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What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Touch

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What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum

How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.

The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

What Are The Three Lobes Of The Cerebellum

The cerebellum’s hemispheres are each divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are split up by two fissures , called the primary fissure and the posterolateral fissure.

The three lobes of the Cerebellum, where purple is the anterior lobe, green is the posterior lobe and orange is the Flocculonodular lobe./Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

Unlike the cerebral cortex, there are no clear separation of functions in the cerebellar cortex. The best way to identify the tasks are by the information each section processes.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The anterior lobe and the vermis together are known as the spinocerebellum. The spinocerebellum helps regulate muscle tone and body movement. It’s also responsible for our sense of our body’s position in relation to our surroundings, and in relation to other parts of our body . This area receives input from our spinal cord, auditory and visual systems.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The posterior lobe is called the cerebrocerebellum. This area is responsible for planning movements that are about to happen, managing sensory information to determine action and motor learning. It receives information from the cerebral cortex .

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

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What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

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The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

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What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain

The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:

  • Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.

  • Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.

  • Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.

More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:

What Are Some Tips To Keep My Brain Healthy

Some lifestyle habits can keep your brain healthier. To support your brain health, you may:

  • Sleep at least seven to eight hours each night.
  • Exercise consistently.

A strong social network can also improve your brain health. Healthy relationships can help decrease stress, lower your blood pressure and increase your life span.

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In Conclusion: Brain Anatomy

The human brain is an incredibly complex, hardworking organ. As one-half of the human nervous system, the brain structure oversees nearly all of the body’s operations, including how we move, think, feel and understand ourselves and the world around us. And knowing all this brain anatomy is important. From the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem, to all the parts in between: this three-pound organ is what makes us humans, well, human.

What Is The Brain

Brain Anatomy and Functions Animation

Your brain is an essential organ. All of your emotions, sensations, aspirations and everything that makes you uniquely individual come from your brain. This complex organ has many functions. It receives, processes and interprets information. Your brain also stores memories and controls your movements.

Your brain is one component of your central nervous system . It connects to your spinal cord, the other part of your CNS.

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What Are The Bones And Tissues That Protect Your Brain

A bony structure called your cranium surrounds your brain. Your cranium is part of your skull. All the bones of your skull protect your brain from injury.

Between your brain and skull, you have three layers of tissue called the meninges:

  • Dura mater: The outermost layer lines your entire skull. Parts of the dura mater form folds that separate the right half of your brain from the left.
  • Arachnoid: The middle layer of the meninges is a thin, fragile layer of tissue that covers your entire brain.
  • Pia mater: The innermost layer contains blood vessels that run into your brains surface.

Between your arachnoid and pia mater tissue is a clear substance called your cerebrospinal fluid . CSF also surrounds your spinal cord, which runs through the vertebrae . CSF cushions and protects these vital nervous system organs.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

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Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain

In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.

Image: DJ / CC BY-SA 2.0 Albert Kok / Public Domain

Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work

5.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour ...

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.

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Somatosensory Cortex Area Function

It comprises the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary somatosensory cortex.

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

The primary somatosensory cortex, also referred to as S1, is found in a ridge of the cerebral cortex known as the postcentral gyrus.

Located just posterior of the central sulcus, a fissure that runs down the side of the cerebral cortex, the primary somatosensory cortex comprises of Brodmannâs areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2. The primary somatosensory cortex receives projections from nuclei of the thalamus of the brain.

These nuclei receive fibers from the contralateral half of the body, meaning the opposite side of the body from which the area is located in the brain. Overall, the primary somatosensory cortex is responsible for the processing of sensations from the body.

These sensations are received through receptors located throughout the body that are responsible for detecting sensations such as touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception .

Brodmannâs area 3 is responsible for receiving most of the somatosensory input from the thalamus, with the initial processing of information occurring here.

Brodmann area 3b is responsible for processing the basics of touch sensations, whilst area 3a responds to information from proprioceptors . Area 3b is also connected to areas 1 and 2 which is where more complex processing takes place.

Therefore, you could run your fingers over the book and the pages within and know what this object was by the texture.

Show/hide Words To Know

Disorder: something that is not in order. Not arranged correctly. In medicine a disorder is when something in the body is not working correctly.

Electroencephalogram: visual recording showing the electrical activity of the brain … more

Emotion: any of a long list of feelings a person can have such as joy, anger and love… more

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The Old Brain: Wired For Survival

The brain stem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. Its designed to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses . The brain stem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla, the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing. In many cases the medulla alone is sufficient to maintain life animals that have the remainder of their brains above the medulla severed are still able to eat, breathe, and even move. The spherical shape above the medulla is the pons, a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.

Running through the medulla and the pons is a long, narrow network of neurons known as the reticular formation. The job of the reticular formation is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and to relay the remainder of the signals to other areas of the brain. The reticular formation also plays important roles in walking, eating, sexual activity, and sleeping. When electrical stimulation is applied to the reticular formation of an animal, it immediately becomes fully awake, and when the reticular formation is severed from the higher brain regions, the animal falls into a deep coma.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Structure of the brain – Intro to Psychology

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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How Does Your Brain Relate To Hormone Production

Within your thalamus sits a small structure called your hypothalamus. Your hypothalamus is part of your limbic system, which controls your emotions. It sends nerve signals to your pituitary gland. It helps control functions such as:

  • Appetite.
  • Hormone production.
  • Sleep and wake cycles.

In your brain, you also have a pineal gland, which secretes the hormone melatonin. Melatonin controls how melanin gives your skin pigment. Melatonin also plays a role in regulating your sleep and wake cycles.

Basic Parts Of The Brain And Their Responsibilities

    • B.A., Biology, Emory University
    • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

    The scarecrow needed it, Einstein had an excellent one, and it can store a whole lot of information. The brain is the control center of the body. Think of a telephone operator who answers incoming calls and directs them to where they need to go. Similarly, your brain acts as an operator by sending messages to and receiving messages from all over the body. The brain processes the information it receives and ensures that messages are directed to their proper destinations.

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    What Are The Parts Of The Brain

    The brain is made up of three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

    The Forebrain

    The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain as well as some other structures under it.

    The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes us who we are: our intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

    The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres. They’re connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers that lets them communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

    • The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.
    • The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

    So when you’re balancing your checkbook, you’re using the left side. When you’re listening to music, you’re using the right side. It’s believed that some people are more “right-brained” or “left-brained” while others are more “whole-brained,” meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

    In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, and :

    The Midbrain

    What Conditions Or Disorders Can Affect The Brain

    Which Part of the Brain Deals With Thinking?

    About 1 in 6 people have some type of brain condition. There are many types of brain disorders and conditions that vary in severity, including:

    • Alzheimers disease and dementia: Progressive loss of cognitive functions, such as memory, problem-solving or language.
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : A neuromuscular disorder where the nerve cells in your brain break down.
    • Autism spectrum disorder : A developmental disorder that can affect your ability to communicate, regulate behavior or interpret social cues.
    • Brain tumor: Irregular mass of cells that starts in your brain and grows uncontrollably.
    • Epilepsy: A brain disorder that disrupts the activity of your brains nerve cells, leading to seizures.
    • Parkinsons disease: A progressive nervous system disease that often starts with tremors .
    • Stroke: An interruption of blood supply to your brain, either because of an artery blockage or artery rupture .

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