Can’t Remember A Name Blame The Left Side Of Your Brain
Scientists have discovered that the left side of the brain controls the verbal expression of our long-term ‘semantic’ memory which contains facts, meanings, concepts and knowledge.
The study led by University of Manchester psychologists is the first of its kind to assess the similarities and differences in how the left and right sides of the brain process semantic memory.
The research, led by Dr. Grace Rice and Professor Matthew Lambon Ralph from The University of Manchester, was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Medical Research Council.
The team working with neuropsychologists at Salford Royal and The Walton Centre for neurology in Liverpool worked with 41 patients who had part of their brains removed to treat their long-standing epilepsy.
The patients who now experience fewer seizures and are able to go back to work and learn to drive as a result of the surgeryhad their verbal and visual semantic memory tested.
The surgery removes part of the brain that causes the seizures, but also removes tissue which researchers believe is involved in storing semantic memories. Twenty of the patients had surgery to remove part of the brain, called the anterior temporal lobe, on the right side, and 21 had surgery to remove the left anterior temporal lobe.
And to test their visual memory, the patients were asked to identify emotions of people in photographs and say if a face was familiar to them.
How Memories Are Accessed
A memory of the coffee you had with a friend last week, for example, could include the taste and smell of the coffee, the cafés interior design, the sound of an ambulances siren as it drove past, and the topics of conversation you discussed. These components of your experience would have activated various parts of your neocortex. But the episode itself would initially be stored in the hippocampus. Over time this memory is consolidated, with its long-term storage thought to be distributed in different parts of the neocortex.
According to one popular theory, the hippocampus is critical, serving as a memory index. To use an analogy: when functioning well, memory is like a digital database or an old-school-style office filing cabinet: something triggers a search of the database, and we retrieve and recall the memory.
This idea of memory indexing and recollection is still only a theory.
What’s The Difference Between The Right Brain And Left Brain
You may have heard people describe themselves as “right-brained” or “left-brained,” but what does that mean?
Are you right-brained or left-brained?
It’s a popular question, hovering at the edges of sound neuroscience. The left brain is supposed to be more creative and artistic, the right brain more organized and logical. Indeed, Google “right-brain dominance” or “left-brain dominance,” and you’ll find endless blog posts on the subject. You’ll also find quizzes that purport to tell readers which sort of person they are.
But the real science says there’s no such thing as right- or left-brain dominance.
In a sweeping two-year study, published in 2013 in the journal PLOS One, researchers looked at the brains of more than 1,000 people and found no evidence for significant differences in brain-side dominance among individuals.
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A Molecular Account Of Long
Eric Kandel is best known for his work on the physical basis of learning and memory in the marine snail Aplysia. This animal, simple as its nervous system is , nevertheless provides an excellent model for the study of learning and memory, through its “gill withdrawal” reflex. When Aplysia perceives something touching its skin, it quickly withdraws both the siphon and the gill, much as a person withdraws a hand from a hot stove without thinking about it. Although this withdrawal is a reflex, it is not completely hard-wired but can be modified by various forms of learning. One such form is sensitization, in which the animal becomes aware of a threatening factor in the environment and to protect itself learns to augment its reflex. The augmented version of the withdrawal reflex can also be maintained in short-term or long-term memory, depending on whether researchers administer the noxious stimulus only once or twice, or many times within a short period. The two forms of memory can be distinguished not only by their durationthe difference between minutes and daysbut also at a molecular level, because it is possible to treat the snail with a chemical compound that interferes with long-term memory but leaves short-term memory unimpaired.
Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
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Is Hemispheric Dominance Different Between People
Hemispheric dominance varies from one person to another. The hemisphere of the brain used in every activity is not always the same for every person. Some experts believed that the activities of the brain are influenced by the persons right-handedness or left-handedness.
Understanding which part of the brain is dominant in a person is essential in determining which learning style is more effective. Left hemisphere dominant people are visual learners. On the other hand, right-hemisphere dominant people are auditory learners.
