What Part Of Your Brain Controls Swallowing
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Also question is, what side of the brain affects swallowing?
The medulla oblongata controls breathing, blood pressure, heart rhythms and swallowing.
Subsequently, question is, does the cerebellum control swallowing? Also, it appears that the cerebellum contributes to specific physiological functions within the entire act of swallowing, but this is not clearly understood. There is increasing evidence to suggest successful use of transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum to improve neuromotor control of swallowing.
Similarly, what part of the brain causes dysphagia?
Any neurologic or muscular damage along the deglutitive axes can cause dysphagia. Thus, central causes of dysphagia in stroke patients include damage to the cortex or brain stem, and peripheral causes include damage to the nerves or muscles involved in swallowing.
How is swallowing controlled?
Swallowing is a highly regulated activity. Normally, it is activated by peripheral receptors located on structures in the posterior part of the oral cavity and oropharynx that are stimulated as the food bolus is pushed into the oropharynx. Swallowing can be also activated by stimulation of certain cortical neurons.
Communicating With Stroke Survivors Who Have Aphasia
While it may be difficult to communicate, people with aphasia have several options when interacting with others.
Some of these options include:
- Using pictures to make conversations easier
- Having a conversation in a quiet, non-distracting area
- Drawing or writing
- Showing people what works best
- Connecting with people by email or blog
- Showing a card that explains your condition to others
Conversely, for those people without aphasia, communicating with stroke survivors who have aphasia can be made easier with some of the following methods:
- Using pictures or props to make conversation
- Drawing or writing
- Speaking simply and slowly
Language And The Dominant Side Of The Brain
Shereen Lehman, MS, is a healthcare journalist and fact checker. She has co-authored two books for the popular Dummies Series .
The brain has two hemispheres that are two identical-appearing halves. The functions of the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere virtually mirror each other, with the right side of the brain controlling the left half of the body’s movement, sensation, vision, and hearing, while the left side controls the right half of these functions.
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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.
There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.
A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .
Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
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The Brain Is Divided Into Two Hemispheres And Four Lobes Each Of Which Specializes In A Different Function
- Outline the structure and function of the lobes and hemispheres of the brain
- The left hemisphere is dominant with regard to language and logical processing, while the right hemisphere handles spatial perception.
- The brain is separated into the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes.
- The frontal lobe is associated with executive functions and motor performance.
- The temporal lobe is associated with the retention of short- and and long-term memories. It processes sensory input, including auditory information, language comprehension, and naming.
- The occipital lobe is the visual-processing center of the brain.
- The parietal lobe is associated with sensory skills.
- corpus callosumA wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.
- lateralizationLocalization of a function, such as speech, to the right or left side of the brain.
- visuospatialOf or pertaining to the visual perception of spatial relationships.
Disorders Of Speech & Language
Aphasia is the term used to describe an acquired loss of language that causes problems with any or all of the following: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Some people with aphasia have trouble using words and sentences . Some have problems understanding others . Others with aphasia struggle with both using words and understanding . Aphasia can cause problems with spoken language and written language . Typically, reading and writing are more impaired than talking or understanding. The severity of the aphasia depends on the amount and location of the damage to the brain.
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What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.
Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
The Left Brain Right Brain Myth
While there is a left brain and a right brain, their use in popular culture has created a widespread misunderstanding. Itâs common to believe that the left brain is for logical thinking and the right brain is for creativity. People categorize themselves as being left or right brain-oriented depending on their interests and skills.
Scientists have been able to look closer at the brain and see that itâs more complicated than âleft = logical.â It wasnât until the 1960s when split-brain surgeries, a treatment of epilepsy, gave scientists the chance to investigate each half of the brain separately.
Scientists deduced that the left brain was better at language and rhythm, while the right brain was better at emotions and melody. However, this doesnât mean that the two halves are entirely separate.
The myth of the totally opposite hemispheres persists for a variety of reasons.
- It satisfies the need for order.
- Like astrological signs, it gives people a defined personality type.
- People naturally see creativity and logic as opposites.
- People find the idea of having untapped creative power appealing.
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Potential Complications Of Swallowing Problems
The act of chewing changes the food into a softer and more slippery food bolus that is suitable and safe for swallowing. As the swallowing reflex advances through its different phases, the nerves involved in swallowing trigger the reflexive closing of the larynx and the epiglottis. This closing off of the “windpipe” prevents food and liquid particles from entering the lungs.
