The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.
The Lobes Of The Brain
Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal. The frontal lobes are the largest sections of the brain and make up the front portion of the cerebrum. The frontal lobes are the main thought processing center and control reasoning, problem solving, decision making, language and personality traits.
The temporal lobes are found on the sides of the brain, just above the ears. This part of the brain is responsible for short-term memory, understanding speech and recognizing sounds. Together with the frontal lobes, they identify and process smells.
The back portion of the cerebrum are the occipital lobes, which control vision. Lying interior to the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes are the parietal lobes. The parietals are the sensory processing center of the brain and are responsible for spoken language and learning.
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Position Feedback From The Inner Ear
The vestibular system in each inner ear is made up of three semi-circular canals and two pockets, called the otolith organs, which together provide constant feedback to the cerebellum about head movement.
Each semi-circular canal has a different orientation to detect a variety of movements such as nodding or rotating. Movement of fluid inside the canals caused by head movement stimulates tiny hairs that send messages via the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum.
The two otolith organs send messages to the brain about body movement in a straight line and also about where the head is in relation to gravity, such as tilting, leaning or lying down. These organs contain small crystals that are displaced during these movements to stimulate tiny hairs, which transmit the message via the vestibular, or balance nerve to the cerebellum.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech
The part of the brain which is responsible for speech is called the Brocas area. It is located in the cerebrum on the left side of the brain. Youll find it in the frontal lobe. Damage in Brocas area is characterized by slurred and unclear words. This condition is called Brocas aphasia or non-fluent aphasia.
Sufferers are able to understand what is being said, they know what they want to say, but the order from the brain to the speech organs cannot be executed.Speaking is a complex process, as it involves both speech comprehension and speech production. Healthy brains do both effortlessly.
Damage to any area involved in speech can cause various conditions such as dyslexia , anomia , and agraphia .
What Controls Balance In The Brain
The main part of the brain that controls balance is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of your skull, above the amygdala . Besides controlling balance and posture, its also responsible for monitoring voluntary movement, eye movement, and speech control.
But there are other parts of the brain that help out too, such as the brain stem which mainly is responsible for breathing as well as balance.
Maintaining balance is a very complex process that is happening in the brain. Its performed by multiple parts of the brain and occurs as a result of the brain communicating with our environment.
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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
History Of The Cerebellum
The distinct appearance of the cerebellum was first described thousands of years ago by philosophers. The Roman physician Galen gave the earliest written surviving descriptions of this part of the brain.
It was not until the early 19th-century, however, that physicians and researchers began to learn more about the functions of this region of the brain. Experimental work that involved ablating portions of the cerebellum in animals revealed that this part of the brain is important in the coordination of movement.
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Tumor In The Cerebellum
Tumors are abnormal cells that can either grow in the brain or migrate there from a different part of the body. These tumors might be benign and not spread through the body. Malignant tumors grow and spread, leading to cancer.
Symptoms of a tumor in the cerebellum include:
- a headache
- difficulties with coordination
Diagnosis and treatment will vary based on age, the overall state of health, the course of the disease, the potential outlook, and other factors.
Preserving overall brain health is the best way to avoid damage to the cerebellum.
Reducing the risk of stroke, brain injury, and exposure to poisons can help prevent some forms of ataxia.
- Quitting smoking: Smoking increases the risk of stroke by thickening the blood and raising blood pressure.
- Limiting alcohol use: Large amounts of alcohol can damage the cerebellum. Alcohol also raises blood pressure, which increases the risk of stroke.
- Exercise: Regular physical activity benefits the heart and blood vessels and reduces the risk of stroke. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend
S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
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Of The Brain That Controls Muscle Movement
Thanks to our brain we can plan, eat, run and even smile. It is through the complex but fascinating functions of the cerebral motor cortex that we carry out various actions on a daily basis. It is a part of our brain that helps us control, execute, and plan movement.
In addition, it allows us to react to stimuli, which is essential for our survival. But this part of our brain does not act alone. These movements can happen thanks to the various connections and association with other areas of our body.
Through the article we will talk about the Part of the brain that controls muscle movement, we will see: what is its location and what are its structures and functions. In addition to associated pathologies when there is an injury or when it does not work properly. Lets explore the motor cortex, also called the motor cortex.
Good Balance Is Often Taken For Granted
Good balance is often taken for granted. Most people dont find it difficult to walk across a gravel driveway, transition from walking on a sidewalk to grass, or get out of bed in the middle of the night without stumbling. However, with impaired balance such activities can be extremely fatiguing and sometimes dangerous. Symptoms that accompany the unsteadiness can include dizziness, vertigo, hearing and vision problems, and difficulty with concentration and memory.
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The Coordinated Balance System
The human balance system involves a complex set of sensorimotor-control systems. Its interlacing feedback mechanisms can be disrupted by damage to one or more components through injury, disease, or the aging process. Impaired balance can be accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, vision problems, nausea, fatigue, and concentration difficulties.
The complexity of the human balance system creates challenges in diagnosing and treating the underlying cause of imbalance. The crucial integration of information obtained through the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems means that disorders affecting an individual system can markedly disrupt a persons normal sense of balance. Vestibular dysfunction as a cause of imbalance offers a particularly intricate challenge because of the vestibular systems interaction with cognitive functioning,2 and the degree of influence it has on the control of eye movements and posture.
What Areas Of The Brain Control Executive Functioning
Executive functions are located primarily in the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobe with multiple neuronal connections to other cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. Neuroimaging and lesion studies from a variety of neurological diseases and injury models have confirmed the findings. However, it should be noted that prefrontal injury does not directly affect specific cognitive or linguistic processes rather it affects their regulation and effective use, likely through alteration of the numerous neuronal connections between the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions.
