Thursday, May 5, 2022

When Does A Fetus Have Brain Activity

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Fetal Eegs: Signals From The Dawn Of Life

Baby Brain Development How to Support Healthy Brain Growth

To view this report as a PDF, see Fetal EEGs: Signals from the Dawn of Life

As a neuroscientist, and the mother of two children, I have always wanted to know how little ones brains work. According to some websites I had read, electrical activity had been recorded from the brain of a human fetus only six weeks and three days after conception . That would be just three weeks after the fetal heart starts beating , and one week after the earliest-recorded fetal movements . But, as any neuroscientist will tell you, it is difficult to record electrical activity from adult human brains using electroencephalography due to interference from the scalp muscles and cranial bones. How could a baby the size of a grape produce enough electrical activity to be detected?

I set out to find the original research and determine if it was done well. I expected that electrical signals coming from the mothers muscles would mask those from the brain of the unborn child. Worse, most researchers use fetal EEGs to record brain activity in babies during childbirth or in the last trimester of pregnancy. In fact, all the papers posted publicly online quoted the brain research on babies in the first trimester second-hand. I began to fear that the claim that a 45-day-old fetus shows brain activity was wrong.

Convinced that the evidence for human brain activity at 45 days after conception was strong, I turned to the question of what we can learn from these fetal EEG recordings.

Brain Development Of Fetus

Expectant mothers are always excited and curious to know about the growth of their little one inside their womb. Besides the physical growth, metal growth is imperative. A specific timeline for the brain development of the fetus is necessary for the mother to act accordingly to ensure the healthy growth of the fetus.

Expectant mothers are always excited and curious to know about the growth of their little one inside their womb. Besides the physical growth, metal growth is imperative. A specific timeline for the brain development of the fetus is necessary for the mother to act accordingly to ensure the healthy growth of the fetus.

How a brain works, and what makes it tick has always intrigued and mesmerized researchers. All progress and regression in our life can be easily attributed to the way our brain works, thinks, deduces, reasons, concludes, etc. Life starts at with the fertilization of the egg, until the eighth week it is called as an embryo. From the eighth week until the moment of birth, it is known as fetus. Brain development involves the formation of the brain, nervous system and spinal cord, it all begins at the embryonic stage itself.

In The First Three Years A Childs Brain Has Up To Twice As Many Synapses As It Will Have In Adulthood

Now that were a little more familiar with the fundamentals of the brain, lets take a look at brain development in children. Between conception and age three, a childs brain undergoes an impressive amount of change. At birth, it already has about all of the neurons it will ever have. It doubles in size in the first year, and by age three it has reached 80 percent of its adult volume.8-10

Even more importantly, synapses are formed at a faster rate during these years than at any other time. In fact, the brain creates many more of them than it needs: at age two or three, the brain has up to twice as many synapses as it will have in adulthood . These surplus connections are gradually eliminated throughout childhood and adolescence, a process sometimes referred to as blooming and pruning.11

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This Story Is Part Of A Group Of Stories Called

Finding the best ways to do good.

2021 featured a remarkable policy experiment in the United States. On July 15, the federal government began sending monthly checks to parents for up to $300 per child. The checks phased out for top earners but otherwise had no strings attached. Parents could use the money however they wanted. It was a policy that is common in other countries but had never been tried before in the United States.

Debate over the bill tended to focus on its effect on parents. Detractors worried that the measure would deter parents from working, while supporters argued any blowback on labor would be minimal. But an equally if not more important question came up less often: What does the expanded child tax credit mean for children?

A new study suggests that direct cash payments like the tax credit might meaningfully alter the neurological development of newborns in families that receive the money. The paper, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , examines an experiment called Babys First Years that has been giving one group of hundreds of low-income mothers $20 per month for several years, and has been giving another group $333 per month over that same period. The experiment hopes to explore the neurological effects of large-scale cash transfers on the development of young children, akin to those conducted in 2021 through the child tax credit.

The Organization Of A Childs Brain Is Affected By Early Experiences

This is the first MRI capturing the brain activity of a ...

Why would the brain create more synapses than it needs, only to discard the extras? The answer lies in the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in brain development.

The early stages of development are strongly affected by genetic factors for example, genes direct newly formed neurons to their correct locations in the brain and play a role in how they interact.12,13 However, although they arrange the basic wiring of the brain, genes do not design the brain completely.14,15

Instead, genes allow the brain to fine-tune itself according to the input it receives from the environment. A childs senses report to the brain about her environment and experiences, and this input stimulates neural activity. Speech sounds, for example, stimulate activity in language-related brain regions. If the amount of input increases synapses between neurons in that area will be activated more often.

Repeated use strengthens a synapse. Synapses that are rarely used remain weak and are more likely to be eliminated in the pruning process. Synapse strength contributes to the connectivity and efficiency of the networks that support learning, memory, and other cognitive abilities.16,17 Therefore, a childs experiences not only determine what information enters her brain, but also influence how her brain processes information.

