How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .
Clinical Correlation Of Csf
CSF analysis is an investigative technique performed to know CSF constituents. It may give different results for different clinical conditions and therefore helps in making the right clinical diagnosis. The procedure performed to obtain CSF is known as a lumbar puncture.
The abnormal accumulation of extra CSF in the brain ventricles is called hydrocephalus. It leads to increased intracranial pressure. If this occurs during the mental development of the fetus, it leads to an enlarged cranium, a condition known as congenital hydrocephalus. It results in mental disability and convulsions, requiring prompt intervention. If left untreated, it can be fatal.
Baricity;is the density of a certain drug compared to the density of the cerebrospinal fluid. It is important in;anesthesiology, where the duration of;anesthesia;depends on the rate that a certain drug spreads into the;intrathecal space as well as on the patients position. For example, if a spinal anesthesia drug has higher baricity than the CSF, then the patient should be positioned so that the lower limbs at a lower level than the rest of the body. When the anesthetic effect is desired more proximally, the patients position can be altered to maximize the anesthetic agents flow and distribution.
Duvernoy, H. and Risold, P. . The circumventricular organs: An atlas of comparative anatomy and vascularization. Brain Research Reviews, 56, pp.119-147.
Ganong W. Review of medical physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2005.
Do Emotions Come From The Heart Or Brain
Psychologists once maintained that emotions were purely mental expressions generated by the brain alone. We now know that this is not true emotions have as much to do with the heart and body as they do with the brain. Of the bodily organs, the heart plays a particularly important role in our emotional experience.
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What Does My Hypothalamus Do
One of the major functions of the hypothalamus is to maintain homeostasis, i.e. to keep the human body in a stable, constant condition.
The hypothalamus responds to a variety of signals from the internal and external environment including body temperature, hunger, feelings of being full up after eating, blood pressure and levels of hormones in the circulation. It also responds to stress and controls our daily bodily rhythms such as the night-time secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland and the changes in cortisol and body temperature over a 24-hour period.;The hypothalamus collects and combines this information and puts changes in place to correct any imbalances.
Where Is My Hypothalamus
Computer artwork of a person’s head showing the left side of the brain with the hypothalamus highlighted.
The hypothalamus is located on the undersurface of the brain. It lies just below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland, to which it is attached by a stalk. It is an extremely complex part of the brain containing many regions with highly specialised functions. In humans, the hypothalamus is approximately the size of a pea and accounts for less than 1% of the weight of the brain. ;
How The Body Regulates Heat
Understanding heatstroke, hot flashes and fever
A close look at the complex systems that keep us functioning can inspire awe. Such is the case with the bodys complicated temperature-regulating mechanism.
This intricate apparatus balances heat production with heat loss, keeping the body at a temperature just right for optimal function. This balancing act is directed automatically and seamlessly by the hypothalamus, a small portion of the brain that serves as the command center for numerous bodily functions, including the coordination of the autonomic nervous system.
Much like a thermostat regulates the temperature inside your home, the hypothalamus regulates your body temperature, responding to internal and external stimuli and making adjustments to keep the body within one or two degrees of 98.6 degrees.
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The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
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Techniques To Counter Chronic Stress
Many people are unable to find a way to put the brakes on stress. Chronic low-level stress keeps the HPA axis activated, much like a motor that is idling too high for too long. After a while, this has an effect on the body that contributes to the health problems associated with chronic stress.
Persistent epinephrine surges can damage blood vessels and arteries, increasing blood pressure and raising risk of heart attacks or strokes. Elevated cortisol levels create physiological changes that help to replenish the body’s energy stores that are depleted during the stress response. But they inadvertently contribute to the buildup of fat tissue and to weight gain. For example, cortisol increases appetite, so that people will want to eat more to obtain extra energy. It also increases storage of unused nutrients as fat.
Fortunately, people can learn techniques to counter the stress response.
Relaxation response. Dr. Herbert Benson, director emeritus of the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, has devoted much of his career to learning how people can counter the stress response by using a combination of approaches that elicit the relaxation response. These include deep abdominal breathing, focus on a soothing word , visualization of tranquil scenes, repetitive prayer, yoga, and tai chi.
