The Cerebrum And Cerebral Cortex
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is covered in a thick layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex. Interior to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex is the white matter portion of the cerebrum. The white color comes from the layer of insulation called myelin that is on the neurons in this part of the brain.
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres that are joined by a band of nerves which allow communication between the two halves. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.
What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.
The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.
Aphasia: Classification Of Disorders
One such communication disorder is Aphasia. Aphasia is a disturbance happening in comprehension or expression of language.
Aphasia is a disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain that are important for language. For several people, these areas are on the left side of the brain. The left brain is where the two regions of the brain responsible for language are found: Wernickes area and Brocas area. Aphasia is usually categorized as expressive or receptive, depending on how difficult it is to understand or express language. But the majority with aphasia have some trouble with their speaking and will have a mixture of problems with writing, reading, and perhaps listening.
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What Do The Parts Of The Brain Control
Researchers study the parts of the brain and what each part does in order to understand where functions of the brain occur. Discoveries about brain anatomy assist medical professionals in diagnosing and treating brain disorders and tumors. There are three main divisions of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.
Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
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- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
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How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain
When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .
When light enters the eye through the pupil, it strikes in the retina called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, color and fine details.
When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.
This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.
Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.
All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.
The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.
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The Motor System And Primary Motor Cortex
The brains motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. It starts with premotor areas, for planning and coordinating complex movements, and ends with the primary motor cortex, where the final output is sent down the spinal cord to cause contraction and movement of specific muscles.
The primary motor cortex on the left side of the brain controls movement of the right side of the body, and vice-versa, the right motor cortex controls movement of the left side of the body.
Different areas of the primary motor cortex connect to, and control, movement of different parts of the body, forming a kind of body map known as the homunculus.
The size of the area on the homunculus determines the level of fine movement control we have with that part of the body. So, for instance, a large proportion of the motor cortex is devoted to our thumb, fingers, mouth and lips, as they are vital for manipulating objects and speech articulation.
The connection from the primary motor cortex to muscles of the body is so important that any damage leads to an impaired ability to move. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.
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Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
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Expressive Aphasia Vs Other Aphasias
Patients with expressive aphasia, also known as Broca’s aphasia, are individuals who know “what they want to say, they just cannot get it out”. They are typically able to comprehend words, and sentences with a simple syntactic structure , but are more or less unable to generate fluent speech. Other symptoms that may be present include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition, and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing.
This specific group of symptoms distinguishes those who have expressive aphasia from individuals with other types of aphasia. There are several distinct “types” of aphasia, and each type is characterized by a different set of language deficits. Although those who have expressive aphasia tend to retain good spoken language comprehension, other types of aphasia can render patients completely unable to understand any language at all, unable to understand any spoken language , whereas still other types preserve language comprehension, but with deficits. People with expressive aphasia may struggle less with reading and writing ” rel=”nofollow”> alexia) than those with other types of aphasia.:480500 Although individuals with expressive aphasia tend to have a good ability to self-monitor their language output , other types of aphasics can seem entirely unaware of their language deficits.
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What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain
Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons
The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.
Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons
The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.
The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.
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Neuroplasticity And Movement Rehabilitation
As with other parts of the brain, when neurons of the primary motor cortex are damaged they will never regrow or repair. However, the brain can heal itself and regain some lost function through neuroplasticity. This means undamaged parts can change their connections and remap to other areas of the body to take over function, compensating for damaged parts of the motor cortex.
Neuroplasticity is the fundamental principle in physical rehabilitation, such as physiotherapy for patients following stroke, that allows patients to regain motor function and recover. Through neuroplasticity, the more a particular movement is performed, the stronger the brain pathways for that movement become and the easier it gets to perform that movement in the future.
Lets look at an example of a stroke patient, Harry, who has problems with movement in his left leg. Harry might have altered patterns of walking due to damage in the leg area of the motor cortex of the right side of his brain. To help Harry regain efficient walking ability, the physiotherapist helps him perform sequences or patterns of walking by practising activation and control of specific muscle groups in his left leg.
This article was co-written with Zita Arends, who is a physiotherapist in stroke rehabilitation and aged care.
Read other articles in our Brain Control series, here.
Speech Recognition From Brain Activity
Speech is produced in the human cerebral cortex. Brain waves associated with speech processes can be directly recorded with electrodes located on the surface of the cortex. It has now been shown for the first time that it is possible to reconstruct basic units, words, and complete sentences of continuous speech from these brain waves and to generate the corresponding text. Researchers at KIT and Wadsworth Center, USA present their Brain-to-Text system in the scientific journal Frontiers in Neuroscience .
