Optic Nerve Responsible For Vision
When light reaches the retina in the eye and an image is developed, it moves to the remainder of the brain through the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve, and is the connection between the brain and eyes. Damage to the optic nerve avoids any info from being sent from the eyes to the remainder of the brain. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research specifies that info from the left eye goes to the right hemisphere and vice versa; this is because the optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm, causing the optic nerve from each eye to send its details to the opposite side of the brain.
What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Learning
To be fair, there isnt really a single part of the brain that affects learning. There are some parts of the brain, especially the hippocampus, that are crossroads for most information, but we still cant say that there is one region that does all the work.
As a matter of fact, all parts of our brains work together in the processes of learning and memory and all of the regions work together to utilize the task.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Peripheral Vision
Lets start with what peripheral vision is Its that part of your vision thats off to the edge of your central gaze. It could be to the left, right, up, or down relative to your central vision.
Our ability to see peripheral vision lies in the fovea, which is at the center of the macula inside the eye. Within the central fovea are rods and cones, with rods making up most of the perifoveal . Rods are more tuned to movement, shapes, and forms rather than fine detail.
This means that when you see something off to the side of your field of vision, you dont see it as well as if it were right in front of you. It correlates with the composition of the foveathe center of the fovea contains rods and cones, which means your central vision is more detailed. On the other hand, the peripheral fovea is primarily rods, so your peripheral vision is limited by the function of rods which do not convey sharp detail.
The rods impulses in the perifovea travel along the optic nerve to the anterior visual cortex in the occipital lobe for processing.
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What Does The Occipital Lobe Do
Studying the brain is a difficult task, particularly since some areas compensate for others when the brain suffers damage. The brain’s sensitive, dense, and complex nature means that researchers are constantly uncovering new structures within the brain, and new functions for each brain lobe. The occipital lobe is no exception to this rule.
Researchers once thought that the occipital lobe only controlled visual functions. But in recent years, they discovered that some portions of this lobe receive inputs from other brain regions. Specifically, a brain region called the dorsomedial stream receives input both from regions of the brain related to vision, and to areas that are not linked to visual processing. This suggests either that the occipital lobe may perform additional functions, or that researchers have not identified all regions of the brain associated with visual processing.
Although we know that the occipital lobe is dedicated to vision, this process is highly complex, and includes a number of separate functions. Those include:
What Does The Left Frontal Lobe Control
The left side of the brain controls movement related to language, whereas the right side is responsible for nonverbal tasks. Collectively, the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that is home to our emotional regulation centers and controls our personality, for example.
The frontal lobes in general have a huge influence on many aspects of our intellect and behavior, evidenced by the diversity of symptoms that can occur when the area is damaged. The anatomy of the brain is well- defined, but scientists are still learning about its exact functions. Although the left side is more involved in language-based tasks for most people, this does not always have to be the case. Rarely, some young children require the removal of half their brain as a result of a medical condition. Despite this loss, the remaining half of the brain is sometimes able to pick up the slack and do everything the other half did before it was removed.
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Neural Control Of Saccadic Eye Movements
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement , and controlling the direction of the movement . The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in , for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens . With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position.
Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental setup is shown on the right. In this example, an abducens lower motor neuron fires a burst of activity that precedes and extends throughout the movement
Simplified diagram of synaptic circuitry responsible for horizontal movements of the eyes to the right. Activation of local circuit neurons in the right horizontal gaze center leads to increased activity of lower motor neurons
Sensory Motor Integration in the Superior Colliculus.
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The Cerebrum And Cerebral Cortex
The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain. It is covered in a thick layer of gray tissue called the cerebral cortex. Interior to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex is the white matter portion of the cerebrum. The white color comes from the layer of insulation called myelin that is on the neurons in this part of the brain.
The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres that are joined by a band of nerves which allow communication between the two halves. The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.
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Hemiplegia Or Hemiparesis: Weakness Or Paralysis On One Side Of The Body
Hemiplegia refers to paralysis on the affected side of the body, whereas hemiparesis is defined as weakness on the affected side of the body.
After a stroke on the right side of the brain, functional impairments manifest on the left side of the body. Right-sided stroke survivors may struggle with moving their left leg, arm, or hand.
The size of the stroke may be correlated to the severity of the impairments. For instance, a massive stroke in the right hemisphere might lead to paralysis on the left side of the body instead of hemiparesis .
What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum.;The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.
Brainstem.;The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum.;The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
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How Can I Develop My Right Brain
5 ways to activate the right side of your brain
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Prosopagnosia: Difficulty Recognizing Faces
After a right hemisphere stroke, some patients may have difficulty recognizing faces a condition known as prosopagnosia.
Many suspect that the inability to recognize faces is linked to damage to the fusiform gyrus , which resides in the right hemisphere of the brain.
Damage in this region may cause right-sided survivors difficulty in recognizing family members faces, which can be distressing to loved ones.
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Brain Areas And Their Functions
The brain is divided into areas which are each responsible for different areas of functioning.
The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain.
These areas are: Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Frontal lobe.Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus,Thalamus,Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Amygdala, Hippocampas and the Mid- brain.
The image below indicates where the areas are.
Occipital lobe:; This is found in the back of the brain.; The area is involved with the brains ability to recognise objects. It is responsible for our vision.
Temporal lobe: The temporal lobes are found on either side of the brain and just above the ears. The temporal lobes are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.
Parietal lobe: The parietal lobes are found behind the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain. They are connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. They also have language functions.
