Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Part Of The Brain Processes Sound

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What Is The Auditory Cortex

Dolphin Expresses Emotion Through Sound | Extraordinary Animals | BBC Earth

The auditory cortex is the part of the brain that processes sensory information in the form of sound. While the area is not directly or completely responsible for the hearing, it is essential to processing and understanding sounds. Other organs, such as the cochlea, have a more direct role in actually collecting the sound, which is also referred to as auditory information. If a person lacks the ability to process sounds, however, the noise seems to be jumbled and meaningless. In some cases, those who suffer damage to this part of the brain are completely unaware of sound, though they can still react reflexively to loud or sudden sounds as there is some level of auditory processing that occurs below the cortex.

Two different areas make up the auditory cortex, each of which has a slightly different function. The first section is the primary cortex it is involved in most of the higher level processing that takes place in sound processing and is essential for recognizing when sound starts, stops, and changes pitch. The peripheral cortex tends to play a secondary role and is involved in more subtle processing processes.

Therapeutic Effects Of Music On Memory

Musical training has been shown to aid memory. Altenmuller et al. studied the difference between active and passive musical instruction and found both that over a longer period of time, the actively taught students retained much more information than the passively taught students. The actively taught students were also found to have greater cerebral cortex activation. The passively taught students weren’t wasting their time they, along with the active group, displayed greater left hemisphere activity, which is typical in trained musicians.

Research suggests we listen to the same songs repeatedly because of musical nostalgia. One major study, published in the journal Memory & Cognition, found that music enables the mind to evoke memories of the past.

Auditory Perception Depends Upon Our Alertness

Sound, which is transformed in the ear into a neural signal, is processed in the brain at a number of different levels:

  • A reflex where the arrival of the message causes us to jump or turn our head
  • The auditory cortex where the sound is perceived
  • Other brain areas, which allow the perception to become conscious, recognise the sound by comparing it to those that have previously been memorised and determine an appropriate voluntary response.
  • These animations show the different stages of sound processing in the brain.

    • When awake, all three levels above are activated. Example: when we hear the sound of a voice, we start to listen , recognise a friends voice asking an important question and then we answer.
    • When asleep, our ears are still working sound enters the auditory pathway up to the auditory brain, but the other brain regions are inactive: There are therefore no voluntary responses or conscious perception. Example: speaking to someone who is asleep can make them move without waking them, and without them remembering it when they wake up.

    Notes:

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    S Of The Brain Involved With Hearing

    When one listens to music or hears someone speak, the brain must process what it has heard 5. In order to be understood, sounds must first be converted to vibrations in the middle ear and then to electrical impulses in the inner ear. These electrical impulses are then relayed to different sites in the brain for interpretation.

    If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.

    A Cortical Model For Environmental Sound And Spoken Language Processing

    TL

    Several of the cortical regions activated by recognizable environmental sounds in the present study are largely consistent with, and appear to parallel, current neurological and cognitive models for how spoken language is processed. This includes input, intermediate and output processing stages , which largely apply to words depicting a wide range of categories .

    Input Stages

    The blue hues in Figure illustrate some of the input stages of acoustical processing reported in a study by

    , from a study by

    The posterior cingulate was activated in both the environmental sound recognition and spoken word semantics paradigm . This region has been proposed to function in the retrieval of information from long-term memory , which may be part of a mechanism for judging whether or not a sound is recognizable or familiar. Others have proposed a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the spatial distribution of attention and processing of emotional state . Presently, the actual role and placement of the posterior cingulate within a cognitive model of sound recognition remains unclear.

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    How Sounds Going Into Our Ears Become Words Going Through Our Brains

    Date:
    University of Maryland
    Summary:
    In a new study, researchers were able to see where in the brain, and how quickly — in milliseconds — the brain’s neurons transition from processing the sound of speech to processing the language-based words of the speech.

    You’re walking along a busy city street. All around you are the sounds of subway trains, traffic, and music coming from storefronts. Suddenly, you realize one of the sounds you’re hearing is someone speaking, and that you are listening in a different way as you pay attention to what they are saying.

    How does the brain do this? And how quickly does it happen? Researchers at the University of Maryland are learning more about the automatic process the brain goes through when it picks up on spoken language.

    Neuroscientists have understood for some time that when we hear sounds of understandable language our brains react differently than they do when we hear non-speech sounds or people talking in languages we do not know. When we hear someone talking in a familiar language, our brain quickly shifts to pay attention, process the speech sounds by turning them into words, and understand what is being said.

