Understanding Parts Of The Brain
Learn about the parts of the brain and how dementia damages them, as well as about the symptoms the damage causes.
Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.
A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.
Pressure On The Optic Nerve
As the tumour grows, or there is a build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, it can squeeze normal healthy brain tissue including the main cranial nerves within the brain. The resulting pressure can alter how well the nerve works, and if this happens to the optic nerve, your vision can be affected.
Which Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Memory And Intelligence
So, now you may be wondering, what part of the brain controls memory?
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The answer to this question may be a bit more complex than you think. The truth is, there is no one memory part of the brain. In fact, different memories are stored in different places all over the brain
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Assembling A Brain In The Laboratory
Hebbian synapses have also been demonstrated in another kind of laboratory, where computer scientists and engineers have built them into a computer chip. The device is a simple one, with only 16 synapses, but it performs Hebbian learning quite efficiently, at the rate of a million times per second. Newer chips have already been developed to represent more realistic neurons, with many thousands of synapses and technology to represent the connections between such neurons will make the assembly of something more nearly resembling a working brain a little easier to envision. Such a device will have to combine analog signals, like those propagated within neurons, and digital signals, the off or on impulses transmitted from one neuron to another. It will not be simply a larger, or even an unbelievably faster, version of today’s familiar computer.
The field of artificial perception already boasts chips developed at the California Institute of Technology that are capable of much of the sensory processing performed just outside the brain by the retina, for example, and by the cochlea, the spiral passage of the inner ear whose hair cells respond to vibrations by sending impulses to the auditory nerve. Now in development as well are chips to simulate some of the functions of the visual cortex others, with some of the memory-storing capacity of the hippocampus, are being scaled up, closer to the dimensions of a living system.
Research Focus: Identifying The Unique Functions Of The Left And Right Hemispheres Using Split
We have seen that the left hemisphere of the brain primarily senses and controls the motor movements on the right side of the body, and vice versa. This fact provides an interesting way to study brain lateralization the idea that the left and the right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to perform different functions. Gazzaniga, Bogen, and Sperry studied a patient, known as W. J., who had undergone an operation to relieve severe seizures. In this surgery, the region that normally connects the two halves of the brain and supports communication between the hemispheres, known as the corpus callosum, is severed. As a result, the patient essentially becomes a person with two separate brains. Because the left and right hemispheres are separated, each hemisphere develops a mind of its own, with its own sensations, concepts, and motivations .
Although Gazzanigas research demonstrated that the brain is in fact lateralized, such that the two hemispheres specialize in different activities, this does not mean that when people behave in a certain way or perform a certain activity they are only using one hemisphere of their brains at a time. That would be drastically oversimplifying the concept of brain differences. We normally use both hemispheres at the same time, and the difference between the abilities of the two hemispheres is not absolute .
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Right Brain Left Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
Which Part Of The Brian Is Affected During Memory Loss
We already mentioned that there is not one single part of the brain that is responsible for learning or memory, so there is not a single region responsible for memory loss either.
The frontal and temporal lobes, the limbic system, and parts of the brain stem that control alertness are all involved in memory and learning. So, if any of these parts get damaged, a person can suffer memory loss or amnesia.
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What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Vision
As soon as the information passes from the optic nerve to the remainder of the brain, it is sent to the occipital lobe, where vision is processed. The occipital lobe is located in the back of the brain, above the cerebellum, and forms the center of the visual perception system, according to the Centre for Neuro Skills. Each hemisphere has its own occipital lobe therefore, each occipital lobe processes the information sent to that particular hemisphere. The occipital lobe controls how an individual views sight, so damage to this brain section can result in visual field cuts, and problems identifying color or movement of a things.
The last part of the brain associated with vision is the visual cortex, where sensory and motor info is incorporated with vision. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research states that several visual pathways are included. For instance, the ventral visual path controls how an individual identifies items, while the dorsal visual path manages an individuals visual-motor action to things. To puts it simply, the visual cortex enables you to understand that youre taking a look at a plate, for example, and then permits you to choose it up.
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What Its Like To Hallucinate
Visual hallucinations, specifically simple hallucinations are more prevalent among the general population. These hallucinations include lights, colors, lines, or simple geometric shape. They can reflect abnormal activity anywhere along the visual pathways in the eye or the brain, Kelley said.
When people have these simple geometrical hallucinations, the primary visual cortex is activate. This is the part of the brain that perceives edges and patterns. Images cannot be formed with the primary visual cortex. They generate when a higher part of the visual cortex, according to Sacks, is involved in the temporal lobe, specifically the fusiform gyrus.
To experience a drug-free hallucination, click on the video below to see the world melting before your eyes with objects and people distorted in real-time, the DailyMail reported. This is known as motion aftereffects, which makes you see movement in objects that are stationary. You can recreate the effect on-the-go with the Strobe Illusion iPhone app for 99 cents.
The mind is a terrible thing to waste, so use it wisely.
Neuroscientists Identify Brain Circuit Necessary For Memory Formation
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When we visit a friend or go to the beach, our brain stores a short-term memory of the experience in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. Those memories are later consolidated that is, transferred to another part of the brain for longer-term storage.
A new MIT study of the neural circuits that underlie this process reveals, for the first time, that memories are actually formed simultaneously in the hippocampus and the long-term storage location in the brains cortex. However, the long-term memories remain silent for about two weeks before reaching a mature state.
This and other findings in this paper provide a comprehensive circuit mechanism for consolidation of memory, says Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor of Biology and Neuroscience, the director of the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, and the studys senior author.
The findings, which appear in Science on April 6, may force some revision of the dominant models of how memory consolidation occurs, the researchers say.
