Sunday, May 22, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Vision

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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And What Do They Do

Parts of Brain

The brain has many different parts. The brain also has specific areas that do certain types of work. These areas are called lobes. One lobe works with your eyes when watching a movie. There is a lobe that is controlling your legs and arms when running and kicking a soccer ball. There are two lobes that are involved with reading and writing. Your memories of a favorite event are kept by the same lobe that helps you on a math test. The brain is controlling all of these things and a lot more. Use the map below to take a tour of the regions in the brain and learn what they control in your body.

What Is The Primary Visual Cortex And What Does It Do

The primary visual cortex, often called V1, is a structure that is essential to the conscious processing of visual stimuli. Its importance to visual perception is underscored by cases where patients have experienced damage to V1 these patients generally experience disruptions in visual perception that can range from losing specific aspects of vision to complete loss of conscious awareness of visual stimuli.

When visual information leaves the retina, it is sent via the optic nerve to a nucleus of the thalamus called the lateral geniculate nucleus. From there, it is carried in a tract often called the optic radiation, which curves around the wall of the lateral ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere and reaches back to the occipital lobe. The axons included in the optic radiation terminate in the primary visual cortex in what is called a retinotopic manner, meaning that axons carrying information from a specific part of the visual field terminate in a location in V1 that corresponds to that location in the visual field. For example, axons carrying information about the inferior portion of the visual field terminate in areas of V1 that lie above the calcarine sulcus, while those that carry information about the superior portion of the visual field project to areas below the calcarine sulcus.

S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

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Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

The Brain And Decision Making

Brain

The origin of freedom is in the brain and this capacity is nothing more than the possibility of choosing between different actions or forms of language. Human beings have autonomy to do one thing or another and to suppress what is not wanted. In both cases, it is an election that includes the option to do nothing.

The ability to decide is, above all, in the cerebral cortex, an area of the brain that adjusts us to the environment and has a late development in people. In reality, full maturity is not acquired until we are approaching the third decade of life, when the maturation process of the cerebral cortex ends.

At that age we manage to postpone gratification, something that a child who wants everything in the here and now cannot do. For this reason, the prefrontal cortex is what opens us to freedom and creativity.

Perhaps few manage to realize that when making decisions the worst obstacle or enemy to overcome is the mind itself, since a good part of our behaviors are unconscious.

These almost automatic behaviors are called heuristic routines and are intended to help the person in the choices that they must make on a daily basis. In other words, they are internal processes that automate choices and make it possible to choose alternatives expeditiously and economically in terms of energy consumption.

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What Part Of The Brain Responsible For Vision

The part of the brain responsible for vision is dependent on the receptors. There are two types of cells or nerves that are used. These are called Rods and Cones. Rods are wide and tall and are responsible for seeing in black and white, these can work in less light which is why you often see in black and white at night or in darkness. Cones are responsible for seeing in colour, they can only work in a lot of light and are the most common cause for a migraine other than noise. Men have one less cone than women which is why it is very unlikely for women to ever be colour blind and why men are prone to this.

Although an interesting answer by the previous contributor, he didn’t really answer the question.

Vision in the brain consists of to major elements: the Visual Cortex, which is responsible for image processing, and the Optic Pathways which is the transport mechanism that carriers electrical signals from the eye to the brain . The Optic Pathways is what the previous contributor is delving into, and his explanation is bang on 🙂

What Part Of The Brain Controls Vision

The brain consists of four main segments called lobes. The frontal lobe up front, the parietal lobe on top, the temporal lobe on bottom and the occipital lobe pulling up the rear. All of our senses, thoughts and actions start in one of these lobes.

Most visual functions are controlled in the occipital lobe, a small section of the brain near the back of the skull. But processing eyesight is no simple task, so other parts of the brain have to pitch in too.

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A Stroke On The Left Side Of The Brain

A stroke affecting the right side of the body is usually the result of problems in the left side of the brain . For more details on the functions of the left and right side of the brain, see What is a stroke?.The most familiar type of stroke is when someone suddenly develops a weakness of the right side of their face, arm and leg. This problem is easy to spot, and the medical term is a hemiparesis or a hemiplegia . The weakness can vary from very mild to complete paralysis. It most often affects the face, arm and leg together, but some small strokes just affect the face alone or just the arm or the leg. Less commonly, strokes can cause just a loss of feeling in the face, arm or leg, or a mixture of a loss of feeling and weakness.

In right-handed people, the left side of the brain also controls language, an ability to see the world on the right, and an ability to recognise and coordinate things on the right. Therefore, larger strokes affecting the left side of the brain can cause a more severe combination of right-sided weakness, an inability to speak and an inability to see objects to the right. In left-handed people, these functions are usually controlled by the right side of the brain, although this is not an absolute rule.

Case history

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How Can I Develop My Right Brain

Brain 101 | National Geographic

5 ways to activate the right side of your brain

  • 01/7You too can be creative! It is said that creativity is a gift and not everyone is blessed with it.
  • 02/7The endless possibilities of the right brain.
  • 03/7Meditation.
  • 04/7Learn to play a music instrument.
  • 05/7Find a hobby.
  • 06/7Use your less dominant hand.
  • 07/7Breathe through your left nostril.
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    What Side Of The Brain Controls Speech

    The left side of the brain controls speech. As well as the Brocos area, another area that controls speech is called the Wernickes area. It deals with understanding speechand language. That is how we can understand others and react with proper emotion. It is also connected to the sensory cortex.

    People who have damaged this speech center are not able to understand what they hear. However, they do not have problems with word formation. This condition is called Wernickes aphasia.

    People with damage to both areas have a condition called global aphasia.

