 10% of its total volume, yet contains more than half of all the neurons in the brain.
Known as unconscious, the cerebellum is in charge of balance and coordination.
Scientists have discovered that the unconscious cerebellum interacts with the conscious cerebrum to perform functions. The cerebellum carries out planned muscle movements such as running and jumping. Thats why sometimes scientists call it the thinking cerebellum.
Right Brain/left Brain Right
- By Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Senior Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing
Follow me on Twitter @RobShmerling
If youre like me, you learned that about 90% of people are right-handed and much of the reason is genetic. And thats true, although it remains a mystery why our genetic evolution led to so many more righties than lefties.
But for certain tasks, handedness can be “overcome.” For example, right-handed kids learning to play tennis, golf, or baseball can become successful hitting from “the other side.” It may be more a matter of how they are taught and what gets reinforced than about a hard-wired preference for one hand or the other.
According to recent research, the idea of people being “left-brained” or “right-brained” may also be less fixed than wed thought.
Read Also: Blood On Brain Symptoms
Functions Of The Cortex
When the German physicists Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig applied mild electric stimulation to different parts of a dogs cortex, they discovered that they could make different parts of the dogs body move. Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity. They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dogs body, and vice versa. This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control, meaning the brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
Just as the motor cortex sends out messages to the specific parts of the body, the somatosensory cortex, an area just behind and parallel to the motor cortex at the back of the frontal lobe, receives information from the skins sensory receptors and the movements of different body parts. Again, the more sensitive the body region, the more area is dedicated to it in the sensory cortex. Our sensitive lips, for example, occupy a large area in the sensory cortex, as do our fingers and genitals.
Which Frontal Lobe Group Works To Make A Decision
According to the data obtained by William T. Newsomes team, decisions would be made by a single group of neurons located in the frontal lobe, which would integrate the information and then make a single choice, always evaluating the various alternatives.
However, to move forward you have to be able to decide. Say: This is my path, I choose it. However, it is valid to understand something fundamental: not deciding is also a way of deciding it is letting circumstances or others choose for you.
That is why it is advisable to think not only about the decision itself, but also to weigh the consequences and the effects it will have. Do not be afraid of doubts, because they are part of the decision process. Therefore, once the alternatives and their consequences have been evaluated, one must take action, and it is good to remember the phrase of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: The whole world turns away when it sees a man passing by who knows where he is going.
Also Check: Anesthesia Effects On Alzheimer Patients
Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Emotions
Now, you know what parts of the brain deal with thinking and memory. Lets have a quick look at the part that is responsible for emotions.
All positive and negative emotions, and spontaneous feelings think excitement and sadness, are being processed in the limbic system.
The limbic system control your emotions and interacts with other parts of the brain.
In the same time, another part of the brain called amygdala handles emotional reactions such as love, hate, and sexual desire.
With centuries of research, the human brain remains the biggest mystery in the world. It is the most complex part of the body that controls movement, sight, and thinking.
Where Does Personality Reside In The Brain The Frontoparietal Network Makes You Who You Are
Never underestimate personality. A sense of humor will make you popular a little confidence will win you jobs and the right amount of sass or cockiness will score you dates. Personality shines from within, mingling spirit and intelligence, so its safe to assume it originates in the brain.
While they would have to agree, neuroscientists naturally add a few lines, a little shading, and some general complexity to this picture of personalitys genesis. Take, for instance, the Yale researchers who recently created a brain activity matrix for 126 people based on MRI data. To do this, they looked at 268 distinct brain regions and measured how strongly the activity of each region compared to the activity in every other region. Creating a matrix for each person, they soon discovered everyone had his or her own unique matrix, quite like we all have a unique fingerprint.
Next, to test their discovery, the team worked backwards: they searched through MRI scans from previous sessions to see if they could identify each person based on the matrix created. In fact, the researchers could pinpoint each participant with surprising accuracy.
Even though the stream of consciousness flowing through our brains is always moving, then, people always looked most similar to themselves, explained Emily Finn, the lead author of the study.
It is also the area of the brain that defines your personality.
Read Also: Signs And Symptoms Of A Brain Bleed
How Does Memory Work
âMemory is a highly complex process that depends on three stages:â
- Encoding: assessing the importance of information and deciding if itâs worth keeping
- Storing: keeping the information in such a state as to be available as needed
- Recalling: the retrieval of information, which we experience as remembering
Your brain is continually evaluating the relevance and significance of information. When you consciously try to remember information, you employ your short-term memory. If there is value in storing the information for a longer duration, your mind will work to transfer information to the long-term memory.
