Friday, May 13, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Speech

Don't Miss

What Is Broca’s Area

What part of the brain controls speech?

Broca’s area is the area of the brain responsible for speech production, language processing, and language comprehension, as well as controlling facial neurons. First discovered in 1861, this area was named after Pierre Paul Broca. Broca discovered the area after studying the brain of a patient with a speech impairment after his death.

This part of the brain is connected to the Wernicks area of the brain by the arcuate fasciculus, which is a pathway made of neurons. It is found in the frontal lobe of the cortex, within the inferior frontal gyrus. It is comprised of two primary parts: the Pars triangularis and the Pars opercularis.

The Pars triangularis is located in the anterior portion of Broca’s area. Researchers believe that this area of the brain is responsible for helping the human brain interpret different stimulus modes. It is also where verbal conducts are programmed in the brain.

The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum

The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.

You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.

The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.

Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

Also Check: How Many Eggs Are There Brain Test

What Part Of The Brain Controls Language And Speech

To be gifted with language is to be able to both understand and respond to someone. In other words, the faculty of language covers comprehension and utterance. For spoken language, you have to be able on the one hand to pass from sound to meaning, and on the other hand, then, from the words thought to the words spoken, from the thought to the voice. These processes obviously depend on learning, society and culture, but they also have cerebral underpinnings part of the brain controls language and speech:

Cerebrum

Each hemisphere of the cerebrum can also be divided into regions called lobes, which include the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

The lobes located in the front and side of your brain, the frontal lobes and the temporal lobes, are primarily involved in speech formation and understanding. The cerebral cortex is responsible for integrating sensory impulses, directing motor activity, and controlling higher intellectual functions.

Brocas area: source of speech production

Read also: Optical Illusion It Changes The Way You See Reality | Explanations and Photo Examples

This discovery marks the beginning of the identification of areas of the brain related to different facets of human language. Patients suffering from aphasia have enabled anatomists and then neuropsychologists to refine their knowledge of cerebral language supports, the study of different cases making it possible to identify different cerebral areas endowed with specific functions.

Building Blocks Of The Brain

The human brain

Extensive and intricate as the human brain is, and with the almost limitless variation of which it is capable, it is built from relatively few basic units. The fundamental building block of the human brain, like that of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom, is the neuron, or nerve cell. The neuron conducts signals by means of an axon, which extends outward from the soma, or body of the cell, like a single long arm. Numerous shorter arms, the dendrites , conduct signals back to the soma.

The ability of the axon to conduct nerve impulses is greatly enhanced by the myelin sheath that surrounds it, interrupted at intervals by nodes. Myelin is a fatty substance, a natural electrical insulator, that protects the axon from interference by other nearby nerve impulses. The arrangement of nodes increases the speed of conductivity, so that an electrical impulse sent along the axon can literally jump from node to node, reaching velocities as high as 120 meters per second.

You May Like: What Does The Hippocampus Do In The Brain

Aphasia: Classification Of Disorders

One such communication disorder is Aphasia. Aphasia is a disturbance happening in comprehension or expression of language.

Aphasia is a disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain that are important for language. For several people, these areas are on the left side of the brain. The left brain is where the two regions of the brain responsible for language are found: Wernickes area and Brocas area. Aphasia is usually categorized as expressive or receptive, depending on how difficult it is to understand or express language. But the majority with aphasia have some trouble with their speaking and will have a mixture of problems with writing, reading, and perhaps listening.

Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System Deficits

The cerebrum of adult weaver homozygotes has 52% lower DA levels than normal. At birth, young weaver neurons undergo degeneration beneath the subependymal plate. The substantia nigra of weaver mice has 40% fewer DA cells than the wild-type on postnatal day 20 and 70% fewer DA cells at 3 months of age DA neuron loss is also seen in the ventral tegmental area and retrorubral nucleus. A further wave of DA neuron degeneration is effected during the second year of life, bringing the total DA cell loss to 85% in the substantia nigra by 24 months. In regression fits, DA neuron fallout combines two independent components, an initial exponential decay, superceded by a linear regression, with a threshold at about 100 days. The half-life of neurons degenerating during the first phase is 58 days the probability per unit time that a neuron will die is a constant , estimated at 0.012 per day. During the second phase of degeneration, the probability of a neuron dying becomes a function of time and declines with advancing age, that is, the longer a cell survives, the less likely it is to degenerate.

