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Where Is The Amygdala In The Brain

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What Is The Amygdala Hijack

2-Minute Neuroscience: Amygdala

In his 1995 book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, psychologist Daniel Goleman named this emotional overreaction to stress amygdala hijack. The amygdala hijack occurs when your amygdala responds to stress and disables your frontal lobes. That activates the fight-or-flight response and disables rational, reasoned responses. In other words, the amygdala hijacks control of your brain and your responses.

The symptoms of an amygdala hijack are caused by the bodys chemical response to stress. When you experience stress, your brain releases two kinds of stress hormones: cortisol and adrenaline. Both of these hormones, which are released by the adrenal glands, prepare your body to fight or to flee.

Together, these stress hormones do a number of things to your body in response to stress. They:

  • increase blood flow to muscles, so you have more strength and speed to fight or flee
  • expand your airways so you can take in and use more oxygen
  • increase blood sugar to provide you immediate energy
  • dilate pupils to improve your vision for faster responses

When these hormones are released, you may experience:

  • rapid heartbeat
  • clammy skin
  • goosebumps on the surface of your skin

An amygdala hijack may lead to inappropriate or irrational behavior. After an amygdala hijack, you may experience other symptoms like embarrassment and regret.

The Amygdala: How It Works

The amygdala is not just in the emotional brain. It is deeeeeeep inside it. Meaning? It is operating unconsciously. You cannot control its immediate, instinctive, automatic reactions because they happen much before your consciousness kicks in.

What is it reacting to? At a high level, we can say that the amygdala reacts to new or threatening objects in the environment. When its triggered, it sends immediate rapid fire signals to your brain and body. To do what? To make your body ready to fight or flight the situation.

Heart beats faster. Muscles tense. Blood pressure rises. Adrenalin is pumped into your bloodstream. More sweating. Lungs take in more O2. And many, many more reactions.

This is excellent news. Without your body prepared like this, you are simply not equipped to protect yourself in the face of genuine danger. How can you run away from a snake if your body doesn’t “feel” like you’ll be dead if you don’t?

Another excellent news is that amygdala triggering is so incredibly quick, automatic and visceral, that “consciously”, you have to do nothing to prepare your body to fight or flight. The bodily reactions from a triggered amygdala just “show up in your life”. One second you’re a beach bum on a hammock sipping his Pina Colada and the next second you’re sprinting for your life when a lizard falls on you.

Be thankful that your amygdala exists. It can save your life when the dangers are real.

What Is The Amygdala And What Does It Do

The amygdala is recognized as a component of a group of brain structures referred to collectively as the limbic system, and is thought to play important roles in emotion and behavior. It is best known for its role in the processing of fear, although as well see, this is an oversimplified perspective on amygdala function.

Our modern understanding of amygdala function can be traced back to the 1930s, when Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy removed the amygdalae of rhesus monkeys and saw drastic effects on behavior. Among other things, the monkeys became more docile and seemed to display little fear. The constellation of behavior that resulted from amygdalae removal was called Kluver-Bucy syndrome, and it led to the amygdala being investigated for its role in fear.

Since, the amygdala has become best known for its role in fear processing. When we are exposed to a fearful stimulus, information about that stimulus is immediately sent to the amygdala, which can then send signals to areas of the brain like the hypothalamus to trigger a “fight-or-flight” response .

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Does The Human Mind Love Fear

A recent study by the Media Research Center analyzed the ratio of “good” to “bad” news broadcasts for three mainstream networks: ABC, NBC, and CBS.

What did they find? A surprise to few, up to 85% of the stories aired were categorized as negative.

We know that all humans require food, warmth, water, and sleep. But, is it also built into human DNA to crave doom and gloom?

Is focusing our attention on natural disasters, war, terrorism, crime, incompetence, scandals, and corruption a function of our biology or did we get here through conditioning?

Is being afraid and worrying all the time human nature or did we get here through nurture?

