How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain
When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .
When light enters the eye through the pupil, it strikes in the retina called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, color and fine details.
When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.
This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.
Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.
All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.
The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.
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What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Vision
As soon as the information passes from the optic nerve to the remainder of the brain, it is sent to the occipital lobe, where vision is processed. The occipital lobe is located in the back of the brain, above the cerebellum, and forms the center of the visual perception system, according to the Centre for Neuro Skills. Each hemisphere has its own occipital lobe therefore, each occipital lobe processes the information sent to that particular hemisphere. The occipital lobe controls how an individual views sight, so damage to this brain section can result in visual field cuts, and problems identifying color or movement of a things.
The last part of the brain associated with vision is the visual cortex, where sensory and motor info is incorporated with vision. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research states that several visual pathways are included. For instance, the ventral visual path controls how an individual identifies items, while the dorsal visual path manages an individuals visual-motor action to things. To puts it simply, the visual cortex enables you to understand that youre taking a look at a plate, for example, and then permits you to choose it up.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech
The part of the brain which is responsible for speech is called the Brocas area. It is located in the cerebrum on the left side of the brain. Youll find it in the frontal lobe. Damage in Brocas area is characterized by slurred and unclear words. This condition is called Brocas aphasia or non-fluent aphasia.
Sufferers are able to understand what is being said, they know what they want to say, but the order from the brain to the speech organs cannot be executed.Speaking is a complex process, as it involves both speech comprehension and speech production. Healthy brains do both effortlessly.
Damage to any area involved in speech can cause various conditions such as dyslexia , anomia , and agraphia .
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Does The Brain Send It Messages To Move
Motor neurons send messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
Through the article we talked about the Part of the brain that controls muscle movement, we have seen what is its location and what are its structures and functions. In addition to associated pathologies when there is an injury or when it does not work properly.
If you have any questions or comments please let us know!
What Is A Stroke
A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .
During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.
Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.
The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.
Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.
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The Part Of The Brain Controlling: Balance And Hearing
The processing of sound happens in the temporal lobes which are a part of the cerebrum. The audio stimuli come through the ear and go directly into the primary auditory cortex located in the temporal lobes.
But how does the temporal lobe affect balance?
Have you ever heard a loud noise and reflexively found yourself moving away from the source of the noise?
Thats the temporal lobe at work. Your temporal lobe is directly connected to the cerebellum by neural pathways. This connection enables a quick reaction to loud noise.
Four Cerebral Cortex Lobes
- Parietal Lobes: These lobes are positioned posteriorly to the frontal lobes and above the occipital lobes. They are involved in receiving and processing of sensory information. The somatosensory cortex is found within the parietal lobes and is essential for processing touch sensations.
- Frontal Lobes: These lobes are positioned at the front-most region of the cerebral cortex. They are involved with movement, decision-making, problem-solving, and planning. The right frontal lobe controls activity on the left side of the body and the left frontal lobe controls activity on the right side.
- Occipital Lobes: Located just below the parietal lobes, the occipital lobes are the main center for visual processing. The visual information is sent to the parietal lobes and temporal lobes for further processing.
- Temporal Lobes: These lobes are located directly below the frontal and parietal lobes. They are involved with memory, emotion, hearing, and language. Structures of the limbic system, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus are located within the temporal lobes.
In summary, the cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes that are responsible for processing and interpreting input from various sources and maintaining cognitive function. Sensory functions interpreted by the cerebral cortex include hearing, touch, and vision. Cognitive functions include thinking, perceiving, and understanding language.
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Other Areas Of The Brain
The brain stem connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It controls many of the functions we don’t normally think about, including breathing, swallowing, blood pressure and digestion. The three main parts of the brain stem are the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata.
The midbrain helps you to control and adjust your temperature.
It also helps to control your sleep-wake cycle. This allows you to stay alert and concentrate in the day, then form a normal sleep pattern at night.
The pons links together the different parts of the brain and helps relay information from the medulla oblongata to higher parts of the brain.
Childhood brain tumours in the brain stem usually originate in the pons.
The medulla oblongata carries messages between the brain and the spinal cord. It is partly responsible for heart rate and how your lungs work. It also controls reflexes such as swallowing, coughing and the gag reflex.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Vision
The brain consists of four main segments called lobes. The frontal lobe up front, the parietal lobe on top, the temporal lobe on bottom and the occipital lobe pulling up the rear. All of our senses, thoughts and actions start in one of these lobes.
Most visual functions are controlled in the occipital lobe, a small section of the brain near the back of the skull. But processing eyesight is no simple task, so other parts of the brain have to pitch in too.
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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.
Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
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Warning Signs Of A Brain Tumor You Should Know
This article originally appeared in Prevention magazine. Read the original here.
Neurosurgeon Theodore Schwartz, M.D.Brain tumors come in all shapes and sizesand so do their symptoms.
“The key to a tumor’s symptoms really depends on its location,” says Theodore Schwartz, MD, a neurosurgeon with the Weill Cornell Brain and Spine Center.