Heterozygous weaver mice have normal midbrain DA neuron numbers at 3 months of age. However, DA dendrites projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta into the pars reticulata appear defective in length and density, varicosity diameter, intervaricose segment length, and afferent synaptic connectivity.

Russell J. Love Ph.D., Wanda G. Webb Ph.D., in, 1992

Recommended Reading: How Do Steroids Affect The Brain

S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

How Does The Brain Process Speech We Now Know The Answer And Its Fascinating

Parts of Brain

Neuroscientists have known that speech is processed in the auditory cortex for some time, along with some curious activity within the motor cortex. How this last cortex is involved though, has been something of a mystery, until now. A new study by two NYU scientists reveals one of the last holdouts to a process of discovery which started over a century and a half ago. In 1861, French neurologist Pierre Paul Broca identified what would come to be known as Brocas area. This is a region in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

This area is responsible for processing and comprehending speech, as well as producing it. Interestingly, a fellow scientist, whom Broca had to operate on, was post-op missing Brocas area entirely. Yet, he was still able to speak. He couldnt initially make complex sentences, however, but in time regained all speaking abilities. This meant another region had pitched in, and a certain amount of neuroplasticity was involved.

In 1871, German neurologist Carl Wernicke discovered another area responsible for processing speech through hearing, this time in the superior posterior temporal lobe. Its now called Wernickes area. The model was updated in 1965 by the eminent behavioral neurologist, Norman Geschwind. The updated map of the brain is known as the Wernicke-Geschwind model.

Recommended Reading: Prevagen Side Effects 2016

What Do The Parts Of The Brain Control

Researchers study the parts of the brain and what each part does in order to understand where functions of the brain occur. Discoveries about brain anatomy assist medical professionals in diagnosing and treating brain disorders and tumors. There are three main divisions of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.

The Pituitary Growth Of Control Of The Gland

The pituitary gland is very short only about the size of a pea, Its task is to produce and release hormones into the body. This gland is also an essential player during adolescence.

This is the time when the bodies of boys and girls are subject to major changes, because they slowly become men and women, all thanks to the hormones released by the pituitary gland.

Also Check: I Hate Math Get Rid Of This Number Brain Test

Speaking Slowly Or Slurring Words

If Brocas area is damaged, a person might find it difficult to produce the sounds of speech or may speak very slowly and slur their words. Speech is often limited to short sentences of less than four words. This is called Brocas aphasia or nonfluent aphasia.

Another cause is if stroke or injury damages the areas of the brain that control movements of the muscles of the mouth or tongue.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

This Brain Part Is Responsible for Speech Processing ...

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

You May Like: Explain Why Brain Freeze Is A Type Of Referred Pain

Functions Of The Brocas Area

Broca’s zone is assumed to be responsible for creating programs for production of language symbols and executing commands for the primary motor field where the impulses are sent from into the muscles of the larynx, palate, tongue, and lips, which enable processes of articulation and phonation.

Also, this area does not play a role only in serial phoneme stacking, morphemes, and flexural extensions, but also in syntactic editing of a sentence. Characteristics of language disorders that occur due to the lesion of Broca’s zone show that it is responsible for the phonetic-phonological and syntactic aspects of the language .

Brodman’s field 44 in the left hemisphere is part of the Broca’s zone and is responsible for the production of speech, more precisely, the integration of speech elements into meaningful sequences, choice of information between different sources, syntax and phonological aspects, complex semantics and verbal working memory.