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Blavca1 Inputs Mediates Anxiety And Social Deficits

Numerous lines of evidence support that both BL and ventral hippocampus are responsible for the expression of anxiety-related behaviors . However, the contribution of the monosynaptic connection between them is poorly understood. To identify the role of BLavCA1 inputs in anxiety behavior, light-sensitive opsins, i.e., ChR2 and NpHR, were expressed in BLa excitatory neurons and an optical fiber was implanted into vCA1 for the subsequent illumination on BLa-projected terminals. In line with hypotheses that amygdala hyperactivity underlies anxiety , in vivo photoactivation of BLavCA1 synapses significantly increases anxiety-related behaviors, while photoinhibition produces robust anxiolytic effects. Combining optogenetic approaches with in vivo pharmacological manipulations, light-elicited anxiogenic effects were completely prevented by intra-vCA1 injection of glutamate antagonism, demonstrating that glutamatergic excitatory projections from the BLa to the vCA1 are sufficient to mediate anxiety. Thus, opposite to CeL, vCA1 is an important anxiogenic downstream target of BL. Monosynaptic BLavCA1 projection could control anxiety-related behaviors in a bidirectional and reversible manner.

Frontiers In Neural Circuits

Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing , China

Reviewed by

University of Studies G. d’Annunzio Chieti and Pescara, Italy

The editor and reviewers’ affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review.

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Brief Anatomy Of The Amygdala

The amygdala is comprised of at least three primary regions: basolateral complex of the amygdala , central amygdala , and medial amygdala. All these regions comprise distinct nuclei. The regions that appear to be most important for the impact of stress on emotion are the BLA and the CeA, and will be the focus of this chapter. The BLA can be subdivided into the lateral , basolateral , and basomedial nucleus also called the accessory basal nucleus. The CeA is divided into the medial , lateral , lateral capsular , and the intermediate divisions . For our purposes, the CeL, CeC, and CeI will be grouped together and referred to as the lateral/capsular division of the CeA . Each region has its own intra-amygdala connections for more details, see other chapters in this volume that comprehensively explore the anatomy of the amygdala. Where possible, literature reviews in this chapter will specify the nucleus examined, based on anatomical localization of electrophysiological recordings or on the recording location described by the author.

Krishnagopal Dharani, in, 2015

The Culprit Is Our Brain’s Fear Center: Amygdala

The Amygdala

The list topper would be our “fear center”amygdala, an almond shaped group of nuclei buried deep within the temporal lobes of the brain.

Legendary NY Times bestselling author and founder of the “X-Prize,” Peter Diamandis, may have said it best, “Bad news sells because the amygdala is always looking for something to fear.”

While there are no guarantees in life, too much activity within your primitive “fear center” amygdala 100% certifies a lifetime supply of worry.

What if there was a way to healthily and naturally upgrade this caveman-like brain region? You can, through meditation!

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Anatomy And Physiology Of Basolateral Amygdala Subregions

Amygdala nuclei are divided into three groups: basolateral amygdala groups , which contains the lateral nucleus , the basal nucleus and basomedial nucleus cortical-like groups, which comprises nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract and the cortical nuclei and the centromedial groups, which includes the medial and central nuclei . In the coronal sections from rostral to caudal of the brain, the basal nucleus can be further divided into arterial part and posterior part . Therefore, BLA has been used to represent basolateral amygdala and the anterior part of basolateral nucleus of amygdala , respectively. To clarify this, the anterior and posterior parts of basolateral nucleus of amygdala are also spelled as BLa and BLp, respectively .

Figure 1. Coronal sections of basolateral amygdaloid complex from rostral to caudal of the brain. Basolateral amygdala groups are divided into three subregions as described in text. Area in orange is lateral nucleus , area in pink is basolateral nucleus , and the area in blue is basomedial nucleus . Ldl, dorsolateral part of lateral nucleus Lvl, ventrolateral part of lateral nucleus Lvm, ventromedial part of lateral nucleus BLa, anterior part of basolateral nucleus BLp, posterior part of basolateral nucleus BMa, anterior part of basomedial nucleus BMp, posterior part of basomedial nucleus Pir, piriform cortex.

