Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Parts Of The Brain Are Involved In Memory

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Inaccurate And False Memories

Stress and Memory

Even flashbulb memories can have decreased accuracy with the passage of time, even with very important events. For example, on at least three occasions, when asked how he heard about the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President George W. Bush responded inaccurately. In January 2002, less than 4 months after the attacks, the then sitting President Bush was asked how he heard about the attacks. He responded:

I was sitting there, and my Chief of Staffwell, first of all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.

Contrary to what President Bush recalled, no one saw the first plane hit, except people on the ground near the twin towers. The first plane was not videotaped because it was a normal Tuesday morning in New York City, until the first plane hit.

Long Term Vs Short Term Memories

If we try to look into the depth of what memories are there can be two types. Based on the time limit, memories can be broadly classified into long and short-termed memories.

Short Term Memory

A short-term memory has the time span ranging from seconds to a few minutes. They are stored temporarily and then either get to the long-term memory storage, or they are discarded. Let us say someone gives us the mobile number. As the number is new so our memory will retain it for the short term. There are the possible chances that we are going to forget about this number after few moments.

Long Term Memory

These are the memories stored in the brain over a more extended period. They are several short-term memories organized to form a long memory that is stored permanently. Depending upon the importance and number of recalls, it can fade or be remembered forever. For example, you can recall your 18th birthday but not what you ate on Monday three weeks ago.

History Of The Hippocampus

The term hippocampus is derived from the Greek word hippokampus because the structure resembles the shape of a sea horse. The structure was first described by the anatomist Julius Caesar Aranzi. Because the hippocampus has been known of and observed for centuries, it is one of the most studied areas of the brain.

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The Benefits Of An Artificial Brain

Of course, the brain cannot ever be completely characterized in terms of a computer because in addition to all its computing faculties it possesses the properties of a biological organ in a living system. But, points out Gerald Edelman of the Neurosciences Institute at Rockefeller University, computers can indeed do something that, until recently, only a brain could do: they can carry out logical functions. Today, a computer can address any challenge or problem that can be described in a logical formula. This still leaves unexplored vast areas of human experience, such as perception but as described earlier in this chapter, computer and mathematical modeling on one side, and more detailed neurobiological examination on the other side, are making inroads in this area too.

An important principle of Darwin III’s nervous system is that the strength of the synaptic connections can increase selectively with greater activity when that activity leads to an adaptive end. What is ”adaptive” for Darwin III is defined by arbitrary values built into its programming. For example, the built-in principle that light is “better” than no light serves to direct and refine the system’s eye movements toward a target. Just as in living neurons, the enhanced connection provides a stronger response the next time that particular neural pathway is active.

The Locus Of The Long

Where are memories stored in the brain?

Overall, the results described to this point would seem to demonstrate conclusively that the cerebellum is necessary for learning, retention, and expression of classical conditioning of the eyeblink and other discrete responses. The next and more critical issue concerns the locus of the memory traces. Evidence summarized below would seem to demonstrate conclusively that the long-term memory traces for this type of learning are formed and stored in the cerebellum.

We and our associates have developed a new approach to the problem of localizing memory traces in the brain, namely the use of methods of reversible inactivation, together with recording of neuronal activity. Reversible inactivation methods ,per se, have existed for some time and have been used very effectively to produce temporary lesions . What we have done is to apply this method systematically to the major structures and pathways in the cerebellarbrain stem circuit we have identified as the essential circuit for classical conditioning of discrete responses , during performance and during acquisition of the CR .

Inactivation of the magnocellular red nucleus is indicated in Fig.b. Inactivation by low doses of muscimol for 6 days of training or cooling for 5 days completely prevented the expression of the CR. Yet animals showed asymptotic learned performance of the CR from the beginning of postinactivation training .

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Memory Storage In Brain

Generally, we might see a similarity in storage devices or a hard drive and brain, but they are hardly alike. Unlike storage devices, memory in mind is not stored at a specific location. And brain structure is not like a hard drive. It is much more complex, and memories are stored all over it. This is evident from the brain scan. Suppose we are looking at the brain activity of a person recalling a past event. The image will show several neurons firing up located in several different parts of the brain. Let us see how it is stored.

Hippocampus that is involved in making memory comes in and takes the aggregate of several short-termed memories. Suppose the memory for the graduation party can include the food you taste, what you feel like, and what the house smells like. In short, there are several small chunks of memory involved. Hippocampus takes the whole piece and assigns them specific places in the brain center, like the smell, will go to the olfactory region, and sounds go to the auditory area. The neurons on which these are written make connections with each other. This develops a big large memory circuit. The way these connections are made forms the indexing or the flow of how you remember a particular thing.

