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What Part Of The Brain Is The Cerebellum

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The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

Cerebellum part 2

Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

Coordinating The Body’s Voluntary Movements

Movement is a complex process that requires a number of different muscle groups working together. Consider how many muscle groups are involved in the process of walking, running, or throwing a ball.

While the cerebellum is not thought to initiate movement, this part of the brain helps organize all of the actions of the muscle groups involved in a particular movement to ensure that the body is able to produce a fluid, coordinated movement. This includes eye movements and movements associated with speaking.

How Does The Brain Work

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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Causes Of Cerebellar Disorders & Damage

Cerebellar disorders may be congenital or acquired. For example, congenital malformations may be present at birth and manifest early in a childs life. Other children may inherit hereditary ataxias involving the cerebellum, such as Friedreich ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia.

An example of an injury that can cause an acquired cerebellar disorder or damage is a traumatic brain injury . A TBI may be the result of a sports injury or a motor vehicle accident.

Further, other nonhereditary conditions that can cause cerebellar conditions to include multiple sclerosis, cerebellar stroke, and exposure to certain toxins like carbon monoxide, heavy metals, and more. Brain tumors may also cause cerebellar conditions.

Right Brain Left Brain

The brain stem and the cerebelleum

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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The Role Of The Cerebellum

There are three main parts of the brain. The cerebrum is in the front, the cerebellum in the back, and the brain stem is at the bottom of the brain. The brain stem connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord.

While the cerebrum controls speech, learning, and thinking, and the brain stem controls involuntary functions like breathing and blood pressure, the cerebellum controls voluntary motor movements.

Types Of Therapy For Cerebellum Brain Injury Recovery

Since cerebellum brain damage can affects each person differently, the treatment required for recovery may vary. However, most individuals following cerebellum brain damage benefit from physical, occupational, and/or speech therapy. The focus of each of these therapies is to activate neuroplasticity to promote recovery.

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Anatomy Of The Cerebellum And Its Function

    • B.A., Biology, Emory University
    • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

    In Latin, the word cerebellum means little brain. The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone. Like the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is comprised of white matter and a thin, outer layer of densely folded gray matter. The folded outer layer of the cerebellum has smaller and more compact folds than those of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contains hundreds of millions of neurons for processing data. It relays information between body muscles and areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control.

    Tumor In The Cerebellum

    The Cerebellum

    Tumors are abnormal cells that can either grow in the brain or migrate there from a different part of the body. These tumors might be benign and not spread through the body. Malignant tumors grow and spread, leading to cancer.

    Symptoms of a tumor in the cerebellum include:

    • a headache
    • ataxia
    • difficulties with coordination

    Diagnosis and treatment will vary based on age, the overall state of health, the course of the disease, the potential outlook, and other factors.

    Preserving overall brain health is the best way to avoid damage to the cerebellum.

    Reducing the risk of stroke, brain injury, and exposure to poisons can help prevent some forms of ataxia.

    • Quitting smoking: Smoking increases the risk of stroke by thickening the blood and raising blood pressure.
    • Limiting alcohol use: Large amounts of alcohol can damage the cerebellum. Alcohol also raises blood pressure, which increases the risk of stroke.
    • Exercise: Regular physical activity benefits the heart and blood vessels and reduces the risk of stroke. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend

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    Cerebellum Brain Damage: What Causes It & How Rehabilitation Works

    Elizabeth Denslow, OTR/L Flint Rehab

    Although cerebellum brain damage is relatively rare, its effects can be quite serious. Damage to the cerebellum can result in significant motor, visual, and cognitive changes. However, with the appropriate treatment, individuals may be able to recover affected functions.

    In this article, well discuss the effects of cerebellum brain damage and treatment techniques to promote recovery. Use the links below to jump straight to any section:

    Theories And Computational Models

    The large base of knowledge about the anatomical structure and behavioral functions of the cerebellum have made it a fertile ground for theorizingâthere are perhaps more theories of the function of the cerebellum than of any other part of the brain. The most basic distinction among them is between “learning theories” and “performance theories”âthat is, theories that make use of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum to account for its role in learning, versus theories that account for aspects of ongoing behavior on the basis of cerebellar signal processing. Several theories of both types have been formulated as mathematical models and simulated using computers.

    Theories in the “learning” category almost all derive from publications by Marr and Albus. Marr’s 1969 paper proposed that the cerebellum is a device for learning to associate elemental movements encoded by climbing fibers with mossy fiber inputs that encode the sensory context. Albus proposed in 1971 that a cerebellar Purkinje cell functions as a perceptron, a neurally inspired abstract learning device. The most basic difference between the Marr and Albus theories is that Marr assumed that climbing fiber activity would cause parallel fiber synapses to be strengthened, whereas Albus proposed that they would be weakened. Albus also formulated his version as a software algorithm he called a CMAC , which has been tested in a number of applications.

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    Wheres The Cerebellum Located

    The cerebellum can be found just below your cerebrum and behind the upper portion of your brain stem. This is the area at the base of your skull where your head meets your neck.

    The cerebellum is divided up into three different parts called lobes. These lobes are separated from each other by deep grooves called fissures. There are two major components of the cerebellum:

    • Cerebellar cortex: This is a layer of thin, heavily folded tissue that contains most of the nerve cells in the cerebellum.
    • Cerebellar nuclei: Found deep within the cerebellum, the nerve cells of the cerebellar nuclei are primarily involved in sending information from the cerebellum.

    The cerebellum only accounts for about 10 percent of your brains total size. Although its much smaller than the cerebrum, it contains significantly more nerve cells.