    The paper was written by Institute for Systems Research Postdoctoral Researcher Christian Brodbeck, L. Elliot Hong of the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Professor Jonathan Z. Simon, who has a triple appointment in the Departments of Biology and Electrical and Computer Engineering as well as ISR.

    The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

    The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

    Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

    • The amygdala
    • Regions of the limbic cortex
    • The septal area

    These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

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    Tinnitus In The Brain

    Our brain may also play an important role when it comes to tinnitus.A research team has been able to eliminate tinnitus in a group of rats by stimulating a nerve in the neck and playing a variety of sound tones over a period of time. The therapy, which is similar to pressing a reset button in the brain, was found to help retrain the part of the brain that interprets sound so that errant neurons reverted back to their original state and the ringing disappeared.Another research team found that tinnitus is generated not by the ear, but by neurons firing in the brain.Tinnitus is not generated by processes in the ear, but by changes in the brain when hearing loss occurs, one of the researchers said.

    What Happens When You Experience Problems With Your Hearing

    How Hearing Works Video – Process of Hearing Animation. Function & Parts of Human Ear. Sound Pathway

    When your hearing is working as it should, signals and information are processed through various parts of the ear and go up the auditory nerve to the brain. When youre experiencing problems with your hearing, determining which part of the hearing system is failing to respond is the first step to improving your health and quality of life. Union Hearing Aid Centre will schedule a hearing test for you at our Toronto Hearing Clinic. If you have questions or concerns regarding hearing loss, reach out to us today.

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    Music And Lyrics: How The Brain Splits Songs

    By Jessica Hamzelou

    When tunes and lyrics diverge

    Your favourite song comes on the radio. You hum the tune the lyrics remind you of someone you know. Is your brain processing the words and music separately or as one? Its a hotly debated question that may finally have an answer.

    People with aphasia, who cant speak, can still hum a tune, suggesting music and lyrics are processed separately. Yet brain scans show that music and language activate the same areas, which might mean the brain treats them as one signal.

    Theres conflicting evidence, says Daniela Sammler of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany.

    Now Sammler and her team have discovered that both arguments may be partially true. Her team worked out a way to determine when active regions were processing just music and when just lyrics, by studying a functional MRI brain scan of someone listening to songs.

    Where Is The Auditory Cortex

    A coronal section of the left hemisphere, showing the primary auditory cortex as well as surrounding auditory regions .

    The auditory cortex is found in the temporal lobe. Most of it is hidden from view, buried deep within a fissure called the lateral sulcus. Some auditory cortex is visible on the external surface the brain, however, as it extends to a gyrus called the superior temporal gyrus.

    The auditory cortex can be subdivided into multiple regions, although there is still some question about the most appropriate way to create those subdivisions in the human brain. There is general agreement, however, that the auditory cortex consists of a primary areawhich is often referred to as the core regionas well as multiple non-primary areas.

    The primary auditory cortex in humans is hidden within the lateral sulcus on a collection of gyri known as Heschls gyri . The precise location of the primary region in humans is variable, however, as is the arrangement of Heschls gyri . For example, in some individuals the primary auditory cortex seems to occupy one Heschls gyrus, while in others it may extend past that gyrus into a neighboring sulcus .

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    How Do We Hear While We Sleep

    Date:
    Johns Hopkins University
    Summary:
    A Johns Hopkins University undergraduate has found the part of the brain that processes sound during sleep, waking a mother when her infant cries but letting her sleep on while a truck roars past.

    Hopkins student finds place in the brain that ‘listens’ while we snooze

    Using electrodes implanted directly on the human cortex, a Johns HopkinsUniversity undergraduate has located the part of the brain thatappears to process sounds while people sleep. This site, in thefrontal lobe, may be part of a vigilance system that, for instance, rouses amother when her baby cries but lets the woman sleep when a truckrumbles by.

    Serena J. Gondek, a 21-year-old junior majoring in biomedicalengineering, is slated to present her findings on Tuesday, April28, at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology inMinneapolis, Minn. About 8,000 people are expected to attend theworld’s largest gathering of neurologists and neuroscienceprofessionals. Administrators at the academy said it is unusualfor an undergraduate to be chosen to make an oral researchpresentation at the event.

    Previous studies on hearing during sleep have relied onelectrodes attached to a subject’s shaved scalp. Gondek’sexperiment is believed to be the first of its type to useelectrodes implanted directly on the brain, a technique thatyields far more precise information about which parts areactivated by sounds during sleep.