What Research Says About Brain Functions And Dominance
Several studies have debunked the old brain theory and straightened out information regarding hemispheric differences. Recent research has shown that the human brain has a symmetrical structure for a reason everyone uses both brain regions equally unless one side has been damaged due to a brain injury.
After studying the brains of 1,000 people using an MRI, a 2013 scientific article published by PLOS One concluded that there’s no such thing as a dominant brain because a person uses both sides of their brain, depending on the task that needs to be completed.
How the left hemisphere of the brain emerged as more dominant than the right stemmed from the split-brain study of neuropsychologist Roger W. Sperry in the 1960s, which won him the Nobel Prize. According to PLOS Biology, the study involved patients who had undergone split-brain surgery, wherein the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres was removed to address a type of severe epilepsy. After testing each hemisphere, the language centres were revealed in the left and emotional and nonverbal functions in the right.
However, Sperry’s findings were exaggerated by many ill-founded publications that immortalised the popular belief that the right hemisphere is responsible for creativity in the world of art, business and education.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Vision
The brain consists of four main segments called lobes. The frontal lobe up front, the parietal lobe on top, the temporal lobe on bottom and the occipital lobe pulling up the rear. All of our senses, thoughts and actions start in one of these lobes.
Most visual functions are controlled in the occipital lobe, a small section of the brain near the back of the skull. But processing eyesight is no simple task, so other parts of the brain have to pitch in too.
Injury In The Right Hemisphere Of The Brain
The right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body. Any injuries on the right side of the brain could result in left-sided weakness. The following problems could arise:
- The patient finds it challenging to focus on concentrate on a task.
- The left side of the body cant attend to things.
- Difficulty in processing the information on the left visual field.
- The patient cant recall the previously learned information as well as difficulty in learning new information.
- The person fails to identify problems or even generate solutions.
- The persons social communication skills are affected such as interpreting abstract language, understanding jokes, making inferences, and understanding non-verbal cues.
- Difficulty in recalling significant events such as the time, date, and place.
- Difficulty in organizing things such as arranging information and planning.
A detailed comparison between the right brain hemisphere and the left brain hemisphere is shown in the table below.
The brains two lateral halves also known as left hemisphere and right hemisphere have neurons/receptors which are used for various bodily functions. The left hemisphere of the brain is in-charge of the cognitive functions such as speech and language.
The right hemisphere of the brain is more on creativity and face recognition. Although the functions of the brain is divided based on its hemisphere, even a particular functions to be executed, it would still need the entire brain.
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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More
Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.
Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!
Which Parts Of The Brain Affect Memory
Medically Reviewed By: Aaron Horn
The brain is extremely complex, and researchers are constantly learning more about how it functions. More and more studies are done every year trying to discover more information about how the brain works, particularly about memory. A lot is known, but still, more is left to be discovered.
When faced with memory disorders or memory loss, it can be helpful to have an understanding of how the brain manipulates memory. Especially in cases of head injury, knowing which parts of the brain affect memory can help you understand what to expect in the future. Unfortunately, the brain cells responsible for memory cannot be replaced, which means that most memory loss is permanent.
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How Does Loss Of Hearing Affect The Brain
Brain scans show us that hearing loss may contribute to a faster rate of atrophy in the brain, Lin says. Hearing loss also contributes to social isolation. You may not want to be with people as much, and when you are you may not engage in conversation as much. These factors may contribute to dementia.
Assembling A Brain In The Laboratory
Hebbian synapses have also been demonstrated in another kind of laboratory, where computer scientists and engineers have built them into a computer chip. The device is a simple one, with only 16 synapses, but it performs Hebbian learning quite efficiently, at the rate of a million times per second. Newer chips have already been developed to represent more realistic neurons, with many thousands of synapses and technology to represent the connections between such neurons will make the assembly of something more nearly resembling a working brain a little easier to envision. Such a device will have to combine analog signals, like those propagated within neurons, and digital signals, the off or on impulses transmitted from one neuron to another. It will not be simply a larger, or even an unbelievably faster, version of today’s familiar computer.
