Saturday, April 23, 2022

What Parts Of The Brain Do What

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Creativity Can Show Up Unexpectedly

How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

Have you ever had an AHA! Momentone where an idea or solution came to you seemingly out of nowhere? This feeling, defined as insight and sometimes called an epiphany, is one form of creativity. Epiphanies also happen as what we call a eureka feeling. The eureka feeling actually refers to an ancient Greek scientist named Archimedes, who was tasked with figuring out how to determine whether a crown was made of solid gold or gold mixed with other metals, without breaking the crown. He actually discovered the solution while he was taking a bath! Archimedes noticed that the water level of the bath changed as he got in and out of the tub. He realized that he could calculate the volume of an object by submerging it in water . With the mass of the crown already established, Archimedes used the bath water method and the mass/volume = density equation to determine whether the gold crown was pure gold or had less dense metals added.

Show/hide Words To Know

Disorder: something that is not in order. Not arranged correctly. In medicine a disorder is when something in the body is not working correctly.

Electroencephalogram: visual recording showing the electrical activity of the brain … more

Emotion: any of a long list of feelings a person can have such as joy, anger and love… more

Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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What Are The Four Nuclei Of The Cerebellum

As the three lobes take in information from the cerebrum, spinal cord and body, the cerebellum also has a way of sending out information. This is done through what are called nucleia bundle or neurons embedded deep in the cerebellum’s white matter.

Rounding out cerebellum’s composition are the four nuclei that pass information between the cerebrum and the body. These nuclei are: dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastcgi. They receive on the body and give information from the cerebellum through Purkinje cells and mossy fibers.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The final section of the brain is a mass of tissue and nerves called the brain stem. Located underneath the cerebrum and cerebellum, the brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. All information that goes from the brain to the body , must pass through the brain stem to reach its destination. The brain stem accounts for the remaining 5% of the brain’s mass, and is , the oldest part of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for regulating the heart and lungs, communications between the brain and the peripheral nervous system , our sleep cycle, and coordinating reflexes.

The brain stem plugs the brain into the rest of the body through the spinal cord .

The Cerebellum’s Left And Right Hemispheres

The Brain

The cerebellum also has two hemispheres: the left cerebellar hemisphere and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Just as the longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum’s hemispheres, the “vermis” separates the cerebellum’s hemispheres.

Cerebellar hemispheres seen from front and back / The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

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Brain Myths Of Creativity #: Creativity And Intelligence Do Not Go Together

Similar to the myth that you can only be either left brained or right brained, some think that you can only be intelligent or creative. Intelligence is usually defined as the ability to obtain and use knowledge. While intelligence and creativity are somewhat related, they are not the same thing and people can be both creative and intelligent, or one or the other . Important factors that make people highly creative probably have something to do with personalitythings such as openness to new experiences.

What Are The Regions Of The Brain And What Do They Do

The brain has many different parts. The brain also has specific areas that do certain types of work. These areas are called lobes. One lobe works with your eyes when watching a movie. There is a lobe that is controlling your legs and arms when running and kicking a soccer ball. There are two lobes that are involved with reading and writing. Your memories of a favorite event are kept by the same lobe that helps you on a math test. The brain is controlling all of these things and a lot more. Use the map below to take a tour of the regions in the brain and learn what they control in your body.

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Brain Structures And Their Functions

The nervous system is your body’s decision and communication center. The central nervous system is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord… and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body. Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain. The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response. Motor neurons deliver the instructions from the brain to the rest of your body. The spinal cord, made of a bundle of nerves running up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding messages to and from the brain at every second.

The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus . The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.

What do each of these lobes do?

Nerve cells make up the gray surface of the cerebrum which is a little thicker than your thumb. White nerve fibers underneath carry signals between the nerve cells and other parts of the brain and body.

How Do Scientists Look At Creativity In The Brain

Which Parts Of The Brain Do What?

Previously, we discussed studies that investigated what happens when damage occurs to a particular part of the brain and how that affects the brains abilities. Those studies allow researchers to look at the necessity of a particular brain area for a certain ability. In other words, if a part of the brain is damaged or missing, can a person still do certain activities? Another method of investigating the brain uses something called functional mapping, which involves the use of technologies to measure activity in the brain. Two functional mapping technologies are called functional magnetic resonance imaging , which uses magnetic fields to observe movement of blood bringing fuel materials to parts of the brain that have been active, and electroencephalography , which measures the electrical activity of the brain.

In one study, scientists looked at both fMRI and EEG images taken of participants while they worked on different tasks that involved coming up with creative ideas . The EEG study showed that when they were coming up with creative ideas, study participants had synchronized brain activity in the frontal cortex and the parietal lobes. In the fMRI study, more creative responses were related to increased activation of the frontal cortex in the left hemisphere. Combining the results from the patient studies and functional imaging studies, we see that there are a lot of parts of the brain involved with creative thinking.

