Wednesday, June 22, 2022

When Was The Brain Discovered

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Neuroscientists Have Discovered A Phenomenon That They Cant Explain

Amazingly Preserved Brain Discovered in 2,600-year-old Severed Head

Scientists are meant to know whats going on, but in this particular case, we are deeply confused.

Carl Schoonover and Andrew Fink are confused. As neuroscientists, they know that the brain must be flexible but not too flexible. It must rewire itself in the face of new experiences, but must also consistently represent the features of the external world. How? The relatively simple explanation found in neuroscience textbooks is that specific groups of neurons reliably fire when their owner smells a rose, sees a sunset, or hears a bell. These representationsthese patterns of neural firingpresumably stay the same from one moment to the next. But as Schoonover, Fink, and others have found, they sometimes dont. They changeand to a confusing and unexpected extent.

It had already taken years for Schoonover and Fink to even confirm that representational drift exists in the piriform cortex. They needed to develop surgical techniques for implanting electrodes into a mouses brain and, crucially, keeping them in place for many weeks. Only then could they be sure that the drift they witnessed was really due to changes in the neurons, and not small movements of the electrodes themselves. They started working on this in 2014. By 2018, they were confident that they could get stable recordings. They then allowed implant-carrying mice to periodically inhale different odors.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

The Effects Of The Modern Lifestyle On The Brain

Our modern lifestyle is changing our brains.

And its not all for the better.

24. Chronic stress and depression are rampant in modern life.

Low levels of omega-3s result in brain shrinkage equivalent to two years of structural brain aging.

26. Since the late 1800s, the average IQ have gone down 1.6 points per decade for a total of 13.35 points.

27. Technology has forced most of us to be prodigious multitaskers.

But your brain cant learn or concentrate on two things at once.

What it can do is quickly toggle back and forth between tasks.

But doing so decreases your attention span, ability to learn, short-term memory, and overall mental performance.

It even temporarily by up to 15 points.

28. Unexpectedly, millennials are more forgetful than baby boomers.

They are more likely to forget what day it is or where they put their keys than their parents.

29.Brain cells will cannibalize themselves as a last ditch source of energy to ward off starvation.

So, in very real ways, dieting, especially low-fat diets, can force your brain to literally eat itself.

30. Over 140 proteins in the brain are negatively impacted by exposure to electromagnetic frequencies, the kind emitted by your cell phone and other electronic devices.

31. Relying on GPS to navigate destroys your innate sense of direction, a skill that took our ancestors thousands of years to develop.

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Brain Plasticity Also Has Limitations

It is important to note, however, that the brain is not infinitely malleable. Certain areas of the brain are largely responsible for certain actions. For example, there are areas of the brain that play critical roles in things such as movement, language, speech, and cognition.

Damage to key areas of the brain can result in deficits in those areas because, while some recovery may be possible, other areas of the brain simply cannot fully take over those functions that were affected by the damage.

Amazing Human Brain Facts

The Brain: From Discovery to Diagnosis

Last updated September 26, 2021.Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC. Written by Deane Alban.

These brain facts dispel many brain myths based on outdated knowledge. Learn how the brain works, for better . All facts cite original references.

There are a lot of myths and misinformation about the brain that pass as brain facts.

This is somewhat understandable the study of the human brain is one of the least explored areas in science.

Even experts agree that there is more that we dont know about the brain than we currently do know.

In recent years, our knowledge of the brain has exploded.

Most of what we know about the brain has been discovered in the last 15 years.

And its estimated that it takes an average of 17 years for a new medical discovery to go mainstream.

So, many brain facts just havent found a place in the publics awareness yet.

We will continue to update this article as new information comes to light.

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Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.

The Amazing Human Brain

The human brain is a fascinating and very complex organ that is only slowly giving up its secrets. It has taken us thousands of years to reach our current state of knowledge about the organ. We still don’t understand everything about its structure and function. Many researchers are investigating the brain’s activities, however, since it’s such a vital part of our lives.

In the past, there was a tendency to name newly discovered body structures after their discoverer. This article describes three brain regions and also includes some facts about the physician-scientists who are forever linked to them.

Broca’s area was named after Paul Broca, a French doctor of the nineteenth century. Carl Wernicke was a German physician. He gave his name to Wernicke’s area and lived until the start of the twentieth century. The circle of Willis was named after Thomas Willis, an English doctor from the seventeenth century.

The cerebral hemispheres as viewed from the front of the brain

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Scientists Discover A New Class Of Neurons For Remembering Faces

An area in the brains temporal pole specializes in familiar face recognition.

