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What Part Of The Brain Processes Visual Information

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First Strip In Sts: Actions

Early visual processes in the brain

Visual processing of observed actions originates in the MT complex and proceeds along the two banks of the STS . These two banks project independently to PPC, with the lower bank projecting to AIP . As stated, the two banks have become separated during evolution . As a result, observed actions are processed in two distinct occipitotemporal regions in humans . The posterior part of MTG and neighboring ITS and STS/STG corresponds to the upper bank of monkey STS. This branch is shorter on the left side and interrupted by cortex processing intelligible speech . The lower bank moves ventrally and occupies much of the posterior and middle OTS in humans. This part of lateral occipitotemporal cortex, processing action, has received much attention .

We have proposed that while the projections to the PPC are concerned by the what of an action, the additional processing within the STS relates to the how of the action . This provides information about the state, emotional, social, and physical nature of the actor . The lower branch may integrate the action with the context and process identity-related aspects of the action. Facial expressions are to the face what actions are to the body, and there is clear evidence that facial expressions are also processed in the STS . Again, this may provide emotional information which seems to be better developed in humans .

Zoë Terpening, John D.G. Watson, in, 2007

True Or False 40% Of All Nerve Fibers Connected To The Brain Are Linked To The Retina

True.

In fact, half of all neural tissue deals with vision in some way.

The nerve fibers statistic is also cited by Eric Jensen in his book on visual learning titled Brain-Based Learning. In that same paper from 1957 that R.S. Fixot published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology, 50% of our neural tissue is directly or indirectly related to vision, which assists in visual learning.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Peripheral Vision

Lets start with what peripheral vision is Its that part of your vision thats off to the edge of your central gaze. It could be to the left, right, up, or down relative to your central vision.

Our ability to see peripheral vision lies in the fovea, which is at the center of the macula inside the eye. Within the central fovea are rods and cones, with rods making up most of the perifoveal . Rods are more tuned to movement, shapes, and forms rather than fine detail.

This means that when you see something off to the side of your field of vision, you dont see it as well as if it were right in front of you. It correlates with the composition of the foveathe center of the fovea contains rods and cones, which means your central vision is more detailed. On the other hand, the peripheral fovea is primarily rods, so your peripheral vision is limited by the function of rods which do not convey sharp detail.

The rods impulses in the perifovea travel along the optic nerve to the anterior visual cortex in the occipital lobe for processing.

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Tips To Improve Assimilation And Absorption In Elearning

1. Make It Attention-Worthy

Our brains can’t possibly remember every single detail. If it did, we would be overloaded with so much information that we wouldn’t be able to function. Which is why you have to make the brain take notice. Attention-grabbing images, facts, and charts are powerful stimuli. They send a signal to the brain that this particular item is worth remembering. There is a caveat to this though. Only the most important elements of your eLearning course should stand out. For example, bright red bolded font to draw attention to a crucial tip. Otherwise, you run the risk of cognitive overload.

2. Reinforce Key Concepts

The memory needs reminders from time to time, or else it lets information slip through the cracks. Spaced eLearning gives you the opportunity to refresh the memory over a period of time. For example, employees watch an online task tutorial on the first day of the eLearning course. Later, they participate in a branching scenario that covers the same process, followed by a summarization exercise. The brain has the ability to explore the same task in different formats, which prevents boredom and reinforces the information.

3. Utilize Active Recall

Do you want to learn more about the brain and its learning behaviors? Read the article Top 10 Psychology Books That eLearning Professional Should Read to discover the top psychology books that all eLearning professionals should have on their shelves.

Central Processing Of Visual Information

Cognitive Enhancer

Vivid images of the world, with detail, colour, and meaning, impinge on human consciousness. Many people believe that humans simply see what is around them. However, internal images are the product of an extraordinary amount of processing, involving roughly half the cortex of the brain. This processing does not follow a simple unitary pathway. It is known both from electrical recordings and from the study of patients with localized brain damage that different parts of the cerebral cortex abstract different features of the image colour, depth, motion, and object identity all have modules of cortex devoted to them. What is less clear is how multiple processing modules assemble this information into a single image. It may be that there is no resynthesis, and what humans see is simply the product of the working of the whole visual brain.