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The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do

Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?

Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.

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    Lobes Of The Cerebrum

    The frontal lobe, behind the forehead, controls thinking, planning, judgment and movement. The parietal lobe, on the top of the head, interprets sensory information from the nerves regarding taste, smell and touch. The occipital lobe in the back of the head processes visual information. The temporal lobe, on the sides near the temples, processes sensory information from taste, smell and sound, and many memories are stored there as well.

    • The frontal lobe, behind the forehead, controls thinking, planning, judgment and movement.
    • The parietal lobe, on the top of the head, interprets sensory information from the nerves regarding taste, smell and touch.

    The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

    Human Brain

    The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

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    The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers

    Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.

    Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.

    Health Conditions Of The Brain

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    Of course, when a machine as finely calibrated and complex as the brain gets injured or malfunctions, problems arise. One in five Americans suffers from some form of neurological damage, a wide-ranging list that includes stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy, as well as dementia.

    Alzheimers disease, which is characterized in part by a gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimers or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimers symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to the diseases devasting effects.

    Far more common than neurological disorders, however, are conditions that fall under a broad category . Unfortunately, negative attitudes toward people who suffer from mental illness are widespread. The stigma attached to mental illness can create feelings of shame, embarrassment, and rejection, causing many people to suffer in silence. In the United States, where anxiety disorders are the most common forms of mental illness, only about 40 percent of sufferers receive treatment. Anxiety disorders often stem from abnormalities in the brains hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

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    What Are The Parts Of The Brain

    Every second of every day the brain is collecting and sending out signals from and to the parts of your body. It keeps everything working even when we are sleeping at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this amazing control center. You can see each part and later learn what areas are involved with different tasks.

    Creativity In The Brain

    What are the Parts of the Brain?

    Recently, the ways we think and the parts of the brain that contribute to creativity have become of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Since creativity is among one of the most complex of human behaviors, it likely requires the coordination of multiple brain regions and types of thinking. Because creativity is so complex, it seems naive to think that creativity can be localized to a single region in the brain. In fact, only a few neuroscience studies have tried to investigate the regions of the brain responsible for creativity. For a long time, scientists thought that creativity was processed only in the right hemisphere of the brain. However, studies that looked at the activity in the brain while people were doing creative tasks, or in patients who had brain damage that resulted in difficulty with creativity showed that an area of the brain called the frontal cortex was associated with creativity. This seemed to make sense because the frontal cortex processes the previously mentioned cognitive processes .

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    How Does The Brain Work

    The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

    Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

    Superheroes Of The Stress Response System

    When the brain detects stress in the environment, the stressresponse system goes into action. This begins with the hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal axis . Those are some very long words, so scientists just call it the HPA axis. When the brain detects stress, it first sends a message to a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The job of the hypothalamus is to wake up the pituitary gland. Although the pituitary is only about the size of a small pea, it has a mighty job. The pituitary releases hormones, which are the messengers in the stressresponse system. These hormones travel out of the brain to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands release cortisol into the body.

    • Figure 1
    • The hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal axis acts to release cortisol into the blood stream. Cortisol calls the body into action to combat stress. Cortisol also regulates the HPA axis. When high amounts of cortisol interact with the hypothalamus, the HPA axis will slow down its activity. The amygdala detects stress in the environment, while the prefrontal cortex regulates our reactions to stress.

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    What Happens In The Brain During Creative Thinking

    So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. Previous research has demonstrated that several different thought processes in the brain, including processes called working memory, abstraction, planning, and cognitive flexibility, are all critical to creative thinking. This research has also shown that the ability to develop strategies is a key part of creativity . Neuroscientists , in their attempt to make a connection between creative thought processes and the parts of the brain that may process them, have defined creativity as requiring the mixing and remixing of mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking If you look back to Steve Jobs quote, you will see that he describes creativity in a similar way. Combining and recombining mental representations is simply connecting things in the brain in the way that the brain stores information.

    Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms

    Brain Cortex Diagram  UNTPIKAPPS

    Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.

    The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a full list of the secondary effects of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.

    Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:

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    What Is Creativity

    Creativity has long fascinated everyone from artists to philosophers to psychologists. Why do humans feel the need to be creative and enjoy creative material? While creativity is a basic part of human thinking, what counts as creativity and how do we measure it? Creativity is often viewed as a subjective field, meaning that everyones personal opinion about creativity is different, so we need to have a really clear definition in order to understand what creativity is. So, what exactly is creativity? While there are many components of creativity, including originality, pleasure, value, process, and imagination, the definition that scientists use to study creativity puts those components together to say that creativity is an ability to produce something that is both novel and has utility . This definition allows scientists to develop of testable hypotheses about how creativity arises from the human brain.

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