Connections Of The Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain connected with numerous, various cerebral structures that allows it to intervene in many regulatory processes of the organism. It has an important role in the optimal, normal functioning of the body, and it controls the endocrine system, the metabolism, and it is involved in stress control and in other different actions that modulates a persons behavior. More, the hypothalamus is involved in the homeostasis of the organism in terms of body temperature, blood pressure, fluid balance, and body weight.
The connections of the hypothalamus are made with the following structures.
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Show/hide Words To Know
Adrenal gland: two glands involved in the body’s stress response. These glands are located on top of the kidneys.
Endocrine system: the collection of organs and glands that help control how the body works by adjusting the amount and type hormones that are in the body…;more
Gland: an organ that releases materials for use in certain places in the body or on the outside of the body…;more
Homeostasis: the ability to keep a system at a constant condition.
Hormone: a chemical message released by cells into the body that affects other cells in the body.
Hypothalamus: a part of the brain that controls things like thirst, hunger, body temperature, and the release of many hormones.
Posterior Nucleus Of Hypothalamus
|Posterior nucleus is ‘PN’, at right, in red.|
Its functions include elevation of blood pressure, pupillary dilation, and shivering or body heat conservation .Damage or destruction of this nucleus causes hypothermia. Descending efferents from the nucleus synapse on the sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord, which exist in the thoracic and lumbar regions in the lateral horns.
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The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.
You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.
The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
Tests For Hypothalamus Disorders
Your doctor will ask for your personal history and order blood and urine tests based on your symptoms. The tests will check for different hormones, electrolytes, and autoimmune proteins. â
Doctors might also order imaging tests like magnetic resonance imaging or a computed tomography scan to look at your brain.
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Which Part Of The Human Brain Is Located Between Thalamus Hypothalamus And Pons
The midbrain is the smallest region of the brain, and is located most centrally within the cranial cavity. Limbic System the limbic system is often referred to as our emotional brain, or childish brain. It is found buried within the cerebrum and contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus.
What Is The Role Of The Brain Hypothalamus In The Reproductive System
What is the role of the brain hypothalamus in the reproductive system? The hypothalamus controls reproduction by regulating the secretory activities of the pituitary gland. In female birds, growth of the ovarian follicles, synthesis of sex steroids, and ovulation are effected, at least in part, by neurohormonally mediated changes in rates of release of pituitary gonadotrophins.
What is the role of the hypothalamus in the reproductive system?;The hypothalamus monitors the need for the FSH and LH hormones made and released from the anterior pituitary. In females, FSH and LH cause estrogen and progesterone to be produced. They regulate the female reproductive system which is divided into the ovarian cycle and the menstrual cycle.
What is the role of the brain hypothalamus in the reproductive system in male?;Brain centers play a key role in the regulation and control of the reproductive hormones and system. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone to regulate the production and release of FSH and LH in the pituitary gland.
What is the main function of the hypothalamus in the brain?;The hypothalamus is a small, central region of the human brain formed by nervous fibers and a conglomerate of nuclear bodies with various functions. The hypothalamus is considered to be a link structure between the nervous and the endocrine system, its main function being to maintain the homeostasis of the body.
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Cerebrum And The Cerebral Cortex
When you picture the iconic shape of the human brain, the majority of whats visible is the cerebrum with its wrinkly, pinkish-grey outer appearance. It makes up around 85% of the brain and consists primarily of grey matter, divided into two hemispheres.
The cerebrum is where most of the important brain functions happen, such as thinking, planning, reasoning, language processing, and interpreting and processing inputs from our senses, such as vision, touch, hearing, taste and smell.
The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, and in each hemisphere it is traditionally divided into four lobes – frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. Communications between the two hemispheres are maintained by a fibrous bridge called the corpus callosum, which is formed in utero.
Beneath the surface of the hemispheres are large knots of neurons called basal ganglia, which specialise in programming and executing our motor functions. When basal ganglia are affected by diseases such as Parkinsons, patients have tremors and uncontrolled movements.
Hypothalamic Control Of Fluid And Electrolyte Balance
To maintain adequate tissue perfusion, the hypothalamus must regulate fluid acquisition through drinking, and control the osmolality and electrolyte content of the blood, as well as the overall blood volume. When there is excess fluid volume, it must regulate diuresis by the kidney. These tasks are under the regulation of the preoptic area, in particular the median preoptic nucleus and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, along the anterior wall of the third ventricle. Drinking behavior is tightly linked with feeding, and with thermoregulation .