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Age Three To Age Five

A five-year-olds brain uses twice as much glucose as that of a full-grown adult, researchers at Northwestern University anthropologists have discovered.

The study shows that because the brain needs so much, the body doesnt grow as rapidly.

Our findings suggest that our bodies cant afford to grow faster during the toddler and childhood years because a huge quantity of resources is required to fuel the developing human brain, said Christopher Kuzawa, an IPR biological anthropologist and first author of the study.

As humans we have so much to learn – and that learning requires a complex and energy-hungry brain.

After a certain age it becomes difficult to guess a toddler or young childs age by their size. Instead you have to listen to their speech and watch their behaviour.”

Kuzawa said the study suggests this is no accident. He added: “Body growth grinds nearly to a halt at the ages when brain development is happening at a lightning pace because the brain is sapping up the available resources.

And because the preschool years are a period of extremely rapid brain development, it is crucial that this age group receive proper stimulation and nutrition.

Children living in poverty, deprivation, abusive and war-torn environments are most at risk from not reaching their full potential because they are deprived of getting their most basic needs met.

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Do You Know When An Unborn Babys Brain Waves Can Be Detected The Answer May Surprise You

As a journalism student, I was taught never assume. Yet, as a radio reporter, when covering the issue of abortion, I assumed that my listeners knew the basics about abortion.

The huge irony here is that I myself did not have a fundamental knowledge of abortionin other words, what it did to an unborn child, and what it could do to a mother, in terms of emotional and psychological after-effects.

I wonder right now, in newsrooms across America, how many reporters know that important fact about a preborn childs development.

Nor did I know that, a mere 30 days after conception, a child has regular blood flow within his or her vascular system. I was clueless that, at 42 days after conception, the babys skeleton is complete. And I had no inkling that, 43 days following conception, a little boy or girls brain waves can be detected.

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The Claim Is Misleading

A viral Facebook post claims that A fetus at 6 weeks has no more brain than a grain of rice. The post references the Texas heartbeat abortion law, which prohibits abortion when a fetal heartbeat can be detected, usually at six weeks.

The first claim in the postthat a baby during the sixth week of gestation is the size of a grain of riceis accurate. Gestational calendars use the beginning of a womans last cycle as a start date, but conception usually occurs two weeks later, meaning that at this point, the embryo has been developing for four weeks and is about an eighth of an inch long. Despite the small size, however, the embryo is already incredibly complex.

NARAL Pro-Choice America declined to comment on the matter, but recommended reaching out to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The ACOGs lead for equity transformation, Dr. Jennifer Villavicencio, told The Dispatch Fact Check that neural cells begin dividing during embryonic development, but the brain is a complex organ that takes an entire pregnancy to develop and continues developing through infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Prior to the sixth week of gestation, Villavicencio said fetal brain development is in the form of microscopic neural cells dividing into the two types of cells that form the nervous system.

The Other 98% did not respond to a request for comment.

Recordings From The Maternal Abdomen

New study finds giving cash to parents increases babies’ brain activity FRANCE 24 English

To record the most accurate brain signals, scientists try to minimize the distance between the recording electrode and fetal cortex by using an ultrasound to get the electrodes on the maternal abdomen as close to the fetal head as possible. The original fetal EEGs came from recordings through the maternal abdomen. However, electrical activity from the mother’s heart, abdominal and uterine muscles all create artifacts in the fetal EEG recording. An artifact is electrical activity detected by the EEG that comes a source that the scientist does not want to measure. Muscles create electrical activity in the range of 20100 Hz, and the uterine wall creates slow-wave activity and fast-wave activity related to the intrauterine pressure. Furthermore, the maternal heartbeat dominates recordings in every electrode and must be filtered out with computer algorithms.

Recordings from the maternal abdomen or cervix have less than 5 cm of tissue between the maternal skin and the fetal cortex. A typical human slow wave is 100-500 mV in amplitude, but the voltage strength declines with the square of the distance between the neural activity and the recording electrode. Even with modern techniques, scientists still have difficulties detecting brain activity recorded from outside the womb.

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When Does A Fetus Have Brain Activity

The first synapses in babys spinal cord form during week 7 of pregnancy. By week 8, electrical activity begins in the brain allowing your baby to coordinate his first movements that doctors can even see on an ultrasound!

Your babys brain continues to develop in the coming weeks, endowing him with a remarkable range of involuntary movements like stretching, yawning and sucking by the end of the first trimester and more coordinated movements in the second trimester.

That said, the brainstem, which controls vital functions like heart rate and breathing, isnt mostly complete until the end of the second trimester, and the cerebral cortex doesnt take up its duties until the third trimester.