If the windpipe does not properly close off, or if swallowing is not well coordinated, problems such as choking can occur. Another complication of swallowing problems, aspiration pneumonia, can happen if food enters the lungs. This may happen as a result of a stroke or other neurological disorders. Lastly, malnutrition and dehydration may occur as a result of swallowing difficulties.
How Swallowing Is Affected By Stroke
As you can see, there are multiple areas of the central nervous system which, if affected by a stroke or another neurological condition like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or dementia, could disrupt the ability to swallow.
Even more so, the medulla is a relatively small area of the brainstem that contains multiple structures that are critical in carrying out the swallowing reflexso strokes that involve the medulla are especially likely to cause swallowing problems. In fact, people with medullary strokes may require temporary or permanent feeding tube placement to prevent choking and aspiration pneumonia.
Guidelines published in 2019 by the American Heart Association for treatment of patients with stroke recommend early screening for dysphagia to prevent potential aspiration and avoid related illness. The AHA also recommends feeding tubes for patients with dysphagia for at least the few days immediately following a stroke as doctors continue to check for problems with swallowing.
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Different Types Of Aphasia
This is the most severe form of aphasia and is applied to patients who can produce a few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language
Injury encompasses both Wernickes and Brocas areas, global aphasia can occur. In this case, all components of speech and language are affected. Patients can say a few phrases at most and understand only a few words and phrases. They commonly cant lift out commands or title objects. They cant read or write or repeat words said to them.
Brocas aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such as the left brain inferior frontal gyrus, among others.
Damage to a discrete part of the brain within the left frontal lobe of the language-dominant hemisphere has been shown to significantly affect the utilization of spontaneous speech and motor speech control. Words could also be uttered very slowly and poorly articulated.
This type of aphasia usually has profound language comprehension deficits, even for single words or simple sentences. This can be because in Wernickes aphasia individuals have damage in brain areas that are important for processing the meaning of words and speech. Such damage includes left posterior temporal regions of the brain, which are a part of whats known as Wernickes area, hence the name of the aphasia.
The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act
Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .
Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!
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What Is The Main Function Of The Left Brain
The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts.
The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.
You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.
The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech
Your brain is responsible for nearly all functions of your body and for interpreting sensory information from the world around you.
Your brain has many parts but speech is primarily controlled by the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.
The cerebrum can be divided into two parts, called hemispheres, which are joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
Your speech is typically governed by the left side of your cerebrum. In about a third of people who are left-handed, however, speech may actually be controlled by the right side.
Be Good To Your Brain
So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.
- Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
- Get a lot of playtime .
- Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
- Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
- Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!
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Where Is The Speech Center Of The Brain
The entire cerebral cortex contains two hemispheres. They are, for the most part, symmetrical in function. The cerebellum also contains two hemispheres and is located at the back of the brain, the part of the brain responsible for our sense of balance.
For a majority of the population, the speech center of the brain is located in the left hemisphere .
But its important to remember that all functionality of the brain is a mutual effort of all four lobes of the brain. Without the proper functioning of all four lobes, we would have difficulty with basic motor function, sight, speech, and higher thinking processes handled by the frontal lobe.
How The Brain Controls Our Speech
- Goethe University Frankfurt
- Speaking requires both sides of the brain. Each hemisphere takes over a part of the complex task of forming sounds, modulating the voice and monitoring what has been said. However, the distribution of tasks is different than has been thought up to now, as an interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists and phoneticians has discovered.
Speaking requires both sides of the brain. Each hemisphere takes over a part of the complex task of forming sounds, modulating the voice and monitoring what has been said. However, the distribution of tasks is different than has been thought up to now, as an interdisciplinary team of neuroscientists and phoneticians at Goethe University Frankfurt and the Leibniz-Centre General Linguistics Berlin has discovered: it is not just the right hemisphere that analyses how we speak — the left hemisphere also plays a role.
Until now, it has been assumed that the spoken word arises in left side of the brain and is analysed by the right side. According to accepted doctrine, this means that when we learn to speak English and for example practice the sound equivalent to “th,” the left side of the brain controls the motor function of the articulators like the tongue, while the right side analyses whether the produced sound actually sounds as we intended.
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Communication Strategies: Some Dos And Donts
Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
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