What Are The Characteristics Of Good Memory

Characteristics of Good Memory :-

  • Rapid learning- The quicker an object is observed, the quicker is its memorisation.
  • Good retention- A persons memory is considered good if he has good power of retention, and an individual who can retain and experience for a long period of time is said to possess a good memory.

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Emotions And False Memories

A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid episodic memory of the circumstances surrounding a piece of surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing news was heard. However, even flashbulb memories can have decreased accuracy with the passage of time, even with very important events. For example, on at least three occasions, when asked how he heard about the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President George W. Bush responded inaccurately. In January 2002, less than 4 months after the attacks, the then sitting President Bush was asked how he heard about the attacks. He responded:

I was sitting there, and my Chief of Staffwell, first of all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.

Contrary to what President Bush recalled, no one saw the first plane hit, except people on the ground near the twin towers. The first plane was not videotaped because it was a normal Tuesday morning in New York City, until the first plane hit.

Hippocampus And Classical Conditioning

Quickly Memorize the Parts of the Brain

In eyeblink conditioning, neuronal unit cluster recordings in hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3 increase in discharge frequency in paired training trials very rapidly, shift forward in time as learning develops, and form a predictive temporal model of the learned behavioral response, both within trials and over the trials of training . To summarize a large body of research, the growth of the hippocampal unit response is, under normal conditions, an invariable and strongly predictive concomitant of subsequent behavioral learning . This increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus becomes significant by the second or third trial of training, long before behavioral signs of learning develop, as would be expected of a declarative memory system. This initial hippocampal unit increase is in the US period increases in the CS period appear at about the time point in training when behavioral conditioned responses appear.

    There are strikingly parallel and persisting increases in glutamate -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor binding on hippocampal membranes in the hippocampal subfields in both eyeblink conditioning and in in vivo expression of LTP by stimulation of the perforant path projection to hippocampal dentate gyrus. The pattern of increased binding is similar in both paradigms . GlutamateN-methyl-d-aspartate receptors play the critical role in induction of LTP and also appear to be involved in acquisition of the trace eyeblink CR .

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    The Forgotten Part Of Memory

    Memories make us who we are. They shape our understanding of the world and help us to predict whats coming. For more than a century, researchers have been working to understand how memories are formed and then fixed for recall in the days, weeks or even years that follow. But those scientists might have been looking at only half the picture. To understand how we remember, we must also understand how, and why, we forget.

    Until about ten years ago, most researchers thought that forgetting was a passive process in which memories, unused, decay over time like a photograph left in the sunlight. But then a handful of researchers who were investigating memory began to bump up against findings that seemed to contradict that decades-old assumption. They began to put forward the radical idea that the brain is built to forget.

    A growing body of work, cultivated in the past decade, suggests that the loss of memories is not a passive process. Rather, forgetting seems to be an active mechanism that is constantly at work in the brain. In some perhaps even all animals, the brains standard state is not to remember, but to forget. And a better understanding of that state could lead to breakthroughs in treatments for conditions such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder , and even Alzheimers disease.

    Reasons Behind Forgetting Things

    The brain can store a large sum of data in it, but some things are lost. Forgetting is as essential as retaining something. It helps make new memories and move on. Otherwise, we will never progress into the future and cling on everything traumatic we remember. Sometimes we even forget the memories we cherish because this is how the brain works. It lets go of memories so future memories can be made. This is the reason why we even forget our most heartbreaking break up after a while or even our most cherished birthdays.

    Here are the three ways it can happen.

    Passive Oblivescence

    This is the process of losing memory when the neuron connection weakens over time. With aging or when we do not actively recall a memory, the neuron’s link is lost. It can also happen when we lose the stimulus to the mind. The memory might still be there, but we are not able to access it.

    Target Forgetting

    This happens when our brain actively prunes and discard certain details of a memory. For example, when we learn a new piece of information that contradicts the previous one, the pleasant memory is retained. The conflicted one is dismissed. With target forgetting, we also eliminate our conflicted believes and welcome new perceptions.