    Some estimates say that the cerebellum contains about

    It then uses this information to regulate and coordinate voluntary movements. Voluntary movements are movements that you can control, such as walking or throwing a baseball.

    In addition to voluntary movements, the cerebellum is also involved in coordination of the following:

    The cerebellum may also play a role in other cognitive functions. Research into this area is ongoing, and theres still so much more to learn. From what we know so far, the cerebellums functions can include:

    • language

    Cerebellar Disorders & Damage

    Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (PDQ®)
    • Slurring of speech
    • Irregular eye movement

    Cerebellar disorders may cause other symptoms and complications too. A doctor can better review your symptoms and provide appropriate care for your condition. A doctor may order tests, including imaging scans, to identify the cause of your symptoms and diagnose your condition.

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    What Is The Main Function Of The Cerebrum

    The cerebrum is in charge of thinking and all other related processes in the brain.

    Thinking only helps strengthen what you already have a brain.

    Jim Kwik, Author of Mindvalleys Superbrain Quest

    These processes range from problem solving and judgment to attention and planning. The cerebrum is also in charge of reasoning and learning, as well as emotions and impulse control.

    This section of the brain is also responsible for several types of memory, including visual and verbal memory. The former allows you to recognize the faces youve seen and the places youve been to before, while the latter allows you to learn and understand words and languages.

    Finally, the cerebrum is also in charge of interpreting sensory information and organizing it accordingly. Whether youre moving your finger over the surface of a rock to examine its texture or tasting the dinner youre making to make sure youve seasoned it well, your cerebrum is responsible for it.

    S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

    The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

    The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

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    What Are The Functions Of The Cerebellum

    The cerebellum is the area located at the back and bottom of the cerebrum, behind the brainstem. The cerebellum has several functions related to movement and coordination, including:

    • Maintaining balance: the cerebellum has special sensors that detect changes in balance and movement. It sends signals for the body to adjust and move.
    • Coordinating movement: Most body movements require the coordination of several muscle groups. The cerebellum synchronizes muscle actions so that the body can move smoothly.
    • Vision: The cerebellum coordinates eye movements.
    • Motor learning: The cerebellum helps the body learn movements that require practice and refinement. For example, the cerebellum plays a role in learning to ride a bicycle or play musical instruments.
    • Other functions: Researchers believe that the cerebellum plays some role in thinking, including language processing and mood. However, the results of these functions have not yet been thoroughly studied.

    The Cerebellum Anatomy Characteristics And Functions

    Cerebellum

    This part of the brain helps a person drive, throw a ball or walk across the room. The cerebellum also helps people with eye movement and vision.

    Problems with the cerebellum are rare and mostly involve movement and coordination difficulties.

    This article explains the anatomy, functions and possible disorders of the cerebellum. It also offers tips for preserving the health of the cerebellum.

  • How to protect against cerebellar damage
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    Changes In Motor Function

    Other motor effects that may result from cerebellum brain damage include:

    • Dysmetria: over- or undershooting the strength, distance or speed needed for tasks
    • Dysdiadochokinesia: difficulty performing rapidly alternating movements
    • Intention tremors: shaking when performing purposeful movements
    • Delayed movement initiation: making a movement slower than intended
    • Hypotonia: low muscle tone

    The wide variety of motor challenges that can occur after cerebellum brain damage illustrates the depth of the cerebellums involvement in many complex motor functions.

    Developmental And Degenerative Disorders

    Congenital malformation, hereditary disorders, and acquired conditions can affect cerebellar structure and, consequently, cerebellar function. Unless the causative condition is reversible, the only possible treatment is to help people live with their problems. Visualization of the fetal cerebellum by ultrasound scan at 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy can be used to screen for fetal neural tube defects with a sensitivity rate of up to 99%.

    In normal development, endogenous sonic hedgehog signaling stimulates rapid proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron progenitors in the external granule layer . Cerebellar development occurs during late embryogenesis and the early postnatal period, with CGNP proliferation in the EGL peaking during early development . As CGNPs terminally differentiate into cerebellar granule cells , they migrate to the internal granule layer , forming the mature cerebellum . Mutations that abnormally activate Sonic hedgehog signaling predispose to cancer of the cerebellum in humans with Gorlin Syndrome and in genetically engineered mouse models.

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    Be Good To Your Brain

    So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

    • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
    • Get a lot of playtime .
    • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
    • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
    • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

    Functions Of The Cerebellum

    The cerebellum is a part of the brain that plays a vital role in ...

    The refocusing of research efforts into the cerebellum that strayed away from motor functionality began in the 1980s after a team of researchers summarized a large amount of evidence illustrating the human cerebellum contained significant neuronal links to the cerebrum. But this new focus was met with quite a lot of resistance even scientists can be surprisingly resistant to change!

    This team of researchers gathered a collection of literature that accounted for the observation that the lateral output nucleus, belonging to the cerebellum shows similarities between apes and humans and is parallel with the expansion of the prefrontal cortex, adding to the argument that the cerebellum is related to cognitive functions. They carried out non-invasive research with human subjects and were ultimately able to make the argument that, based on cerebellar activity shown in the PET and IMRI tests, responses from the cerebellum, when compared between motor activities and cognitive activities, suggested that the cerebellum had a larger role in cognition than previously thought.

    The cerebellum is known to many as the little brain of the body because, although it only accounts for about 10% of the brains volume, it contains over 50% of all the brains neurons. The major functions of this structure are its involvement in balance , equilibrium, muscle tone, coordination, and motor learning:

    The cerebellum controls muscle tone using its connections to proprioceptors .

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    The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

    The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

    The Geography Of Thought

    Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

    When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

    As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.

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