The field of artificial perception already boasts chips developed at the California Institute of Technology that are capable of much of the sensory processing performed just outside the brain by the retina, for example, and by the cochlea, the spiral passage of the inner ear whose hair cells respond to vibrations by sending impulses to the auditory nerve. Now in development as well are chips to simulate some of the functions of the visual cortex others, with some of the memory-storing capacity of the hippocampus, are being scaled up, closer to the dimensions of a living system.
Which Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Memory And Intelligence
So, now you may be wondering, what part of the brain controls memory?
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The answer to this question may be a bit more complex than you think. The truth is, there is no one memory part of the brain. In fact, different memories are stored in different places all over the brain
What Part Of The Brain Controls Long Term Memory
This is involved in converting our perceptions into long-term memories, nearly all of the signals from the brain to the body and vice-versa cross over on their way to and from the brain, When you press your cars accelerator with your right foot, It also triggers sexual desire and response, near the divide between the left and right hemispheres) in particular is thought to be involved in declarative and episodic memory.your left hand side of your brain control the right part of your body, its the left side of your brain that sends the message allowing you to do it.Parts of the Brain Involved with MemoryThe main parts of the brain involved with memory are the amygdala, 2, The temporal lobe, the left half of your brain involves logic, It is here that your Brian stores those things that you remember, The CerebellumThe left side of the brain controls the movements of the right side of the body, vice versa, the right half involves art
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What Are The Three Processes Of Memory
Psychologists distinguish between three necessary stages in the learning and memory process: encoding, storage, and retrieval . Encoding is defined as the initial learning of information storage refers to maintaining information over time retrieval is the ability to access information when you need it.
How Are Memories Formed
The brain simmers with activity. Different groups of neurons , responsible for different thoughts or perceptions, drift in and out of action.
Memory is the reactivation of a specific group of neurons, formed from persistent changes in the strength of connections between neurons. But what allows a specific combination of neurons to be reactivated over any other combination of neurons?
The answer is synaptic plasticity. This term describes the persistent changes in the strength of connections called synapses between brain cells. These connections can be made stronger or weaker depending on when and how often they have been activated in the past. Active connections tend to get stronger, whereas those that arent used get weaker and can eventually disappear entirely.
A connection between two neurons becomes stronger when neuron A consistently activates neuron B, making it fire an action potential , and the connection gets weaker if neuron A consistently fails to make neuron B fire a spike. Lasting increases and decreases in synaptic strength are called long-term potentiation and long-term depression .
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Where Is Short Term Memory In Brain
ShortTerm Memory The hippocampus receives input from different parts of the cortex and sends output to various areas of the brain. The hippocampus may be involved in changing neural connections for at least three months after information is initially processed.
Which side of the brain affects memory?
The medial temporal lobe in particular is thought to be involved in declarative and episodic memory.
What Are Poor Social Skills
Two variables loneliness and stress appear to be the glue that bind poor social skills to health. People with poor social skills have high levels of stress and loneliness in their lives. Social skills refer to the communication skills that allow people to interact effectively and appropriately with others.
Right Brain Hemisphere Vs Left Brain Hemisphere
The left brain hemisphere is needed for rational thinking and logical skills such as mathematics and language. On the other hand, the right side of the brain is responsible for creative activities like arts and connecting to others in an emotional way. So, a person who is left brain dominant is logical while the right brain dominant is more emotional.
Pituitary Gland Controls Growth
The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.
This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.
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What Are The Important Social Skills
Displaying good manners, communicating effectively with others, being considerate of the feelings of others and expressing personal needs are all important components of solid social skills. Helping children to develop these important skills requires a different set of strategies in each stage of development.