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    How Does The Brain Work

    Literacy through

    The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

    Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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    Selective Deficit In Music Reading

    Specific musical impairments may result from brain damage leaving other musical abilities intact. Cappelletti, Waley-Cohen, Butterworth and Kopelman studied a single case study of patient P.K.C., a professional musician who sustained damage to the left posterior temporal lobe as well as a small right occipitotemporal lesion. After sustaining damage to these regions, P.K.C. was selectively impaired in the areas of reading, writing and understanding musical notation but maintained other musical skills. The ability to read aloud letters, words, numbers and symbols was retained. However, P.K.C. was unable to read aloud musical notes on the staff regardless of whether the task involved naming with the conventional letter or by singing or playing. Yet despite this specific deficit, P.K.C. retained the ability to remember and play familiar and new melodies.

    What Happens In The Brain When Music Causes Chills

    The brains of people who get chills when the right song comes on are wired differently than others

    For some people its David Bowie. For others its Franz Liszt. But regardless of the genre, when the right chords combine, many people will get goose bumps or a chill up the spine.

    Somewhere between a half to two-thirds of the population have this reaction, yet scientists have long debated why. Past research has shown that when experiencing “the chills,” the neurotransmitter dopamine floods through the body. But a new study published in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience details what happens in the brain when the soprano hits the high note, reports Ian Sample for The Guardian.

    These reactions are known as frissonsan aesthetic chill also sometimes Mitchell Colver, doctoral student at Utah State University, writes for The Conversation. Though they are usually associated with listening to music, some can even get the willies while looking at art or watching a movie.

    To investigate what happens in the brain during the chills, a group of researchers from Harvard and Wesleyan University selected ten people who claimed that they regularly experience a frisson while listening to music. He also selected ten subjects who never experienced the phenomenon.

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    How Does The Brain Recall

    The brain, as we know, is a neural network. Information travels through different pathways at varying frequencies. Some pathways are more used than others and these are often stored in the memory. Whenever there are impulses running through the widely used paths of the brain, the previously stored information is realized. The associations formed previously are refreshed, which is what helps you relive the memory.

    Simply put, the brain replays whatever happened when there is an impulse in the respective pathway.

    Interestingly, these pathways are useless if the transducers, i.e., the sense organs, stop working. The hair cells of the cochlea are not regenerative and once they lose their ability to bend, they cannot convert the vibrations into electrical impulses. The destruction of these cells causes a loss of hearing in people. Noise above the threshold frequency is the primary reason for the deformation of these cells. People who have hearing issues must be trained to hear with a device. The training is for a person to become comfortable with the artificial organ, as well as for the brain, so that it starts receiving signals from unused pathways.

    So, the next time you hear a song and a sudden memory resurfaces, youll know that what took approximately 1,000 words for me to describe happened in only a fraction of second, all thanks to your amazingly powerful brain!

    Here Are 6 Basic Steps To How We Hear:

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  • Sound transfers into the ear canal and causes the eardrum to move
  • The eardrum will vibrate with vibrates with the different sounds
  • These sound vibrations make their way through the ossicles to the cochlea
  • Sound vibrations make the fluid in the cochlea travel like ocean waves
  • Movement of fluid in turn makes the hair cells The auditory nerve picks up any neural signals created by the hair cells. Hair cells at one end of the cochlea transfer low pitch sound information and hair cells at the opposite end transfer high pitch sound information.
  • The auditory nerve moves signals to the brain where they are then translated into recognizable and meaningful sounds. It is the brain that hears.
  • Our hearing process truly connects us to the soundscape of our surrounding environment. Our hearing system provide us with an amazing ability to identify and comprehend the most minuscule acoustic cues. In fact, our brains are capable of storing the neural equivalents of acoustic patterns like music, voices, danger sounds, and environmental sounds. This similarity makes it much easier for us to recognize and process both familiar and unfamiliar sounds.

    Hearing loss occurs when sounds that are typically loud become softer and less intelligible this is a result of our brain being misled through a loss of audibility. Information also becomes distorted as it reaches the brain, disrupting the quality of our hearing.

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    Lets Hear It For The Brain

    To understand how your brain is responsible for hearing, lets take a look at how auditory processing works. The ear is made up of three parts the outer, middle and inner ear. Sound waves enter the outer ear and are funneled through the middle ear to the inner ear, where vibrations stimulate tiny hair cells in the cochlea. These hair cells transmit the electrical impulses generated as a result of this movement to the brain via the auditory nerve, where they are translated into sounds we can identify. The brain is able to discriminate relevant sounds from background noise, filtering out unimportant and distracting sounds so we can concentrate on what we are listening to. The brain also amplifies the volume of our own speech, boosting the sounds we make to enable us to hear our own voices clearly.

    Think of it this way: the ears are a delivery system, but the brain is the true workhorse, responsible for turning a jumble of noise into coherent messaging.

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