Your Anxiety Your Amygdala

At every stage of life and mental health, every person has the means to resolve his inner psychological life by himself. What is the only thing he can rely on? His own mind.

How does his mind guide him to navigate his internal life? When we ask this question, what we are really asking is “How mature and wise are you?”

When anxiety is our reality, it usually means that our own wise mind is not working very well to solve our problems. Its because our rationality itself is distorted. In psychological language, we call these Cognitive Distortions.

What are these? Common distortions for the anxious person include thought suppression, magical thinking, mind-reading, perfectionism, black-and-white thinking, should-thinking, foreclosure and emotional reasoning.

And because these are distortions instead of healthy thinking, they fail to solve our fears while we are confronting them internally in our heads. And because behavior follows thinking, the actions we end up taking externally are also distorted.

If you are fully merged with the thought that predicts your death unless you do “this”, how can you not do “this”? That would be insane, right?

Witnessing our own powerlessness over these triggers makes us fear them more. The cycle continues.

Take Sam’s example:

“You are going to die if you don’t wash your hands 17 times every 17 minutes.”

This kind of thought triggers the amygdala because it’s new, it’s sudden, it’s automatic and it’s talking about “death” for pete’s sake.

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Have You Been Silly To Pick Up These Distorted Thinking Styles

Just like the amygdala is unconscious, cognitive distortions too are picked up unconsciously. Usually in childhood. Strange no? Isn’t the rational mind supposed to be smart enough to be..well..rational?

Sorry, but rationality too is developed. It doesn’t just show up in your life all of a sudden. It is developed in your formative years based on what you see, and how you’re getting trained to see the world, including yourself.

Again, you’re not aware of your unconscious learning. It’s just something that happens. Your rational mind iS unconsciously being developed by a whole lot of what is going on around you.

Maybe you’re still unsure or unaware that you respond to life distortedly. Maybe you don’t see them as distorted. “Perfectionism is distorted? Get outta here!” Maybe you don’t know alternatives.

All in all, for one reason or another, you keep them. And these guys are the whole deal. The make or break deal. The ones which get to decide whether you move on or go down.

Where Is The Amygdala

Know Your Brain: Amygdala  Neuroscientifically Challenged

The amygdala is a collection of nuclei found deep within the temporal lobe. The term amygdala comes from Latin and translates to “almond,” because one of the most prominent nuclei of the amygdala has an almond-like shape. Although we often refer to it in the singular, there are two amygdalaeone in each cerebral hemisphere.

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The Amygdala Emotions And Feelings

In order to understand the role of the amygdala, we must first define the emotion. The term emotion is different from the term feeling, although they are often used as synonyms.

Emotion is an unconscious, automatic reaction to the stimuli including somatic and cognitive changes .

Feeling, on the other hand, is a conscious representation of those emotions, such as feeling scared. Emotions are the result of the activities of the subcortical structures , and cerebral sensations.

Therefore, we conclude that the amygdala plays a very important role in our emotions. Most noteworthy, it is related to fear. There is a strong connection between the amygdala and fear conditioning.

That being said, fear conditioning is an important function of the amygdala. Scientists commonly use Pavlovian conditioning in the study of ‘learning to fear’. The essence of conditioning is associating a conditioned stimulus with a non-conditioned stimulus . For example, an animal can receive an electric shock after the sound signal is applied.

The non-conditioned stimulus is a biologically potent stimulus that, in itself, triggers an emotional response, such as freezing. The conditioned stimulus is emotionally neutral and does not in itself elicit a response.

After pairing these by repeating several series of beeps followed by an electric shock, the appearance of the neutral stimulus itself triggers a similar emotional response .

The Amygdala And Psychiatric Disorders

More subtle disruptions in typical amygdala function are associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dysfunction of the amygdala has been observed in patients with anxiety disorders, such as social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and phobias.

“Many studies using human brain imaging have shown that the amygdala is overactivated in patients with these anxiety disorders, as well as in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder,” Beyeler said. In many other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and substance use disorders , dysfunction of the amygdala also appears to be involved, although the relationships between the amygdala and these disorders has not been as well studied.