It has long been speculated whether humans may communicate with machines via part of the brain activity alone, says Tanja Schultz, who conducted the present study with her team at the Cognitive Systems Lab of KIT. As a major step in this direction, our recent results indicate that both single units in terms of speech sounds, as well as continuously spoken sentences, can be recognized from brain activity.
These results were obtained by an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers of informatics, neuroscience, and medicine. In Karlsruhe, the methods for signal processing and automatic speech recognition have been developed and applied. In addition to the decoding of speech from brain activity, our models allow for a detailed analysis of the areas of the brain involved in speech processes and their interaction, outline Christian Herff und Dominic Heger, who developed the Brain-to-Text system within their doctoral studies.
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The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do
Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?
Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.
How Swallowing Is Affected By Stroke
As you can see, there are multiple areas of the central nervous system which, if affected by a stroke or another neurological condition like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or dementia, could disrupt the ability to swallow.
Even more so, the medulla is a relatively small area of the brainstem that contains multiple structures that are critical in carrying out the swallowing reflexso strokes that involve the medulla are especially likely to cause swallowing problems. In fact, people with medullary strokes may require temporary or permanent feeding tube placement to prevent choking and aspiration pneumonia.
Guidelines published in 2019 by the American Heart Association for treatment of patients with stroke recommend early screening for dysphagia to prevent potential aspiration and avoid related illness. The AHA also recommends feeding tubes for patients with dysphagia for at least the few days immediately following a stroke as doctors continue to check for problems with swallowing.
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The Parietal And Temporal Lobes
We cant talk about the occipital lobe without giving a little credit to these two. While the occipital lobe carries most of the visual burden, its the parietal and temporal lobes that help us make sense of what were seeing.
The parietal lobe plays a big role in visuospatial cognition, our ability to recognize and adapt to the physical space around us. This includes abilities like depth perception, navigation and movement.
When you want to change the channel on TV, youre first using the occipital lobe to see the remote. But the parietal lobes visuospatial recognition is used to gauge how much distance is between you and the remote an important detail once you decide to reach for it.
The temporal lobe controls memory it assigns meaning to the images we see. After the occipital lobe registers the image of the TV remote, structures in the temporal lobe subconsciously remind us that the remote is used to change the channel, that it needs to be pointed at the TV, and which button we need to press to get to the channel were seeking.
The frontal lobe is usually not considered to be directly involved with vision, but scientists dont think it should be left out completely. According to the Georgia Institute of Technology, new research actually suggests it might play a role in vision after all.
Which Part Of The Brain Controls Memory
There are three main areas of the brain: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. As well as hemispheres and lobes. They play key roles in encoding, storing, and retrieving memories.
Consisting of three main areas: cerebrum, cerebellum, and the brain stem. These parts of the human brain serve in the creation of memories, storing memories, and the retrieval of memories. Working in unison the brain allows for a person to control their memories.
âThe brain is far more intricate than a few bits and pieces stitched together. After all, this is the organ that built the pyramids, painted the Sistine Chapel, wrote Shakespearean sonnets, and landed on the moon.
There are 86 million neurons in the brain, forming a dense network of pathways. While weâre nowhere close to a comprehensive understanding of this three-pound organ, we can localize certain functions and aspects to specific regions, including memory.
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Brain Areas That Control Language And Speech
Several areas of the brain must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.
Without the brain, there would be no language. The human brain has a few areas that are specific to language processing and production. When these areas are damaged or injured, capabilities for speaking or understanding can be lost, a disorder known as aphasia. These areas must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.
Brocas area, located in the frontal lobe of the brain, is linked to speech production, and recent studies have shown that it also plays a significant role in language comprehension. Brocas area works in conjunction with working memory to allow a person to use verbal expression and spoken words. Damage to Brocas area can result in productive aphasia , or an inability to speak. Patients with Brocas can often still understand language, but they cannot speak fluently.
Wernickes area, located in the cerebral cortex, is the part of the brain involved in understanding written and spoken language. Damage to this area results in receptive aphasia . This type of aphasia manifests itself as a loss of comprehension, so sometimes while the patient can apparently still speak, their language is nonsensical and incomprehensible.
The angular gyrus, located in the parietal lobe of the brain, is responsible for several language processes, including number processing, spatial recognition, and attention.