Frontal lobe:It is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, and problem solving, and planning
The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
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How Do I Prepare For An Mri
EAT/DRINK: You may eat, drink and take medications as usual for most MRI exams. There are some specialty MRI exams that require certain restrictions. You will be provided detailed preparations instructions by Johns Hopkins Medical Imaging when you schedule your exam.
CLOTHING: You must completely change into a patient gown and lock up all personalbelongings. A locker will be provided for you to use. Please remove allpiercings and leave all jewelry and valuables at home.
WHAT TO EXPECT: Imaging takes place inside of a large tube-like structure, open on bothends. You must lie perfectly still for quality images. Due to the loudnoise of the MRI machine, earplugs are required and will be provided.
ALLERGY: If you have had an allergic reaction to contrast that required medicaltreatment, contact your ordering physician to obtain the recommendedprescription. You will likely take this by mouth 24, 12 and two hours priorto examination.
ANTI-ANXIETY MEDICATION: If you require anti-anxiety medication due to claustrophobia, contactyour ordering physician for a prescription. Please note that you will needsome else to drive you home.
STRONG MAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT: If you have metal within your body that was not disclosed prior to yourappointment, your study may be delayed, rescheduled or cancelled upon yourarrival until further information can be obtained.
Based on your medical condition, your health care provider may requireother specific preparation.
S Of The Brain Involved In Speech
In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into language processing in the brain. Its now generally accepted that the control of speech is part of a complex network in the brain.
The formation of speech requires many different processes, from putting thoughts into words, forming a comprehensible sentence, and then actually making the mouth move to make the correct sounds.
There are several areas of the brain known to play a role in speech:
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Which Part Of The Brian Is Affected During Memory Loss
We already mentioned that there is not one single part of the brain that is responsible for learning or memory, so there is not a single region responsible for memory loss either.
The frontal and temporal lobes, the limbic system, and parts of the brain stem that control alertness are all involved in memory and learning. So, if any of these parts get damaged, a person can suffer memory loss or amnesia.
A Stroke On The Left Side Of The Brain
A stroke affecting the right side of the body is usually the result of problems in the left side of the brain . For more details on the functions of the left and right side of the brain, see What is a stroke?.The most familiar type of stroke is when someone suddenly develops a weakness of the right side of their face, arm and leg. This problem is easy to spot, and the medical term is a hemiparesis or a hemiplegia . The weakness can vary from very mild to complete paralysis. It most often affects the face, arm and leg together, but some small strokes just affect the face alone or just the arm or the leg. Less commonly, strokes can cause just a loss of feeling in the face, arm or leg, or a mixture of a loss of feeling and weakness.
In right-handed people, the left side of the brain also controls language, an ability to see the world on the right, and an ability to recognise and coordinate things on the right. Therefore, larger strokes affecting the left side of the brain can cause a more severe combination of right-sided weakness, an inability to speak and an inability to see objects to the right. In left-handed people, these functions are usually controlled by the right side of the brain, although this is not an absolute rule.
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Organization Of Sensory Maps
In general, each brain hemisphere receives information from the opposite side of the body. For example, the right primary somatosensory cortex receives information from the left limbs, and the right visual cortex receives information from the left eye. The organization of sensory maps in the cortex reflects that of the corresponding sensing organ, in what is known as a topographic map. Neighboring points in the primary visual cortex, for example, correspond to neighboring points in the retina. This topographic map is called a retinotopic map.
Similarly, there is a tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex and a somatotopic map in the primary sensory cortex. This somatotopic map has commonly been illustrated as a deformed human representation, the somatosensory homunculus, in which the size of different body parts reflects the relative density of their innervation.
A cortical homunculus is a physical representation of the human body located within the brain. This neurological map of the anatomical divisions of the body depicts the portion of the human brain directly associated with the activity of a particular body part. Simply put, it is the view of the body from the brainâs perspective. Areas with lots of sensory innervation, such as the fingertips and the lips, require more cortical area to process finer sensation.
Sensory Homunculus: Cortical Homunculus: A depiction of the human brain areas directly associated with the activity of a particular body part.
Occipital Lobe: Function Location And Structure
The Occipital Lobe helps with visual processing and mapping. It is located under the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobe near the back of the brain.
- Occipital Lobe
The occipital lobe is the seat of most of the brain’s visual cortex, allowing you not only to see and process stimuli from the external world, but also to assign meaning to and remember visual perceptions. Located just under the parietal lobe and above the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe is the brain’s smallest lobe, but its functions are indispensable.
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Left Hemisphere Stroke Recovery
Strokes that occur in the left side of the brain often result in language-related impairments along with physical impairments on the right side of the body.
Patients can benefit from participation in physical therapy and speech therapy to help restore these functions.
Every stroke is different, so every recovery will be different. While these guidelines provide a roadmap to recovery, patients should still read up on the other side effects of stroke that may occur as well.
Get To Know The Parts Of Your Brain
That three-pound, fatty, squishy, and oddly-shaped blob in your head is truly amazing. Its what makes you, you. Its responsible for your personality and how we sense the world. It lets you relive memories over and over again. It gives you the capacity for language, art, and moral judgments. Your movements, day in and day out are your brains responsibility. That quick scratch of the nose to relieve a pesky itch, or standing up from your couch to stretchyou can thank your brain for that.
But understanding this organ isnt so easy. There are many complex areas that are responsible for an array of functions you take for granted every day. Lets take a look at the primary components and their primary responsibilities of the human brain.
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