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    A Molecular Account Of Long

    Eric Kandel is best known for his work on the physical basis of learning and memory in the marine snail Aplysia. This animal, simple as its nervous system is , nevertheless provides an excellent model for the study of learning and memory, through its “gill withdrawal” reflex. When Aplysia perceives something touching its skin, it quickly withdraws both the siphon and the gill, much as a person withdraws a hand from a hot stove without thinking about it. Although this withdrawal is a reflex, it is not completely hard-wired but can be modified by various forms of learning. One such form is sensitization, in which the animal becomes aware of a threatening factor in the environment and to protect itself learns to augment its reflex. The augmented version of the withdrawal reflex can also be maintained in short-term or long-term memory, depending on whether researchers administer the noxious stimulus only once or twice, or many times within a short period. The two forms of memory can be distinguished not only by their durationthe difference between minutes and daysbut also at a molecular level, because it is possible to treat the snail with a chemical compound that interferes with long-term memory but leaves short-term memory unimpaired.

    Basal Ganglia And Motor Memory

    Memory  What it is, and How it is

    The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei which are located in the medial temporal lobe, above the thalamus and connected to the cerebral cortex. Specifically, the basal ganglia includes the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, the globus pallidus, the ventral striatum and the dorsal striatum, which consists of the putamen and the caudate nucleus. The basic functions of these nuclei deal with cognition, learning, and motor control and activities. The basal ganglia are also associated with learning, memory, and unconscious memory processes, such as motor skills and implicit memory. Particularly, one division within the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens core, is involved in the consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of drug memory.

    The caudate nucleus is thought to assist in learning and memory of associations taught during operant conditioning. Specifically, research has shown that this part of the basal ganglia plays a role in acquiring stimulus-response habits, as well as in solving sequence tasks.

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    Who Is Temporary Memory

    A computers memory is used for temporary storage, while a computers hard drive is used for permanent storage. A computers memory is also called RAM which is an acronym for Random Access Memory. A computers memory is where information is temporarily stored while it is being accessed or worked on.

    S Of The Brain Involved With Memory

    Are memories stored in just one part of the brain, or are they stored in many different parts of the brain? Karl Lashley began exploring this problem, about 100 years ago, by making lesions in the brains of animals such as rats and monkeys. He was searching for evidence of the engram: the group of neurons that serve as the physical representation of memory . First, Lashley trained rats to find their way through a maze. Then, he used the tools available at the timein this case a soldering ironto create lesions in the rats brains, specifically in the cerebral cortex. He did this because he was trying to erase the engram, or the original memory trace that the rats had of the maze.

    Lashley did not find evidence of the engram, and the rats were still able to find their way through the maze, regardless of the size or location of the lesion. Based on his creation of lesions and the animals reaction, he formulated the equipotentiality hypothesis: if part of one area of the brain involved in memory is damaged, another part of the same area can take over that memory function . Although Lashleys early work did not confirm the existence of the engram, modern psychologists are making progress locating it. Eric Kandel, for example, spent decades working on the synapse, the basic structure of the brain, and its role in controlling the flow of information through neural circuits needed to store memories .

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    Role Of Microbiota In Gba

    Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that enteric microbiota has an important impact on GBA, interacting not only locally with intestinal cells and ENS, but also directly with CNS through neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways.

    In humans, the most compelling evidence of a gastrointestinal microbe-brain interaction arose more than 20 years ago from the observation of the often dramatic improvement in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, after the administration of oral antibiotics . In the meantime, emerging data support the role of microbiota in influencing anxiety and depressive-like behaviors and, more recently, of dysbiosis in autism. In fact, autistic patients present specific microbiota alterations according to the severity of the disease .

    Neurotransmitters And The Information System

    Long term memory in the brain – Intro to Psychology

    In addition to the information-processing circuits arranged in neuronal modules and in columns of incoming nerve tracts, the brain is replete with other systems of input. In the prefrontal cortex, for example, nerve fibers containing the neurotransmitter dopamine are found in especially high concentration, and researchers have wondered for some time what role dopamine might play in prefrontal circuits of information. The evidence gathered on this point over the past few years has begun to make clear the enormous extent to which dopamine shapes not only our physical functioning in the world but also our ability to process new information, to associate ideas effectively, and even to maintain a sense of well-being in balance with realistic perceptions.

    In a test to see whether interference with the D-1 receptors would have any effect on cognitive function, Goldman-Rakic’s research team injected a compound that blocks the D-1 receptor sites in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys trained in the delayed-response test described earlier. About 20 minutes after the injection, the animals showed an impairment of working memory, moving their eyes to the wrong location when the trial included a delay but they responded correctly in a “sensory-guided” version of the task, in which the target light was left on as a guide. The D-1 receptors thus appear to be implicated in the efficiency of working memory.

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