In this field, motor programs are created for speech activity, control muscle movements of the speech apparatus and related movements of the lips, tongue, larynx, pharynx. The impulse for oral speech goes through the premotor and motor areas of the muscles of the speech apparatus and face.

Brodman Field 45 also forms part of the Brocas Area, but it has more complex functions than the Area 44.

Brain Modeling And Boundary Conditions

The cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and the tumor are segmented from preoperative MRI. The cerebrum and tumor are meshed, with a higher density of elements in the tumor area in order to better capture its deformations. The tentorium cerebelli is identified as the border between the cerebrum and cerebellum. Since this membrane is quite rigid, the nodes of the model located on the tentorium cerebelli are assigned to fixed Dirichlet conditions.

The dura mater surface is generated as the external surface of the brain FE mesh at the beginning of the simulation. As this membrane is stuck to the skull, it is fixed throughout the simulation. Sliding constraints are used, allowing the brain to move along the dura mater without any friction. Displacements in the normal direction inside the cranial cavity are allowed.

During the simulation, loads are imposed through displacements to register the vascular tree embedded within the model onto the US extracted data. Both these vessels loads and contacts between the brain and dura mater are handled using Lagrangian Multipliers, with an ICP-inspired method proposed by Courtecuisse et al. .

Ranganathan Parthasarathy, … Robert E. Vadnal, in, 1993

Read Also: What Happens If The Prefrontal Cortex Is Damaged

Newer Implications Related To Lesions In Brocas Area

Since studies carried out in the late 1970s it has been understood that the relationship between Brocas area and Brocas aphasia is not as consistent as once thought. Lesions to Brocas area alone do not result in Brocas aphasia, nor do Brocas aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in Brocas area. Lesions to Brocas area alone are known to produce a transient mutism that resolves within 36 weeks. This discovery suggests that Brocas area may be included in some aspect of verbalization or articulation however, this does not address its part in sentence comprehension. Still, Brocas area frequently emerges in functional imaging studies of sentence processing. However, it also becomes activated in word-level tasks. This suggests that Brocas area is not dedicated to sentence processing alone, but supports a function common to both. In fact, Brocas area can show activation in such non-linguistic tasks as imagery of motion.

Brocas area as a key center in the linking of phonemic sequences

Read Also: How To Cancel Brainly Free Trial

Can Stress And Anxiety Cause Speech Problems

The Brain: History Channel

Feeling Tired or Stressed And when you’re worried about being judged by others or feel embarrassed, you may freeze up or struggle to talk. Anxiety, especially if it crops up when you’re in front of a lot of people, can lead to dry mouth, stumbling over your words, and more troubles that can get in the way of speaking.18 thg 9, 2020

Read Also: Does Prevagen Help With Memory Loss

Be Good To Your Brain

So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

  • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
  • Get a lot of playtime .
  • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
  • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
  • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

How Wernickes Area Was Discovered

Early neuroscientists were interested in discovering where certain abilities were localized in the brain. This localization of brain function suggests that certain abilities, such as producing and understanding language, are controlled by certain parts of the brain.

One of the pioneers of this research was a French neurologist named Paul Broca. During the early 1870s, Paul Broca discovered a region of the brain associated with the production of spoken language. He found that damage to this area resulted in problems producing language.

Broca described how one patient known as Leborgne could understand language although he could not speak aside from isolated words and a few other utterances. When Leborgne died, Broca conducted a postmortem exam on the man’s brain and found a lesion in an area of the frontal lobe. This area of the brain is now referred to as Broca’s area and is associated with the production of speech.

About 10 years later, a neurologist named Carl Wernicke identified a similar type of problem in which patients were able to speak but were not able to actually comprehend language. Examining the brains of patients suffering from this language problem revealed lesions at a junction of the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

This region of the brain is now known as Wernicke’s area and is associated with the understanding of spoken and written language.

Recommended Reading: What Does The Front Of The Brain Control

More articles

Popular Articles