Sunday, May 15, 2022

What Side Of The Brain Controls Language

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Speaking Slowly Or Slurring Words

Language and the Brain

If Brocas area is damaged, a person might find it difficult to produce the sounds of speech or may speak very slowly and slur their words. Speech is often limited to short sentences of less than four words. This is called Brocas aphasia or nonfluent aphasia.

Another cause is if stroke or injury damages the areas of the brain that control movements of the muscles of the mouth or tongue.

Newer Implications Related To Lesions In Brocas Area

Since studies carried out in the late 1970s it has been understood that the relationship between Brocas area and Brocas aphasia is not as consistent as once thought. Lesions to Brocas area alone do not result in Brocas aphasia, nor do Brocas aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in Brocas area. Lesions to Brocas area alone are known to produce a transient mutism that resolves within 36 weeks. This discovery suggests that Brocas area may be included in some aspect of verbalization or articulation however, this does not address its part in sentence comprehension. Still, Brocas area frequently emerges in functional imaging studies of sentence processing. However, it also becomes activated in word-level tasks. This suggests that Brocas area is not dedicated to sentence processing alone, but supports a function common to both. In fact, Brocas area can show activation in such non-linguistic tasks as imagery of motion.

Brocas area as a key center in the linking of phonemic sequences

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Communication Strategies: Some Dos And Donts

  • Make sure you have got the persons attention before you begin.
  • Minimize or eliminate background noise .
  • Keep your voice at a traditional level, unless the person has indicated otherwise.
  • Keep communication simple, but an adult. Simplify your own structure and reduce your rate of speech. Emphasize keywords. Dont talk down to the person with aphasia.
  • Give them time to talk. Resist the urge to complete sentences or offer words.
  • Communicate with gestures, writing, drawings, and facial expressions
  • Confirm that you just are communicating successfully with yes and no questions.
  • Praise all attempts to talk and downplay any errors. Avoid insisting that every word be produced perfectly.
  • Engage in normal activities whenever possible. Dont shield people with aphasia from family or ignore them during a group conversation. Rather, attempt to involve them in family decision-making as much as possible. Keep them informed of events but avoid burdening them with day to day details.
  • Encourage independence and avoid being overprotective.
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    How The Brain Controls Our Speech

    Date:
    Goethe University Frankfurt
    Summary:
    Speaking requires both sides of the brain. Each hemisphere takes over a part of the complex task of forming sounds, modulating the voice and monitoring what has been said. However, the distribution of tasks is different than has been thought up to now, as an interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists and phoneticians has discovered.

    Speaking requires both sides of the brain. Each hemisphere takes over a part of the complex task of forming sounds, modulating the voice and monitoring what has been said. However, the distribution of tasks is different than has been thought up to now, as an interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists and phoneticians at Goethe University Frankfurt and the Leibniz-Centre General Linguistics Berlin has discovered: it is not just the right hemisphere that analyses how we speak — the left hemisphere also plays a role.

    Until now, it has been assumed that the spoken word arises in left side of the brain and is analysed by the right side. According to accepted doctrine, this means that when we learn to speak English and for example practice the sound equivalent to “th,” the left side of the brain controls the motor function of the articulators like the tongue, while the right side analyses whether the produced sound actually sounds as we intended.

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    Sign Language In The Brain

    Each Part of the Brain Controls what? (with pictures)

    Neuroscientific research has provided a scientific understanding of how sign language is processed in the brain. There are over 135 discrete sign languages around the world- making use of different accents formed by separate areas of a country.

    By resorting to lesion analyses and neuroimaging, neuroscientists have discovered that whether it be spoken or sign language, human brains process language in general, in a similar manner regarding which area of the brain is being used. Lesion analyses are used to examine the consequences of damage to specific brain regions involved in language while neuroimaging explore regions that are engaged in the processing of language.

    Previous hypotheses have been made that damage to Broca’s area or Wernickeâs area does not affect sign language being perceived however, it is not the case. Studies have shown that damage to these areas are similar in results in spoken language where sign errors are present and/or repeated. In both types of languages, they are affected by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain rather than the right -usually dealing with the arts.

    There are obvious patterns for utilizing and processing language. In sign language, Brocaâs area is activated while processing sign language employs Wernickeâs area similar to that of spoken language

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    How The Brain Works

    The brain is our motherboard, storage, operating system, and more. The nuances of its functions canât be summarized in a black-and-white dichotomy, which is how the left-and-right-brain idea came around.

    The brain is divided into symmetrical left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere is in charge of the opposite side of the body, so your right brain controls your left hand. The right hemisphere also takes in sensory input from your left side and vice versa.

    The brain is segmented into regions called lobes. Your lobes isolate your brainâs functions to specific areas.