If the distinction between a cognitive process and executive control over the process is not clearly drawn, assessment results may be incorrectly interpreted and inappropriate treatment prescribed .
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in online processing of information such as integrating different dimensions of cognition and behavior. The areas have been found to be linked to verbal and design fluency, ability to maintain and shift set, planning, response inhibition, working recall, organization skills, reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking.
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Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
Tissues Covering The Brain
Within the skull, the brain is covered by three layers of tissue called the meninges.
No computer has yet come close to matching the capabilities of the human brain. However, this sophistication comes with a price. The brain needs constant nourishment. It demands an extremely large amount and continuous flow of blood and oxygenabout 25% of the blood flow from the heart. The overall energy consumption of the brain does not change much over time, but certain areas of the brain, use more energy during periods of increased activity . A loss of blood flow to the brain for more than about 10 seconds can cause a loss of consciousness.
Lack of oxygen or abnormally low sugar levels in the blood can result in less energy for the brain and can seriously injure the brain within 4 minutes. However, the brain is defended by several mechanisms that can work to prevent these problems. For example, if blood flow to the brain decreases, the brain immediately signals the heart to beat faster and more forcefully, and thus to pump more blood. If the sugar level in the blood becomes too low, the brain signals the adrenal glands to release epinephrine , which stimulates the liver to release stored sugar.
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Functions Of The Brain
The human brain is magnificent and complex. The brain is made up of many parts, each with a specific and important function. It controls our ability to balance, walk, talk, and eat. It coordinates and regulates our breathing, blood circulation, and heart rate. It is responsible for our ability to speak, to process and remember information, make decisions, and feel emotions. Every brain is unique, ever-changing, and extremely sensitive to its environment.
The brain is divided into functional sections, called lobes:
- Frontal Lobe
- Temporal Lobe
Each lobe has an important and specific function, detailed below.
The functional sections of the brain are also categorized by side the right side and the left side. If you split the brain down the middle into two equally-sized parts, they are not the same and do not carry the same functions. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. Each side is responsible for different functions, and general patterns of dysfunction may occur depending on the side of the brain sustaining an injury.
The traits of each side are detailed below:
What Happens When The Cerebellum Is Damaged
When the cerebellum is injured, some of its functions can be compromised and cause motor problems. There may be a loss of the ability to precisely control the direction, force, speed and amplitude of movements, as well as the ability to adapt output patterns to changing conditions.
The deficits can be produced suddenly by injury, or gradually by degeneration of the cerebellum. The cerebellar syndrome can be caused by injury to the cerebellum or the cerebellar pathways.
Organ damage can lead to two different symptomatic syndromes: vermian syndrome with alterations in static and gait, and cerebellar hemispheric syndrome with alterations in movement coordination.
The lesion of the afferent pathways produces an archicerebellar syndrome, and that of the efferent pathways is manifested by a neocerebellar syndrome.
A person with a cerebellar injury may find it difficult to maintain a seasonal posture , and trying to do so leads to tremors.
It is also common to detect abnormalities in balance, gait, speech and even in the control of eye movements. So movements of all kinds can be affected. It is difficult for those who suffer from it to learn new motor sequences.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Language And Speech
To be gifted with language is to be able to both understand and respond to someone. In other words, the faculty of language covers comprehension and utterance. For spoken language, you have to be able on the one hand to pass from sound to meaning, and on the other hand, then, from the words thought to the words spoken, from the thought to the voice. These processes obviously depend on learning, society and culture, but they also have cerebral underpinnings part of the brain controls language and speech:
Each hemisphere of the cerebrum can also be divided into regions called lobes, which include the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
The lobes located in the front and side of your brain, the frontal lobes and the temporal lobes, are primarily involved in speech formation and understanding. The cerebral cortex is responsible for integrating sensory impulses, directing motor activity, and controlling higher intellectual functions.
Brocas area: source of speech production
This discovery marks the beginning of the identification of areas of the brain related to different facets of human language. Patients suffering from aphasia have enabled anatomists and then neuropsychologists to refine their knowledge of cerebral language supports, the study of different cases making it possible to identify different cerebral areas endowed with specific functions.
Ataxia Caused By Stroke
Stroke is a clot or bleed in any part of the brain. The cerebellum is a less common site for stroke than the cerebrum, but it can still occur there.
A clot or bleed in the cerebellum can cause the following:
Treating the stroke might resolve the ataxia. Occupational and physical therapy can help manage any permanent damage.
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Where Is It Located
The cerebellum is the largest structure of the hindbrain and can be found in the back portion of the skull below the temporal and occipital lobes and behind the brainstem.
When looking at the brain, the cerebellum looks much like a smaller structure separate from the brain, found beneath the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum consists of a cortex covering white matter, as well as a ventricle filled with fluid. It is also divided into two hemispheres like the cerebral cortex.
There are two main parts of the cerebellum:
- Cerebellar cortex: A layer containing folded tissue containing most of the cerebellum’s neurons
- Cerebellar nuclei: The innermost part of the cerebellum containing nerve cells that communication information from the cerebellum
The cerebellum makes up just 10% of the total volume of the brain, yet it contains an estimated 50% to 80% of the brain’s neurons.
Ataxia Caused By Toxins
The cerebellum is vulnerable to poisons, including alcohol and certain prescription medications.
These poisons damage nerve cells in the cerebellum, leading to ataxia.
The following toxins might cause ataxia:
- drugs, especially barbiturates and benzodiazepines
- heavy metals, including mercury and lead
- solvents, such as paint thinners
Treatment and expected recovery time depend on the toxin involved and the extent of brain damage.
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