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Ventromedial Nucleus Of The Hypothalamus
|Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus|
|Ventromedial nucleus is ‘VM’, at center, in green.|
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. “The ventromedial hypothalamus is a distinct morphological nucleus involved in terminating hunger, fear, thermoregulation, and sexual activity.” This nuclear region is involved with the recognition of the feeling of fullness.
Posterior Region Of The Hypothalamus
This region is also divided into the medial and lateral areas.;The medial area consists of:
- The mammillary nuclei, which controls;memory.
- The posterior nucleus, which increases blood pressure, causes pupillary dilatation and;shivering.
The lateral area includes the tuberomammillary nucleus, which controls;learning, memory, sleep, wakefulness, feeding, and energy balance.
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Regulation Of Food Intake
The hypothalamus controls appetite and food intake through the ventromedial, dorsomedial, paraventricular, and lateral hypothalamus nucleus. The ventromedial nucleus is referred to as the appetite-suppressing or anorexigenic center. Destruction of this nucleus leads to hyperpolyphagia, obesity, and to an aggressive behavior.
Contrary, the appetite-increasing or orexigenic center is considered to be the lateral hypothalamic nucleus that can lead to aphagia and cashexy in case of its destruction and to hyperphagia or polyphagia in case of its stimulation.
Appetite control is modulated by the leptin hormone released by the fatty cells that binds to specific hypothalamic receptors.
Causes And Risk Factors
The most common causes of hypothalamic diseases are injuries to the head that impact the hypothalamus. Surgeries, radiation, and tumors can also cause disease in the hypothalamus.
Some hypothalamic diseases have a genetic link to hypothalamic disease. For instance, Kallman syndrome causes hypothalamic problems in children, most noticeably delayed or absent puberty, accompanied by an impaired sense of smell.
Additional causes of hypothalamic disease can include:
- eating disorders, such as bulimia or anorexia
- genetic disorders that cause excess iron buildup in the body
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Control Centres For Making Sense Of Our Bodies
Apart from the cerebrum, the forebrain also contains several small, but highly important structures located towards the centre of the brain and are included in the limbic system. Collectively these are called the diencephalon and they are involved in regulating things like the bodys sensory perception, motor functions, and hormones.
The thalamus consists of two lobes of grey matter tucked away right under the cerebral cortex. It is a prime processing centre for sensory information, as it links up the relevant parts of the cerebral cortex with the spinal cord and other areas of the brain important for our senses. The thalamus also controls sleep.
The hypothalamus is quite small, only about the size of an almond. As its name suggests, it can be found right underneath the thalamus, and despite its small size it is actually the major control centre of the autonomic motor system. It is involved in some hormonal activity and connects the hormonal and nervous systems. The hypothalamus also works to regulate things like our blood pressure, body temperature, and overall homeostasis.
The pineal gland is even smaller than the hypothalamus – only about the length of a grain of rice – and is tucked between the two lobes of the thalamus. It is actually shaped like a tiny pinecone, and its main job is to produce the hormone melatonin, which regulates our sleep-wake cycles. Just like the hypothalamus, it is also involved in regulating hormonal functions.
How Do You Know If Your Thalamus Is Damaged
Speech and Cognitive Therapy While thalamus damage primarily causes sensory problems, it can also lead to behavioral and cognitive changes. For example, many patients with a thalamus injury have incorrect speech patterns and can struggle to find the right words. Others display apathy and memory problems.
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Hypothalamic Control Of Sleep And Wakefulness
Neurons in the posterior half of the lateral hypothalamus as well as in the tuberomammillary nucleus, provide major inputs to the cerebral cortex and the basal forebrain that are concerned with alerting and arousal responses, and are critical for producing a fully awake state. These neurons, and others in the brainstem that promote wakefulness, are in turn under the influence of a master switch, the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, which inhibits the components of the arousal system during sleep, and is necessary for normal sleep states to occur. The wake sleep system, including neurons in the lateral hypothalamus containing the peptide orexin, is in turn under the control of the circadian system. The dorsomedial nucleus, which receives circadian timing signals from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, seems to play critical role in coordinating the two. Sleep-wake regulation interacts with feeding, drinking, and sexual and defensive behavior, all of which, of course, require a waking state. There is also a strong interaction between sleep and thermoregulation.