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What System Is The Brain Part Of

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What Happens Following A Spinal Cord Injury

The Nervous System: Brain Stem and Cerebellum

A common set of biological events take place following spinal cord injury:

  • Cells from the immune system migrate to the injury site, causing additional damage to some neurons and death to others that survived the initial trauma.
  • The death of oligodendrocytes causes axons to lose their myelination, which greatly impairs the conduction of action potential, messages, or renders the remaining connections useless. The neuronal information highway is further disrupted because many axons are severed, cutting off the lines of communication between the brain and muscles and between the body’s sensory systems and the brain.
  • Within several weeks of the initial injury, the area of tissue damage has been cleared away by microglia, and a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by a glial scar is left behind. Molecules that inhibit regrowth of severed axons are now expressed at this site. The cavitation is called a syrinx, which acts as a barrier to the reconnection of the two sides of the damaged spinal cord.
  • The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

    The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

    The Architecture Of The Brain

    The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

    The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .

    When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.

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    What Conditions And Disorders Affect The Nervous System

    Thousands of disorders and conditions can affect your nerves. An injured nerve has trouble sending a message. Sometimes its so damaged that it cant send or receive a message at all. Nerve injury can cause numbness, a pins-and-needles feeling or pain. It may be difficult or impossible for you to move the area thats injured.

    Nerve damage can happen in several ways. Some of the most common causes of nerve damage include:

    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Central Nervous System Diagram

    Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

    The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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    The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata

    Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

    Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.

    The Brain Connects Perceptions To Complex Thought Memory And Emotion

    The nervous system does more than route information and process commands. Why do certain smells immediately raise particular memories? The answer appears to lie in the limbic system. The limbic system forms two paired rings within the brain, consisting of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the cingulate gyrus, and the dentate gyrus, along with other structures and tracts. As with other brain segments, the limbic system is involved in multiple nervous system functions and levels of activity. It helps to process both memory and olfactionour sense of smelland it manages a range of emotions. The aroma rising from a pot on the stove may send your hand reaching for a spoon. It may also call up a dinner from earlier times, and make you happy, regretful, or nostalgic.

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    What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter

    The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.

    Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.

    A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

    Central Nervous System: Crash Course A& P #11

    The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

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    How Does The Brain Work

    The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

    Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

    Brain And Cerebrum Location

    The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary actions, speech, senses, thought, and memory.

    The surface of the cerebral cortex has grooves or infoldings , the largest of which are termed fissures. Some fissures separate lobes.

    The convolutions of the cortex give it a wormy appearance. Each convolution is delimited by two sulci and is also called a gyrus . The cerebrum is divided into two halves, known as the right and left hemispheres. A mass of fibers called the corpus callosum links the hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the right side of the body. Almost every person has one dominant hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, or areas, which are interconnected.

    The cortex, also called gray matter, is the most external layer of the brain and predominantly contains neuronal bodies . The gray matter participates actively in the storage and processing of information. An isolated clump of nerve cell bodies in the gray matter is termed a nucleus . The cells in the gray matter extend their projections, called axons, to other areas of the brain.

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    The Structure Of The Brain

    The developing brain goes through many stages. In the embryos of vertebrates, the predecessor to the brain and spinal cord is the neural tube. As the fetus develops, the grooves and folds in the neural tube deepen, giving rise to different layers of the brain. The human brain is split up into three major layers: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain.

    The embryonic brain: The layers of the embryonic brain. The telencephalon and diencephalon give rise to the forebrain, while the metencephalon and myelencephalon give rise to the hindbrain.

    The Peripheral Nervous System

    Brain and Nervous System Part 2

    In addition to the central nervous system there is also a complex network of nerves that travel to every part of the body. This is called the peripheral nervous system and it carries the signals necessary for the body to survive . Some of the signals carried by the PNS are related to voluntary actions. If you want to type a message to a friend, for instance, you make conscious choices about which letters go in what order and your brain sends the appropriate signals to your fingers to do the work. Other processes, by contrast, are not voluntary. Without your awareness your brain is also sending signals to your organs, your digestive system, and the muscles that are holding you up right now with instructions about what they should be doing. All of this occurs through the pathways of your peripheral nervous system.

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    How Does The Central Nervous System Protect Itself From Injury

    The central nervous system is better protected than any other system or organ in the body. Its main line of defense is the bones of the skull and spinal column, which create a hard physical barrier to injury. A fluid-filled space below the bones, called the syrnix, provides shock absorbance.

    Unfortunately, this protection can be a double-edged sword. When an injury to the central nervous system occurs, the soft tissue of the brain and spinal cord swells, causing pressure because of the confined space. The swelling makes the injury worse unless it is rapidly relieved. Fractured bones can lead to further damage and the possibility of infection.

    What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

    Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

    The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

    Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

    The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

    The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

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    Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

    Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

    • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
    • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
    • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
    • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

    What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

    Limbic System – Human Brain Series – Part 11

    The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

    • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
    • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

    The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

    The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

    Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

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    How Does The Human Brain Work

    If we want to know the brain and its functions, it is important to remember that this is an organ of the nervous system. This system is responsible for receiving and processing the information that comes from the outside environment. In addition, thanks to brain processing we can generate responses to information and external stimuli. If you want to know more, we recommend you read the following article on how it works in the nervous system.

    Daniel Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence has valued this expression of emotions and feelings of the human being. Well, the part of the brain that manages this emotional information is the amygdala located in the limbic system . Human beings can not only experience emotions from an external fact that acts as a stimulus to which we give an answer. An internal fact can also generate an emotional movement, for example, a thought. Well, the amygdala is an essential core of these processes.

    The Central Nervous System : The Neurons Inside The Brain

    The Central Nervous System, or CNS for short, is made up of the brain and spinal cord . The CNS is the portion of the nervous system that is encased in bone . It is referred to as central because it is the brain and spinal cord that are primarily responsible for processing sensory informationtouching a hot stove or seeing a rainbow, for exampleand sending signals to the peripheral nervous system for action. It communicates largely by sending electrical signals through individual nerve cells that make up the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system, called neurons. There are approximately 86 billion neurons in the human brain and each has many contacts with other neurons, called synapses .

    If we were to zoom in still further we could take a closer look at the synapse, the space between neurons . Here, we would see that there is a space between neurons, called the synaptic gap. To give you a sense of scale we can compare the synaptic gap to the thickness of a dime, the thinnest of all American coins . You could stack approximately 70,000 synaptic gaps in the thickness of a single coin!

    It is amazing to realize that when you thinkwhen you reach out to grab a glass of water, when you realize that your best friend is happy, when you try to remember the name of the parts of a neuronwhat you are experiencing is actually electro-chemical impulses shooting between nerves!

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    How To Take Care Of The Brain

    The brain is a really important organ of the organism. Therefore, taking care of it is an act of self-love. How can you take care of the brain? From the neurological point of view, it is advisable to make logic games or practice any activity that allows the mind to be activated, for example, reading.

    Stress affects your brain, therefore, try to take care of this aspect that damages your memory, for example. The brain needs new stimuli to activate, for this reason, although the routine is a pleasant state of the comfort zone, try to find the balance of integrating the surprise factor. For example, travel new itineraries to go from work to home. In addition, the sense of humor affects your brain in a very positive way, therefore, enjoy more and laugh more.

    Your daily habits also take care of your brain, for example, night rest.

    This article is purely informative, in Psychology-Online we have no power to make a diagnosis or recommend treatment. We invite you to go to a psychologist to discuss your particular case.

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    How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh

    Central Nervous System

    The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.

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