Scientists have long searched in vain for a class of brain cells that could explain the visceral flash of recognition that we feel when we see a very familiar face, like that of our grandmothers. But the proposed grandmother neurona single cell at the crossroads of sensory perception and memory, capable of prioritizing an important face over the rabbleremained elusive.

Now, new research reveals a class of neurons in the brains temporal pole region that links face perception to long-term memory. Its not quite the apocryphal grandmother neuronrather than a single cell, its a population of cells that collectively remembers grandmas face. The findings, published in Science, are the first to explain how brains inculcate the faces of loved ones.

When I was coming up in neuroscience, if you wanted to ridicule someones argument you would dismiss it as just another grandmother neurona hypothetical that could not exist, says Winrich Freiwald, head of Rockefellers Laboratory of Neural Systems.

Now, in an obscure and understudied corner of the brain, we have found the closest thing to a grandmother neuron: cells capable of linking face perception to memory.

Have I seen that face before?

A tapestry of grandmothers

Its a grandmother face area of the brain, Freiwald says.

This discovery could one day help us devise strategies to help them.

Age And Environment Play A Role

‘Concussion’ and the Serious Impact of Repeated Head Trauma | ABC News

While plasticity occurs throughout the lifetime, certain types of changes are more predominant at specific ages. The brain tends to change a great deal during the early years of life, for example, as the immature brain grows and organizes itself.

Generally, young brains tend to be more sensitive and responsive to experiences than much older brains. But this does not mean that adult brains are not capable of adaptation.

Genetics can also have an influence. The interaction between the environment and genetics also plays a role in shaping the brain’s plasticity.

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Communication In The Brain

In 1932 Sir Charles Sherrington and Edgar Adrian won the Nobel Prize for proposing the concept of synapses , which advanced the understanding of the central nervous system Alan Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and Australian Sir John Eccles won a Nobel Prize in 1963 for showing how neurons communicate via electrical and chemical signalling.

Using Learning Styles Isn’t Necessarily Effective

Learning styles suggest that each person has a preferred learning style that helps them learn best. For example, one popular theory proposes that people tend to be more auditory, visual, or kinesthetic learners. In other words, some people learn best by hearing, seeing, or doing.

While it’s an appealing concept, there’s little research to suggest that learning based on your preferred style actually has any impact on learning outcomes. One large-scale study found no evidence to support the use of learning style assessment instruments.

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Things We Learned About The Brain In 2019

The brain tells us what to do, how to act, what to think and what to say. It even remembers the face of strangers on the street and wraps them up in our worries, plops a party hat on them and throws in some evil kangaroos, creating a strange scenario to entertain us while we sleep. We depend on this organ to live and learn, but much about this organ still remains as mysterious to us as the inside of a black hole. Every year, new discoveries teach us more about this wondrous organ. This year’s discoveries include a strange ability of the brain to shield itself from the idea of death, how lonely Antarctic expeditions can shrink the brain and how the brain still works when half of it is missing. So dive in to learn about some of 2019’s greatest brain discoveries.

Getting Plenty Of Rest

Discovery of brain

Research has shown that sleep plays an important role in dendritic growth in the brain. Dendrites are the growths at the end of neurons that help transmit information from one neuron to the next. By strengthening these connections, you may be able to encourage greater brain plasticity.

Sleep has been shown to have important effects on both physical and mental health. You can find ways to improve your sleep by practicing good sleep hygiene.

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Introduction: The Human Brain

A false-colour Magnetic Resonance Image of a mid-sagittal section through the head of a normal 42 year-old woman, showing structures of the brain, spine and facial tissues

The brain is the most complex organ in the human body. It produces our every thought, action, memory, feeling and experience of the world. This jelly-like mass of tissue, weighing in at around 1.4 kilograms, contains a staggering one hundred billion nerve cells, or neurons.

The complexity of the connectivity between these cells is mind-boggling. Each neuron can make contact with thousands or even tens of thousands of others, via tiny structures called synapses. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives. The pattern and strength of the connections is constantly changing and no two brains are alike.

It is in these changing connections that memories are stored, habits learned and personalities shaped, by reinforcing certain patterns of brain activity, and losing others.

New Brain Cells May Form Throughout Life

Traditional wisdom has long suggested that adults only have so many brain cells and that we never form new ones. Once these cells are lost, are they gone for good? Experts have uncovered evidence that the human adult brain does indeed form new cells throughout life, even during old age.

The process of forming new brain cells is known as neurogenesis, and researchers have found that it happens in at least one important region of the brain called the hippocampus.