For example, if you have a tumor near the part of your brain that controls your arm or your eyesight, your symptoms may include limb weakness or blurry vision, Schwartz says.
When you consider that every cell in your brain can form a tumorand that your brain controls or interprets information from every part of your bodythe list of possible tumor symptoms encompasses “almost anything imaginable,” Schwartz says.
Still, some signs and symptoms are more common than others. Here’s what to watch out for.
Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
- Information and support
- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
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Other Forms Of Dysfunction
The type of dysfunction to affect the body can vary based on where the dysfunction or injury occurs in the occipital lobe. Some possible examples include:
- difficulty recognizing everyday objects
- trouble understanding basic colors, shapes, or sizes
- difficulty recognizing familiar faces
- difficulty balancing, moving, or standing
- visual hallucinations, such as flashes of light
- changes in depth perception
Optic Nerve Responsible For Vision
When light reaches the retina in the eye and an image is developed, it moves to the remainder of the brain through the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve, and is the connection between the brain and eyes. Damage to the optic nerve avoids any info from being sent from the eyes to the remainder of the brain. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research specifies that info from the left eye goes to the right hemisphere and vice versa this is because the optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm, causing the optic nerve from each eye to send its details to the opposite side of the brain.
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Cortical Strokes Vs Subcortical Strokes
Before we dive into the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke, you should know the difference between cortical vssubcortical strokes.
The cerebral cortex/cerebrum is a large part of the brain that includes 4 lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Strokes in these regions are known as a cortical strokes.
Aside from the cerebrum, there are subcortical structures thatlie deep within the brain. Strokes in these areas of the brain are also knownas subcortical strokes.
The arteries that supply the subcortical areas of the brain are smaller and more delicate. Subcortical strokes are often hemorrhagic strokes due to the fragile arteries bursting, often from high blood pressure.
There are many differences between cortical and subcortical strokes. For example, cortical strokes often impact higher level functioning and its uncommon for subcortical strokes to result in language difficulties.
We will discuss other patterns next!
Where Is The Speech Center Of The Brain
The entire cerebral cortex contains two hemispheres. They are, for the most part, symmetrical in function. The cerebellum also contains two hemispheres and is located at the back of the brain, the part of the brain responsible for our sense of balance.
For a majority of the population, the speech center of the brain is located in the left hemisphere .
But its important to remember that all functionality of the brain is a mutual effort of all four lobes of the brain. Without the proper functioning of all four lobes, we would have difficulty with basic motor function, sight, speech, and higher thinking processes handled by the frontal lobe.
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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Sight
Interestingly enough, vision is controlled by the part of the brain which is furthest away from the eyes themselves the occipital lobe. It is located in the back of your head above the brain stem, the part of our brain that controls breathing.
The occipital lobe also has two hemispheres. The left hemisphere processes information from the right eye and vice versa.
The primary visual cortex gets raw information from the eyes and sends them to the secondary visual cortex for further processing. The secondary visual cortex is made out of the ventral stream and dorsal stream. Visual stimuli are processed in the temporal lobe as well.
Its important to keep the brain healthy and to challenge it with new tasks on a daily basis. That way, we can keep our brains strong and functioning well.
Thanks to Brocas area we can share our thoughts and ideas with people around us. What thoughts would you like to share with us below?
The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
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In What Regions Is The Motor Cortex Divided
The motor cortex integrates various areas, through which movement is possible. Lets look at them:
- Primary motor cortex. It is the main area that is responsible for generating the nerve impulses that are needed for the production of voluntary movement. In addition, it is responsible for sending orders to the voluntary muscles of the body. In this way, they contract or tighten. It is a region with a low excitation threshold.
- Supplementary motor area. It consists of an area that coordinates the movements of the postures. Thus, the sequence of movements in large muscle groups collaborates.
- Premotor areas. They are areas with a high threshold of excitation. In addition, it is responsible for storing movements that come from past experiences.
Thus, it coordinates and at the same time programs the sequence of movements and the activity of the primary motor cortex. It is located in front of the primary motor cortex and close to Sylvian fissure. It is also related to the movements required for speech.
What Are Some Important Structures In The Occipital Lobe
Like all other lobes of the brain, the occipital lobe contains a number of structures and neuronal tracts that work together to enable vision. Those include:
- Brodmann area 17: Known as V1, this region is located in the occipital lobes calcarine sulcus, and serves as the brains primary visual cortex. It aids the brain to determine location, spatial information, and color data.
- The ventral stream: Known sometimes as V2, this is a secondary visual cortex that helps the brain assign meaning to what it is seeing. Without V2, you would still be able to see, but would have no conscious awareness of or understanding of the sights your eyes took in.
- The dorsomedial stream: Neuroscientists dont yet have a strong understanding of this brain region, which connects to both V1 and V2, as well as other brain regions.
- The lateral geniculate bodies: These structures take in optic information from retinal sensors in each eye, sending raw information to each visual cortex.
- Lingula: this area receives information from the contralateral inferior retina to gather information about the field of vision.
Brain imaging studies have revealed that neurons on the back of the gray matter of the occipital lobe create an ongoing visual map of data taken in by the retinas.
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