    • The frontal lobe controls your body movement, personality, problem-solving, concentration, planning, emotional reactions, sense of smell, the meaning of words, and general speech.
    • Your parietal lobe controls your sense of touch and pressure, sense of taste, and bodily awareness.
    • The temporal lobe governs your sense of hearing, ability to recognize others, emotions, and long-term memory.
    • The occipital lobe controls the important sense of sight.
    • The cerebellum governs fine motor control, balance, and coordination.
    • The limbic lobe controls emotions.

    There Are Differences Between The Hemispheres Though Right

    Yes.

    You might not have a more dominant half, but your brain really is split into two hemispheres, left and right.

    And the left and right hemispheres are not the same. They are highly similar and redundant, though. Most processes that you’d find on the left side also take place on the right, and vice-versa.

    The book “Disorders of the Nervous System: A Primer” by Dartmouth neurologists Dr. Alexander Reeves and Dr. Rand Swenson, quotes Dr. Harold Wolff one of the great brain scientists of the 20th century as saying that both sides of the brain have “the capacity to express appropriate feelings, appetites and drives the capacity learning, memory, logic, etc. the capacity to maintain appropriate thresholds and tolerance for frustration and failure, and to recover promptly from their effects the capacity to maintain effective and well-modulated defense reactions .”

    That’s some dense text, but the point is simple: Just about everything about your brain that makes you human exists on both sides of the organ.

    Need proof? If you remove a hemisphere from the brain of a 3-month-old baby a surgery that doctors sometimes perform in cases of severe epilepsy and other disorders, according to the Cleveland Clinic that baby can still grow up with normal memories and a normal personality. Surgeons pulled off the surgery, known as a hemispherectomy, “hundreds of times” in the last century, according to Scientific American.

    So, what’s the difference between the two hemispheres?

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    What Are The Main Cognitive Functions

    Often times when we talk about superior cognitive functions, were referring to the cognitive skills that we use in order to understand and interact with the world. Although sometimes we study them as separate ideas, we have to remember that cognitive functions are always interrelated and that sometimes they overlap. Well take a look at the main brain functions:

    ATTENTION: Attention is a complex mental process that cannot be reduced to one simple definition, one concrete anatomical structure, and that cannot be assessed by one single test as it encompasses diverse processes. To simplify, attention is the cognitive or brain function that we use to select between stimuli that reach our brain simultaneously, both external and internal , that are useful for carrying-out a mental or motor activity. In reality, it is a whole set of processes that vary in complexity and allow us to carry-out the rest of our cognitive functions well. According to Sohlberg and Mateer , attention can be broken into different types depending on its complexity.

    FOCUSED ATTENTION: Being alert. The ability to respond to a stimulus.

    SUSTAINED ATTENTION: The ability to hold attention during a period of at least 3 minutes. It is was we more commonly call concentration. When we read a book we are concentrating.

    1-TEMPORAL CRITERION:

    2- AREAS THAT MEMORY OPERATES ON:

    References memories that may be consciously evoked.

    1- Goal setting:

    Cranium And Brain Stem

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    The brain is completely surrounded by a hard, protective, rounded shell of bone, known as the skull or cranium. The important thing to remember about the skull is that underneath the front, there are a number of bony ridges. When the soft tissue of the brain is shaken around, these ridges have the unfortunate effect of lacerating and damaging the underside of the front of the brain.

    On the floor of the skull is a hole where the lower part of the brain or brain stem is connected to the spinal cord, and from there to the whole of the nervous system and the rest of the body. The brain stem is rather like a thick telecommunications cable, with countless nerve fibres, like wires, carrying messages backwards and forwards. It is also known to control bodily functions such as wakefulness, consciousness, tiredness, heartbeat and blood pressure. Damage to this area is thought to cause concussion and loss of consciousness.

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    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

    General Inability To Speak And Understand Language

    Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.

    People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .

    PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.

    Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.

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    Disorders Of Speech & Language

    Aphasia is the term used to describe an acquired loss of language that causes problems with any or all of the following: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Some people with aphasia have trouble using words and sentences . Some have problems understanding others . Others with aphasia struggle with both using words and understanding . Aphasia can cause problems with spoken language and written language . Typically, reading and writing are more impaired than talking or understanding. The severity of the aphasia depends on the amount and location of the damage to the brain.

    Speech Recognition From Brain Activity

    Pin on Brain anatomy and function

    Speech is produced in the human cerebral cortex. Brain waves associated with speech processes can be directly recorded with electrodes located on the surface of the cortex. It has now been shown for the first time that it is possible to reconstruct basic units, words, and complete sentences of continuous speech from these brain waves and to generate the corresponding text. Researchers at KIT and Wadsworth Center, USA present their Brain-to-Text system in the scientific journal Frontiers in Neuroscience .