    Four Cerebral Cortex Lobes

    • Parietal Lobes: These lobes are positioned posteriorly to the frontal lobes and above the occipital lobes. They are involved in receiving and processing of sensory information. The somatosensory cortex is found within the parietal lobes and is essential for processing touch sensations.
    • Frontal Lobes: These lobes are positioned at the front-most region of the cerebral cortex. They are involved with movement, decision-making, problem-solving, and planning. The right frontal lobe controls activity on the left side of the body and the left frontal lobe controls activity on the right side.
    • Occipital Lobes: Located just below the parietal lobes, the occipital lobes are the main center for visual processing. The visual information is sent to the parietal lobes and temporal lobes for further processing.
    • Temporal Lobes: These lobes are located directly below the frontal and parietal lobes. They are involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language. Structures of the limbic system, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus are located within the temporal lobes.

    In summary, the cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes that are responsible for processing and interpreting input from various sources and maintaining cognitive function. Sensory functions interpreted by the cerebral cortex include hearing, touch, and vision. Cognitive functions include thinking, perceiving, and understanding language.

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    Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

    Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

    • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
    • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
    • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
    • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

    Areas Of The Brain Involved In Visual Function

    Researchers Discover Brain Part Responsible for ...

    -By Timothy Lyons

    There are three main Areas of the brain involved in visual function and in the processing of visual information. These areas are known as the lateral geniculate nucleus , the striate cortex and the extrastriate cortex . The latter two are also known as the visual cortex which is a part of the cerebral cortex the LGN is a layered structure. It has six main layers of cells. Each layer responds to only one eye. Thus they are considered to be monocular.

    The LGN is the main area for input of visual information from the retina. This is the main connection between the optic nerve and the occipital lobe. The SC handles information dealing with visual information and visual perception. The SC is also known as the primary visual cortex. The extrastriate cortex encompasses the entire area of the occipital lobe around the primary visual cortex. The ESC is an area that deals with many purposes. This area deals with motion and is part of the manner in which recognition of motion of the human body takes place .

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    Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

    Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

    The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

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    Where Is The Primary Visual Cortex

    Primary visual cortex .

    The primary visual cortex is found in the occipital lobe in both cerebral hemispheres. It surrounds and extends into a deep sulcus called the calcarine sulcus. The primary visual cortex makes up a small portion of the visible surface of the cortex in the occipital lobe, but because it stretches into the calcarine sulcus, it makes up a significant portion of cortical surface overall. The primary visual cortex is sometimes also called the striate cortex due to the presence of a large band of myelinated axons that runs along the eges of the calcarine sulcus. These axons, referred to as the line of Gennari in reference to the first researcher who made note of their presence in the late 1700s, make the primary visual cortex appear striped .

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    What Are Some Important Structures In The Occipital Lobe

    Like all other lobes of the brain, the occipital lobe contains a number of structures and neuronal tracts that work together to enable vision. Those include:

    • Brodmann area 17: Known as V1, this region is located in the occipital lobes calcarine sulcus, and serves as the brains primary visual cortex. It aids the brain to determine location, spatial information, and color data.
    • The ventral stream: Known sometimes as V2, this is a secondary visual cortex that helps the brain assign meaning to what it is seeing. Without V2, you would still be able to see, but would have no conscious awareness of or understanding of the sights your eyes took in.
    • The dorsomedial stream: Neuroscientists dont yet have a strong understanding of this brain region, which connects to both V1 and V2, as well as other brain regions.
    • The lateral geniculate bodies: These structures take in optic information from retinal sensors in each eye, sending raw information to each visual cortex.
    • Lingula: this area receives information from the contralateral inferior retina to gather information about the field of vision.

    Brain imaging studies have revealed that neurons on the back of the gray matter of the occipital lobe create an ongoing visual map of data taken in by the retinas.

    What Does The Occipital Lobe Do

    Visual Stimulation in Brain Optimization

    Studying the brain is a difficult task, particularly since some areas compensate for others when the brain suffers damage. The brains sensitive, dense, and complex nature means that researchers are constantly uncovering new structures within the brain, and new functions for each brain lobe. The occipital lobe is no exception to this rule.

    Researchers once thought that the occipital lobe only controlled visual functions. But in recent years, they discovered that some portions of this lobe receive inputs from other brain regions. Specifically, a brain region called the dorsomedial stream receives input both from regions of the brain related to vision, and to areas that are not linked to visual processing. This suggests either that the occipital lobe may perform additional functions, or that researchers have not identified all regions of the brain associated with visual processing.

    Although we know that the occipital lobe is dedicated to vision, this process is highly complex, and includes a number of separate functions. Those include:

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    The Dorsal And Ventral Streams

    After the visual stimulus leaves the eyes, it is first processed through distinct points in the brain along the path to the occipital lobes. Then, that information exits the occipital lobes in white matter tract pathways called streams to other parts of the brain. The ventral stream is involved with object and visual identification and recognition. The dorsal stream is involved with processing the objects spatial location. In other words, the brain is figuring out what to do with the visual information it has received how to use it to recognize persons seen before map routes recognize symbols and letters and many other interpretations. These streams run through the temporal and parietal lobes, which is why sometimes surgery to these parts of the brain can affect visual processing as well.

    The dorsal stream guides your actions and helps you recognize where objects are in space. Also known as the parietal stream , the where stream, or the how stream, this pathway stretches from the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe forward into the parietal lobe. It is interconnected with the parallel ventral stream which runs downward from V1 into the temporal lobe.

    The dorsal stream is primarily involved with the perception and interpretation of spatial relationships, accurate body image, and the learning of tasks involving coordination of the body in space. Damage or disruption to this stream can cause visual processing issues, including:

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