Great progress has been made over the last century in understanding the ways that the eye and brain transduce and analyze the visual world. However, little is known about the relationship between the objective features of an image and an individuals subjective interpretation of the image. Scientists suspect that subjective experience is a product of the processing that occurs in the various brain modules contributing to the analysis of the image.

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True Or False More Of Our Neurons Are Dedicated To Vision Than The Other Four Senses Combined

True.

In fact, we may be out-evolving our sense of smell.

According to John Medina in his book Brain Rules, in the fight for more neural real estate thats going on between our olfactory cortex and the visual cortex, vision is winning. He writes: about 60 percent of our smell-related genes have been permanently damaged in this neural arbitrage, and they are marching toward obsolescence at a rate fourfold faster than any other species sampled. Why? In the crowded, zero-sum world of the sub-scalp, Medina said, something has to give. So smell those rosebuds while ye may.

Check out our recent post on the Science of Live Scribing to learn more visual thinking factoids.

How Your Brain Tracks Moving Objects

    When a baseball player hits a home run off a 100-mph fastball, how can the slugger’s brain track such a fast-moving object? Scientists may now have the answer.

    In a new study, they discovered how the brain can predict the path of a moving object, even one traveling so fast humans can barely see it.

    Vision scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, studied how the brain processes visual information, and located the specific region of the brain responsible for calculating where a moving object will most likely end up.

    When human eyes see an object, it takes one-tenth of a second for the brain to process that information, said Gerrit Maus, a postdoctoral fellow in psychology at UC Berkeley, and lead author of the new study detailed today in the journal Neuron. So how does the brain compensate for the slight delay?

    “The brain does not think the object is in the position where the eye tells us it is,” Maus told LiveScience. “The object is shifted forward in the direction that it’s moving, so we’re actually predicting where things are going to be.”

    This means the brain perceives moving objects to be farther along in their trajectory than what a person actually sees with their eyes, he explained.

    Maus and his colleagues studied the brains of six volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging , which indirectly measures brain activity by measuring changes in the blood flow in the brain.

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    References For Areas Of The Brain Involved In Visual Function

    Ackerman, S. . Discovering the Brain. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234157/ 1

    Britannica.com. . Myelin. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/science/myelin

    Byrne, J. H. . Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks. Retrieved January 8, 2017, from http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s1/introduction.html

    Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. . Physiology of Behavior . Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

    Daugherty, P., & Tsuchitani, C. . Somatosensory Pathways. Retrieved January 16, 2017, from http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s2/chapter04.html

    Dragoi, V., & Tsuchitani, C. . Visual Processing: Cortical Pathways. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s2/chapter15.html

    Khanacademy.org. . Overview of neuron structure and fuction. Retrieved January 8, 2017, from http://www.khanacademy.org

    Kinser, P. A. . Brain Structures and Their Functions. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html

    Nguyen, T. . Brain Research Methods. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from https://knowyourpsych.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/brain-research-methods.pptx

    Rogers, K. . Midbrain. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/science/midbrain

    Disorders

    What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Vision

    Visual field processing | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy

    Visual processing happens in the occipital lobe of the brain, which is the above the cerebellum at the back of the skull. The occipital lobe does the heavy lifting, collecting and parsing all of the raw visual data that is taken in by our eyes.

    However, the occipital lobe doesnt work alone to process visuals. The parietal lobe helps with things like recognition, spatial awareness, and navigating our environment. The temporal lobe, which houses memory function, allows us to permanently attach meaning to things we see for instance, when we see a red octagon with four white letters, our temporal lobe helps us remember that that means we need to hit the breaks and look both ways.

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    What Part Of The Brain Controls Color Vision

    There is a particular part of the occipital lobe that handles color vision. Its called the visual cortex. There are two visual cortexes, a left and a right one on each occipital lobe.