    It has long been speculated whether humans may communicate with machines via part of the brain activity alone, says Tanja Schultz, who conducted the present study with her team at the Cognitive Systems Lab of KIT. As a major step in this direction, our recent results indicate that both single units in terms of speech sounds, as well as continuously spoken sentences, can be recognized from brain activity.

    These results were obtained by an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers of informatics, neuroscience, and medicine. In Karlsruhe, the methods for signal processing and automatic speech recognition have been developed and applied. In addition to the decoding of speech from brain activity, our models allow for a detailed analysis of the areas of the brain involved in speech processes and their interaction, outline Christian Herff und Dominic Heger, who developed the Brain-to-Text system within their doctoral studies.

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    Why The Left Hemisphere Of The Brain Understands Language Better Than The Right

    Date:
    Ruhr-University Bochum
    Summary:
    Nerve cells in the brain region planum temporale have more synapses in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere — which is vital for rapid processing of auditory speech, according to new research. There has already been ample evidence of left hemisphere language dominance however, the underlying processes on the neuroanatomical level had not yet been fully understood.

    Nerve cells in the brain region planum temporale have more synapses in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere — which is vital for rapid processing of auditory speech, according to the report published by researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Technische Universität Dresden in the journal Science Advances. There has already been ample evidence of left hemisphere language dominance however, the underlying processes on the neuroanatomical level had not yet been fully understood.

    A new form of magnetic resonance imaging in combination with electroencephalography measurements has made it possible to bundle insights into the microstructure of planum temporale with the speed of auditory speech processing. The team headed by Dr Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Christoph Fraenz, Prof Dr Dr h. c. Onur Güntürkün and Dr Erhan Genç outlines their findings in an article published in the scientific journal Science Advances from July 11, 2018.

    Left hemisphere language dominance

    New measurement method facilitates hitherto impossible insights

    Aphasia: Classification Of Disorders

    One such communication disorder is Aphasia. Aphasia is a disturbance happening in comprehension or expression of language.

    Aphasia is a disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain that are important for language. For several people, these areas are on the left side of the brain. The left brain is where the two regions of the brain responsible for language are found: Wernickes area and Brocas area. Aphasia is usually categorized as expressive or receptive, depending on how difficult it is to understand or express language. But the majority with aphasia have some trouble with their speaking and will have a mixture of problems with writing, reading, and perhaps listening.

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    What Does The Temporal Lobe Control

    The temporal lobe is not a standalone organ. It directly interacts with other regions of the brain, and sends and receives signals to and from the spinal cord, allowing it to communicate with the entire body. Thus damage to the temporal lobe can affect functioning in far-flung organs, and damage to organs completely unrelated to the temporal lobe may impede its ability to receive, process, and respond to various cues.

    Because the temporal lobe houses much of the limbic system, the temporal lobe is both heavily influenced by and influences a number of automatic bodily functions, including heart rate, arousal, anxiety, and similar states. Over time, disruptions in these states can affect other bodily functions. For example, early childhood trauma predisposes some people to a chronic state of anxiety that keeps them in a state of fight-or-flight. This floods the body with hormones such as cortisol, and can lead to chronic inflammation, and even health problems such as infertility.

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    Internal Areas Of The Brain

    What part of the brain controls speech?

    Hidden in the middle of this walnut-like cerebral cortex are a number of small white nerve centres, collectively known as the diencephalon.

    In this area lies the small pea-sized hypothalamus, which controls appetite regulation, sexual arousal, thirst and temperature control, and some aspects of memory.

    Close to this area is another important set of nuclei, referred to as the limbic system. Damage to this area can disrupt emotional regulation, leaving the individual with dramatic and sudden mood swings.

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    How Do We Know All This

    Before advanced medical imaging, most of our knowledge came from observing unfortunate patients with injuries to particular brain parts. One could relate the approximate region of damage to their specific symptoms. Brocas and Wernickes observations are well-known examples.

    Other knowledge was inferred from brain-stimulation studies. Weak electrical stimulation of the brain while a patient is awake is sometimes performed in patients undergoing surgery to remove a lesion such as a tumour. The stimulation causes that part of the brain to stop working for a few seconds, which can enable the surgeon to identify areas of critically important function to avoid damaging during surgery.

    In the mid-20th century, this helped neurosurgeons discover more about the localisation of language function in the brain. It was clearly demonstrated that while most people have language originating on the left side of their brain, some could have language originating on the right.

    Towards the later part of the 20th century, if a surgeon needed to find out which side of your brain was responsible for language so he didnt do any damage he would put to sleep one side of your brain with an anaesthetic. The doctor would then ask you a series of questions, determining your language side from your ability or inability to answer them. This invasive test is known as the Wada test, named after Juhn Wada, who first described it just after the second world war.

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