In fact, the cerebral cortex which is responsible for voluntary actions, thinking and feeling only starts to work around the end of pregnancy, with simple electrical activity detectable in regions associated with senses and motor skills in premature babies.

Earliest Look At Newborns’ Visual Cortexreveals The Minds Babies Are Born With

Within hours of birth, a babys gaze is drawn to faces. Now, brain scans of newborns reveal the neurobiology underlying this behavior, showing that as young as six days a babys brain appears hardwired for the specialized tasks of seeing faces and seeing places.

The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published the findings by psychologists at Emory University. Their work provides the earliest peek yet into the visual cortex of newborns, using harmless functional magnetic resonance imaging .

Were investigating a fundamental question of where knowledge comes from by homing in on nature versus nature, says Daniel Dilks, associate professor of psychology, and senior author of the study. What do we come into the world with and what do we gain by experience?

An fMRI scan of a newborn’s brain. Understanding how an infant’s brain is organized may help us understand when something goes awry.

An fMRI scan of a newborn’s brain. Understanding how an infant’s brain is organized may help us understand when something goes awry.

Weve shown that a babys brain is more adult-like than many people might assume, adds Frederik Kamps, who led the study as a PhD candidate at Emory. Much of the scaffolding for the human visual cortex is already in place, along with the patterns of brain activity, although the patterns are not as strong compared to those of adults.

Kamps has since graduated from Emory and is now a post-doctoral fellow at MIT.

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The Developing Heart And Resultant Heartbeat

According to Lumen Learning, the heart of a preborn baby

originates about day 18 or 19 from the mesoderm and begins beating and pumping blood about day 21 or 22. It forms from the cardiogenic region near the head and is visible as a prominent heart bulge on the surface of the embryo. The primitive heart begins to form an S shape within the pericardium between days 23 and 28. The internal septa begin to form about day 28, separating the heart into the atria and ventricles, although the foramen ovale persists until shortly after birth. Between weeks five and eight, the atrioventricular valves form. The semilunar valves form between weeks five and nine.

This miraculous growth proves the existence of a human being who is not a part of his mother but who is his own person and reliant upon her for sustenance.

Walk for Life 2019/Courtesy: Lifesite Women Employ Megaphones to Project Fetal Heartbeats

Once the heart begins its detectable beat, it is obvious that it beats much faster than an adults. What to Expects article for expectant mothers explains the varying speeds at which the babys heart beats. By six weeks, the heart is beating 110 times a minute. Just two weeks later, it will rise to between 150 and 170 times a minute.

During labor, the babys heart rate can go anywhere from 110 to 160 beats per minute, with normal variations on either side.

Brain Waves Explained For Babies

3D scan of the fetal brain at 11

I have a lot about cashprograms, especially cash programs for parents, but Im a policy journalist, not a neuroscientist. So my big questions when I first heard about the PNAS study were: What is a brain wave? And why should I care if its fast or slow?

This is the very, very simplified answer I got from Noble: One way that neurons in your brain communicate with each other, transmitting instructions and information, is through electrical signals. Some of these signals are sent at a very rapid pace some are sent more slowly. Neuroscientists use Greek letters to distinguish low-frequency from high-frequency brain waves delta waves are the lowest frequency signals detected in the brain, and gamma waves are the highest.

Going into the study, the authors hypothesized that they would see more high-frequency brain waves in babies whose families received substantial cash. That might indicate that the babies cognitive functions are developing more quickly. On average, several higher-order skills, things like language development, tend to be associated with more of that fast brain activity, Noble said. Infants and toddlers with more of that fast brain activity often develop more verbal proficiency, higher social/emotional skills, other forms of cognitive skills.

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From Conception To Age Three: An Outline Of Early Brain Development

First Trimester

The development of the brain begins in the first few weeks after conception. Most of the structural features of the brain appear during the embryonic period these structures then continue to grow and develop during the fetal period .19,20

The first key event of brain development is the formation of the neural tube. About two weeks after conception, the neural plate, a layer of specialized cells in the embryo, begins to slowly fold over onto itself, eventually forming a tube-shaped structure. The tube gradually closes as the edges of the plate fuse together this process is usually complete by four weeks after conception. The neural tube continues to change, eventually becoming the brain and spinal cord.20,21

About seven weeks after conception the first neurons and synapses begin to develop in the spinal cord. These early neural connections allow the fetus to make its first movements, which can be detected by ultrasound and MRI even though in most cases the mother cannot feel them. These movements, in turn, provide the brain with sensory input that spurs on its development. More coordinated movements develop over the next several weeks.22

Second Trimester

Early in the second trimester, gyri and sulci begin to appear on the brains surface by the end of this trimester, this process is almost complete. The cerebral cortex is growing in thickness and complexity and synapse formation in this area is beginning.20,21,23

Third Trimester
Year One
Year Two

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