    For example, when you see an apple, the apples light gets picked up by the photoreceptors inside the eye . Rods and cones receive the wavelengths of light given off by the appleespecially the cones since theyre the eyes color receptor.

    The cones send the impulse through the optic nerve to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. The brain processes this input based on how many cones were activated and the signals strength. Thats how you see the color of the apple is red.

    Blood Supply To The Brain

    Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

    The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

    The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

    The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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    Cortical Processing Of Visual Input

    From the thalamus, visual input travels to the visual cortex, located at the rear of our brains. The visual cortex is one of the most-studied parts of the mammalian brain, and it is here that the elementary building blocks of our vision detection of contrast, colour and movement are combined to produce our rich and complete visual perception.

    Most researchers believe that visual processing in the cortex occurs through two distinct ‘streams’ of information. One stream, sometimes called the What Pathway , is involved in recognising and identifying objects. The other stream, sometimes called the Where Pathway , concerns object movement and location, and so is important for visually guided behaviour.

    Selket/Wikimedia

    Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

    Parts of the Brain and What They Do

    Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

    • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
    • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
    • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
    • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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    The Dorsal And Ventral Streams

    After the visual stimulus leaves the eyes, it is first processed through distinct points in the brain along the path to the occipital lobes. Then, that information exits the occipital lobes in white matter tract pathways called streams to other parts of the brain. The ventral stream is involved with object and visual identification and recognition. The dorsal stream is involved with processing the objects spatial location. In other words, the brain is figuring out what to do with the visual information it has received how to use it to recognize persons seen before map routes recognize symbols and letters and many other interpretations. These streams run through the temporal and parietal lobes, which is why sometimes surgery to these parts of the brain can affect visual processing as well.

    The dorsal stream guides your actions and helps you recognize where objects are in space. Also known as the parietal stream , the where stream, or the how stream, this pathway stretches from the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe forward into the parietal lobe. It is interconnected with the parallel ventral stream which runs downward from V1 into the temporal lobe.

    The dorsal stream is primarily involved with the perception and interpretation of spatial relationships, accurate body image, and the learning of tasks involving coordination of the body in space. Damage or disruption to this stream can cause visual processing issues, including:

    Function In Visual Perception

    )

    The output of the LGN serves several functions.

    Computations are achieved to determine the position of every major element in object space relative to the principal plane. Through subsequent motion of the eyes, a larger stereoscopic mapping of the visual field is achieved.

    It has been shown that while the retina accomplishes spatial through center surround inhibition, the LGN accomplishes temporal decorrelation. This spatialâtemporal decorrelation makes for much more efficient coding. However, there is almost certainly much more going on.

    Like other areas of the thalamus, particularly other relay nuclei, the LGN likely helps the visual system focus its attention on the most important information. That is, if you hear a sound slightly to your left, the auditory system likely “tells” the visual system, through the LGN via its surrounding peri-reticular nucleus, to direct visual attention to that part of space. The LGN is also a station that refines certain receptive fields.

    For an extensive overview of the function of the LGN in visual perception, see Ghodrati et al.

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    Problems From Damage To Areas Of The Brain Involved In Visual Function

    If there is damage or lesions done to the LGN in the brains of humans, problems follow. Lesions in this area results in total vision loss in the part of the field of vision that is opposite that of the area in which the lesion occurred .

    The Damage to the area of the ESC can cause a number of problems. First this area is where most color is perceived. Lesions in this area can lead to perceptual deficits such as the failure to recognize objects, the loss of the ability to see colors and the inability to see the movement of objects . The examples from include animals with impaired ability to differentiate colors but who could still see black and white and humans whose damage lead them to see only in black and white and also had no ability to recall what colors looked like. There is also an example of damage that caused an inability to recognize any object while maintaining the ability to tell what color the unidentified object was. Further some damage to this area can result in the inability to read, the inability to identify object while being able to still grab them and even the inability to recognize faces.

    What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

    Neuroaesthetics measures how the brain processes what? #Answer

    Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

    Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

    Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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