Contributions Of Unpredicted Brain Regions To Personality
We also detected less intuitive results. For example, all five personality domains predicted RSFC between numerous seeds and primary motor and sensory regions .5). Task-based studies have also found relationships between the occipital cortex and higher-order behavioral traits, such as word and food picture recognition, risky decision-making and auditory expectation . Typically these findings are attributed to the visual components inherent to the task paradigms employed in the particular study. But Kober et al. suggested that visual cortex activity may contribute to attentional processing of emotionally-valenced stimuli, rather than being limited to low-level sensory processing. As some of these seeds 5) also demonstrated a connection with prefrontal regions mediating higher-order cognitive function, this suggests that dynamic interactions of large-scale networks including low-level sensory and high-order cognitive brain regions subserve complex thoughts and behavior .
Of particular interest is the ubiquitous relationship demonstrated between personality domain scores and the cerebellum, especially the cerebellar vermis. Previous studies implicated the cerebellum in non-motor , higher cognitive functions , , and cerebellar lesions have been shown to produce personality changes , . This suggests that full coverage of the cerebellum should be a priority in future neuroimaging studies of personality.
Also Check: What Does A Brain Bleed Mean
The Risk Analyst And The Ceo
Posted October 19, 2016
It was an exciting moment when, accompanied by Amber, Leigh returned to Miami a spring day in 2015 to undergo brain imaging. We had decided to use regular magnetic resonance imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging as tools to peek inside Leighs brain. MRI takes a series of images of the brain from different angles. This can help us identify visible lesions to the brain. fMRI is different. It shows where the brain is most active when the research participant is looking at or listening to a stimulus or is performing another simple task.
Inside the tight compartment of the brain scanner we first took a series of regular MRI images of Leighs brain. What we found surprised us: there were damages to a substance in the brain known as white matter. White matter is a fatty tissue that wraps around nerve endings and helps carry electrical signals across the brain. The damage in Leighs brain seemed to be located in nerve cells that are responsible for carrying signals from one half of the brain to the other half as well as nerve cells in charge of transmitting emotional signals from the amygdala, also known as the emotional brain, to the front of the brain.
You can read the next chapter of this true tale tomorrow. Parts 1 and 2 can be found here and here. For further information about this and similar cases of extraordinary human ability, you can read our book The Superhuman Mind.
Problem With Brain Chemicals
It’s thought that many people with BPD have something wrong with the neurotransmitters in their brain, particularly serotonin.
Neurotransmitters are “messenger chemicals” used by your brain to transmit signals between brain cells. Altered levels of serotonin have been linked to depression, aggression and difficulty controlling destructive urges.
You May Like: Slow Brain Bleed
Dementias And Other Diffuse Processes
Diffuse processes affecting frontal lobes may affect cortex and cortico-ortical connections. Both cortical and subcortical dementias are common in the elderly, but personality does not ordinarily change as part of normal aging . Frontal cortex is affected in both frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease , but among FTD patients, personality changes are much more marked and more frequently represent socially undesirable behaviors . Disinhibition, euphoria, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and hoarding are more frequent in FTD than AD patients .
What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:
- The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
- The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.
The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.
The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.
The brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
Read Also: Brain Haemorrhage Survival Rates
S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
Also Check: Brain Test 187 I Hate Math
Personality Relates To A Network Of Functional Connections
Our RSFC findings extend prior studies that linked personality traits to regional differences in brain structure , , , or function , , , , , . By contrast, the present findings emphasize the importance of considering functional relationships between regions in order to map complex brain-behavior relationships, rather than being limited to volumetric differences or the momentary responsivity of individual brain regions or sets of regions.
For example, Neuroticism predicted positive RSFC between PCU seed p4a region involved in limbic processing and the surrounding precuneus . This region of the precuneus is implicated in social and emotional functions, especially among individuals high in Neuroticism , , , , who tend to be more socially dysfunctional and reactive to negative emotional experiences . Yet the precuneus is a large, functionally heterogeneous region , and it cannot be assumed to be solely responsible for Neuroticism. Instead, it is only when we consider the functional relationship between the seed and additional regions that we can interpret how these areas interact in unique ways to produce a framework for modulating behavioral responses to environmental stimuli.
The Brain And Decision Making
The origin of freedom is in the brain and this capacity is nothing more than the possibility of choosing between different actions or forms of language. Human beings have autonomy to do one thing or another and to suppress what is not wanted. In both cases, it is an election that includes the option to do nothing.
The ability to decide is, above all, in the cerebral cortex, an area of the brain that adjusts us to the environment and has a late development in people. In reality, full maturity is not acquired until we are approaching the third decade of life, when the maturation process of the cerebral cortex ends.
At that age we manage to postpone gratification, something that a child who wants everything in the here and now cannot do. For this reason, the prefrontal cortex is what opens us to freedom and creativity.
Perhaps few manage to realize that when making decisions the worst obstacle or enemy to overcome is the mind itself, since a good part of our behaviors are unconscious.
These almost automatic behaviors are called heuristic routines and are intended to help the person in the choices that they must make on a daily basis. In other words, they are internal processes that automate choices and make it possible to choose alternatives expeditiously and economically in terms of energy consumption.
You May Like: Lack Of Sleep Causes Brain To Eat Itself