It’s worth noting, however, that research on this topic is mixed, and some neuroscientists don’t consider this a proven theory, according to the National Institute of Health .

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Finding Your Car In A Parking Lot Relies On This Newly Discovered Brain Circuit

CEO of the Brain Focuses Attention on the Most Relevant Stimuli in the Environment

    Image by Ruchi Malik

    When exploring a new environment, mice make use of a unique long-distance connection in the brain that prompts them to pay attention to the most salient features of the environment, according to new research from UC San Francisco. The link, originating in the prefrontal cortex and stretching to the hippocampus, provides evidence of how the brains higher cognitive regions refine operations occurring in distant brain areas.

    This circuit is a gateway to understanding how the brain allows the prefrontal cortex to exert top-down regulation of other parts of the brain, said Vikaas Sohal, MD, PhD, senior author on the study, published , in Cell. Its a type of long-range, inhibitory pathway connecting two brain regions that hasnt been seen before.

    The prefrontal cortex , sometimes thought of as the CEO of the brain, controls executive functions like attention, planning and decision making. The hippocampus stores memory and processes spatial information, helping us to navigate the environment.

    Image by Ruchi Malik

    The newly discovered circuit facilitates the ability to focus attention on whats important in the environment and ignore other sensory stimuli, said the studys lead author, Ruchi Malik, PhD.

    Brain Facts Update: Myths Debunked

    310 million-year-old horseshoe crab brain discovered, shows not much has changed in the species

    Rapid advancements in neuroscience mean that information gets outdated fast.

    This is one reason that theres a lot of misinformation and myths floating around about the brain.

    New evidence has shown that these commonly accepted brain facts are not true.

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    32. Youve probably heard that attention spans are getting shorter.

    And that the average persons attention span is shorter than that of a goldfish.

    This fun but alarming fact turns out to not be true.

    Theres no evidence that human attention spans are shrinking or that goldfish have particularly short attention spans either.

    33. The popular myth that we use only 10% of our brains is flat-out wrong.

    Brain scans clearly show that we use most of our brain most of the time, even when were sleeping.

    34. There is no such thing as a left-brain or right-brain personality/skill type.

    We are not left-brained or right-brained we are all whole-brained.

    35. In spite of what youve been told, alcohol does not kill brain cells.

    What excessive alcohol consumption can do is damage the connective tissue at the end of neurons.

    36. The Mozart effect has been debunked.

    HOW’S YOUR MOOD?

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    The Brain As A Radiator

    In 335 BC, Greek philosopher Aristotle thought the brain was simply a radiator that kept the all-important heart from overheating. Around 170 BC, Roman physician Galen suggested the brains four ventricles were the seat of complex thought, and determined personality and bodily functions. This was one of the first suggestions that the brain was where our memory, personality and thinking reside.

    People Aren’t Fully Right

    Have you ever heard someone describe themselves as either left-brained or right-brained? This idea stems from the popular notion that people are either dominated by their right or left brain hemispheres. According to this idea, people who are “right-brained” are believed to be more creative and expressive, while those who are “left-brained” are positioned as more analytical and logical.

    While experts do recognize that there is lateralization of brain function , no one is fully right-brained or left-brained.

    In fact, we tend to do better at tasks when we engage the entire brain, even for things that are typically associated with a certain area of the brain.

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    ‘oldest Human Brain’ Discovered

    The brain matter can be seen as a dark area at the top of the brain

    Archaeologists have found the remains of what could be Britain’s oldest surviving human brain.

    The team, excavating a York University site, discovered a skull containing a yellow substance which scans showed to be shrunken, but brain-shaped.

    Brains consist of fatty tissue which microbes in the soil would absorb, so neurologists believe the find could be some kind of fossilised brain.

    The skull was found in an area first farmed more than 2,000 years ago.

    More tests will now be done to establish what it is actually made of.

    The team from York Archaeological Trust had been commissioned by the university to carry out an exploratory dig at Heslington East, where campus extension work is under way.

    The skull was discovered in an area of extensive prehistoric farming landscape of fields, trackways and buildings dating back to at least 300 BC.

    Preservation

    The archaeologists believe the skull, which was found on its own in a muddy pit, may have been a ritual offering.

    There is something unusual in the way the brain has been treated, or something that it’s been exposed to that has preserved the shape of itYork Hospital neurologist

    It was taken to the University of York where CT scans were used to look at the skull’s contents.

    Philip Duffey, the consultant neurologist who carried out the scans, said the find was “amazing”.

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