There may also be differences in the way the amygdala functions in people with autism relative to neurotypical people. Individuals with autism may have more active amygdalae on average, and their amygdalae may notdull their response after repeated exposure to the same stimulus, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Psychiatry.

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Given the amygdala’s multitude of functions, the oversimplification of simply calling it the brain’s fear center is understandable. With further study, experts are likely to discover even more processes in which this small region of the brain is involved.

Additional resources:

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What Happens If The Amygdala Is Damaged

Structural or functional changes in the amygdala are associated with a wide variety of psychiatric conditions such as various anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder , phobia, panic disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and autism.

Some common signs and symptoms following amygdala damage include:

  • Inability to visually recognize surrounding objects
  • The tendency to inspect surrounding objects by smelling or chewing them
  • Irresistible need to explore the surrounding space and excessive reactions to visual stimuli
  • Excessive expression of fear and anger
  • Eating abnormal amounts of food even when not hungry
  • Memory problems
  • Aphasia

What Is The Amygdala

The Amygdala in 5 Minutes | Big Think

The amygdala is often referred to as the fear center of the brain, but this description hardly does justice to the amygdala’s complexity. Located deep in the brain’s left and right temporal lobes, our two amygdalae are important for numerous aspects of thought, emotion and behavior, and are implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions.

The brains two almond-shaped amygdalae are typically no bigger than a couple cubic centimeters in adults and are found near the center of the brain. Although the two halves of the amygdala work together, there also appear to be some aspects of amygdala function that predominate on each side.

31934-4?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2211124717319344%3Fshowall%3Dtrue” rel=”nofollow”> Beyeler et al. 2018.)

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Beyond Emotion: Understanding The Amygdalas Role In Memory

Illustration of the basolateral amygdala , hippocampus , and perirhinal cortex and electrical signals from each region during a recognition test trial. 3-D brain model adapted with permission from AMC Virtual Brain Model. Image courtesy of Cory Inman, Emory University

The amygdalae, a pair of small almond-shaped regions deep in the brain, help regulate emotion and encode memoriesespecially when it comes to more emotional remembrances. Now, new research from Emory University suggests that direct stimulation of the amygdala via deep brain stimulation electrodes can enhance a persons recognition of images seen the day before, leading to the possibility of potential DBS treatment for patients with memory-related disorders.

The amygdala and memory

The amygdala may be best known as the part of the brain that drives the so-called fight or flight response. While it is often associated with the bodys fear and stress responses, it also plays a pivotal role in memory.

One role we are very familiar with, when it comes to the amygdala and memory, is that of emotional salience, says Jon T. Willie, M.D., Ph.D., neurosurgeon and director of the laboratory for behavioral neuromodulation at Emory University in Atlanta. If you have an emotional experience, the amygdala seems to tag that memory in such a way so that it is better remembered.

Stimulating memory, but not emotion

Challenges of DBS as a treatment

How Can You Stop An Amygdala Hijack

An amygdala hijack is an automatic response. Your body takes action without any conscious input from you.

However, that does not mean you will be unable to stop or prevent an amygdala hijack. It just takes a conscious effort to deactivate your amygdala and activate your frontal lobes, the part of your brain responsible for rational, logical thinking.

When you feel threatened or significantly stressed, acknowledge how your body feels and what it is doing. This is your bodys flight-or-fight response. Take stock of your emotions and physical symptoms, if any. (In the beginning, this evaluation may have to occur after an episode, as stopping a hijack in the moment may be difficult.

Then, when you feel this response again, acknowledge it, and work to regain control. Remind yourself this is an automatic response, but not the most logical one.

When you have calmed down or feel less stressed, you can activate your frontal cortex. Begin by thinking about what activated the response, and how you felt. Then, consider responses you can and should have. These will be more thoughtful and rational responses. If you still feel emotional in the moment, give yourself more time.

During the height of a fight-or-flight response, breathing can be a powerful tool. Think about the speed of your breath, and work to slow it down. Find a calm, natural rhythm. Focus on how your body feels as you inhale and exhale.

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