How Can These Results Be Used In The Real World
If our results are true not just for our experimental task, but for everyday movements, like learning how to type, or brush your teeth, or flip a pancake, then a technique called brain stimulation might be used to help create motor representations in patients with brain damage who cannot do these everyday tasks. Brain stimulation techniques involve the placement of electrical stimulators on the scalp that can stimulate the brain without surgery. Scientists are now exploring whether such stimulation can help brain-damaged patients to overcome motor deficits and help people without brain damage to learn better. However, scientists need to know the best part of the brain to stimulate. Our results suggest that stimulation of the left parietal lobe might enhance motor learning in both brain-damaged patients and people without brain damage.
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Causes Of Neurological Vision Loss
- stroke or brain attack, where part of the brain is damaged by a haemorrhage or blockage in a blood vessel of the brain
- traumatic brain injury for example, after a car accident or fall
- infection, such as meningitis or cytomegalovirus
- lack of oxygen, such as near-drowning or a heart attack, which can interrupt the flow of blood to the brain
- disease, such as a brain tumour or multiple sclerosis.
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The Hippocampus And Long
A short-term memory can be consolidated into an enduring long-term memory. This involves a system of brain structures within the medial temporal lobe that are essential for forming declarative memories. The hippocampus is a key region in the medial temporal lobe, and processing information through the hippocampus is necessary for the short-term memory to be encoded into a long-term memory.
The long-term memory does not remain stored permanently in the hippocampus. These long-term memories are important and having them stored in only one brain location is risky damage to that area would result in the loss of all of our memories.
Instead, it is proposed that long-term memories become integrated into the cerebral cortex . This process is referred to as cortical integration it protects the information stored in the brain.
However, damage to areas of the brain, particularly the hippocampus, results in loss of declarative memories, which is known as amnesia.
The famous case study of H.M. – Henry Molaison – demonstrated the hippocampus is vital to the formation of long-term memories. H.M. had his hippocampus removed as a 23-year-old in an attempt to treat epileptic seizures that originated in his medial temporal lobe.
Which Parts Of The Brain Affect Memory
Medically Reviewed By: Aaron Horn
The brain is extremely complex, and researchers are constantly learning more about how it functions. More and more studies are done every year trying to discover more information about how the brain works, particularly about memory. A lot is known, but still, more is left to be discovered.
When faced with memory disorders or memory loss, it can be helpful to have an understanding of how the brain manipulates memory. Especially in cases of head injury, knowing which parts of the brain affect memory can help you understand what to expect in the future. Unfortunately, the brain cells responsible for memory cannot be replaced, which means that most memory loss is permanent.
How Do Eyes Work
The images we see are made up of light reflected from the objects we look at. This light enters the eye through the cornea, which acts like a window at the front of the eye. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the pupil, which is surrounded by the iris the coloured part of the eye.
Because the front part of the eye is curved, it bends the light, creating an upside down image on the retina. The brain eventually turns the image the right way up.
The retina is a complex part of the eye, and its job is to turn light into signals about images that the brain can understand. Only the very back of it is light sensitive: this part of the retina is roughly the area of a 10p coin, and is packed with photosensitive cells called rods and cones.
Cones are the cells responsible for daylight vision. There are three kinds, each responding to a different wavelength of light: red, green and blue. The cones enable us to see images in colour and detail. Rods are responsible for night vision. They are sensitive to light but not to colour. In darkness, the cones do not function at all.
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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More
Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.
Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!
Sleep Is Important For Memory Formation
Sleep is another important factor for memory storage. During sleep, the hippocampus and neocortex take part in a carefully choreographed dialogue in which the hippocampus replays recent events: the same hippocampal neurons active during an experience become activated again during slow-wave sleep, over and over in a time-compressed manner, helping to update the neocortex as to what needs to be stored. This replay only occurs during sleep, so if youre skimping on sleep, you arent letting your brain consolidate memories.
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Left Hemisphere Vs Right Hemisphere Stroke
Along with different lobes and structures, the brain is alsodivided into two halves, called hemispheres.
Aside from the different areas of the brain that can beaffected by stroke, its also helpful to look at difference between the twohemispheres.
Generally speaking, the left hemisphere controls languageand logical reasoning while the right hemisphere is believed to control creativityand object recognition. This is why language difficulties after stroke areoften associated with left hemispherestrokes.
Furthermore, each hemisphere controls movement on the opposite side of the body. Usually, a left hemisphere stroke will cause motor impairments on the right side of the body while a right hemisphere stroke will likely impair the left side of the body.
When stroke impacts both hemispheres, its possible tosustain motor impairments on both sides of the body.
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Learning Recalling And Thinking
The brain regulates an array of functions necessary to survival: the action of our five senses, the continuous monitoring of the spatial surround, contraction and relaxation of the digestive muscles, the rhythms of breathing and a regular heartbeat. As the vital functions maintain their steady course without our conscious exertion, we are accustomed to consider the brain as preeminently the organ of thought. The brain houses our mind and our memories, and we rely on its information-processing capacities when we set out to learn something new.
But where in the brain can we locate memory or thought itself? offered some clues about the ways scientific investigationfrom the molecular level to studies of the alert, behaving animalhas begun to define in physical terms an abstract quality such as “attention.” Similar techniques and approaches are being applied to other mental functions, too, even those as seemingly intangible as learning, remembering, or thinking about the outside world.
Learning and memory, which for many years were considered central problems in psychology, the social sciences, and philosophy, have recently assumed greater importance in the area of neurobiology, itself a confluence of several lines of investigation.
Most available evidence suggests that the functions of memory are carried out by the hippocampus and other related structures in the temporal lobe.
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