Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
Where Is It Located
The cerebellum is the largest structure of the hindbrain and can be found in the back portion of the skull below the temporal and occipital lobes and behind the brainstem.
When looking at the brain, the cerebellum looks much like a smaller structure separate from the brain, found beneath the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum consists of a cortex covering white matter, as well as a ventricle filled with fluid. It is also divided into two hemispheres like the cerebral cortex.
There are two main parts of the cerebellum:
- Cerebellar cortex: A layer containing folded tissue containing most of the cerebellum’s neurons
- Cerebellar nuclei: The innermost part of the cerebellum containing nerve cells that communication information from the cerebellum
The cerebellum makes up just 10% of the total volume of the brain, yet it contains an estimated 50% to 80% of the brain’s neurons.
Facial Bones Of The Skull
The facial bones of the skull form the upper and lower jaws, the nose, nasal cavity and nasal septum, and the orbit. The facial bones include 14 bones, with six paired bones and two unpaired bones. The paired bones are the maxilla, palatine, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, and inferior nasal conchae bones. The unpaired bones are the vomer and mandible bones. Although classified with the brain-case bones, the ethmoid bone also contributes to the nasal septum and the walls of the nasal cavity and orbit.
Read Also: How Do Puzzles Help The Brain
The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.
What Is And Where Is The Human Brain Located
The brain role, as part of the Central Nervous System is to regulate most functions of human body, including vital functions such as heart rate or breathing, basic functions like being hungry, sleeping, or sexual instinct, also complex functions like speaking, thinking, remembering etc. The human brain is the most complex of all living constructions, processing sensory information while organizes and preserves the organisms vital functions. One trillion primary cells, i.e. neurons, work together over electrical compulsions in order to organize physical activities and mental processes that differentiate the human being from others animal species. The brain is a gelatinous mass, approximately 1.4 kg in weight, depending on the body weight and sex of each individual. There is no connection between a persons brain weight and his/her intellectual capacity.
The human brain and spinal cord are components of the Central Nervous System. The cranium and the three membranes with cerebrospinal fluid, named meninges, allow the brain to stay protected from impacts/ knocking on its four lobes:
Picture 1: Parts of the Human Brain
Also Check: What Do Puzzles Do For Your Brain
Types Of Therapy To Try
- Acupuncture stimulates the acupoints that can ease the pain by stimulating the production of endorphins or the natural painkiller of the body.
- Chiropractic therapy is a manual technique that adjusts the misalignment of the vertebral column. The misalignment of the vertebral column can cause pressure to the muscles and blood vessels.
- Hydrotherapy uses cold and hot water to stimulate circulation. Alternating hot and cold shower helps the blood vessels dilate and then constrict. This method can alter the bodys interpretation of pain.
- Massage can reduce muscle tension throughout the body, including parts of the body that are also headache locations.
- Relaxation techniques reduces pressure in the body and the level of stress chemicals in the brain.
- Yoga can help relieve muscle tension in the back of the neck and correct posture.
Gene And Protein Expression
Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.
As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.
Read Also: Brain Worms In Moose
Components Of The Brainstem
The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.
Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake cycles, alertness, and temperature regulation.
The pons lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum. It also has tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.
About The Brain And Spinal Cord
Together, the brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. This complex system is part of everything we do. It controls the things we choose to dolike walk and talkand the things our body does automaticallylike breathe and digest food. The central nervous system is also involved with our sensesseeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling as well as our emotions, thoughts, and memory.
The brain is a soft, spongy mass of nerve cells and supportive tissue. It has three major parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The parts work together, but each has special functions.
The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, fills most of the upper skull. It has two halves called the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what’s going on around us and tells our body how to respond. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body. This part of the brain also controls speech and emotions as well as reading, thinking, and learning.
The cerebellum, under the cerebrum at the back of the brain, controls balance and complex actions like walking and talking.
The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord. It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most basic body functions, such as body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing.
Don’t Miss: Why Do People Get Brain Freeze
Major Structures And Functions Of The Brain
Outside the specialized world of neuroanatomy and for most of the uses of daily life, the brain is more or less an abstract entity. We do not experience our brain as an assembly of physical structures if we envision it at all, we are likely to see it as a large, rounded walnut, grayish in color.
This schematic image refers mainly to the cerebral cortex, the outermost layer that overlies most of the other brain structures like a fantastically wrinkled tissue wrapped around an orange. The preponderance of the cerebral cortex is actually a recent development in the course of evolution. The cortex contains the physical structures responsible for most of what we call ”brainwork”: cognition, mental imagery, the highly sophisticated processing of visual information, and the ability to produce and understand language. But underneath this layer reside many other specialized structures that are essential for movement, consciousness, sexuality, the action of our five senses, and moreall equally valuable to human existence. Indeed, in strictly biological terms, these structures can claim priority over the cerebral cortex. In the growth of the individual embryo, as well as in evolutionary history, the brain develops roughly from the base of the skull up and outward. The human brain actually has its beginnings, in the four-week-old embryo, as a simple series of bulges at one end of the neural tube.
Function Of The Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord. It is also responsible for regulating several basic functions of the autonomic nervous system, including:
- Respiration: chemoreceptors
- Reflex centers of vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing
You May Like: Prevagen Regular Vs Extra Strength
Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain
In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.
Where Are Memories Stored In The Brain
Memories arent stored in just one part of the brain. Different types are stored across different, interconnected brain regions. For explicit memories which are about events that happened to you , as well as general facts and information there are three important areas of the brain: the hippocampus, the neocortex and the amygdala. Implicit memories, such as motor memories, rely on the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Short-term working memory relies most heavily on the prefrontal cortex.
History Of The Cerebellum
The distinct appearance of the cerebellum was first described thousands of years ago by philosophers. The Roman physician Galen gave the earliest written surviving descriptions of this part of the brain.
It was not until the early 19th-century, however, that physicians and researchers began to learn more about the functions of this region of the brain. Experimental work that involved ablating portions of the cerebellum in animals revealed that this part of the brain is important in the coordination of movement.
Conditions That Affect The Cerebellum
When your cerebellum is damaged, nerve cells break down and die and can cause the following:
- Ataxia: The loss of control of voluntary movement
- Cognitive impairment: A reduction in conscious mental activities, including thinking, learning, memory, and concentration
- Dystonia: Involuntary contraction of muscles that normally work in cooperation so that a body part is held in an unusual and often painful position as a result
- Tremors: Involuntary, rhythmic contraction of muscles that can lead to shaking movements in the hands, legs, face, head, or vocal cords
- Unsteady gait: Walking unsteadily or clumsily
- Vertigo:The dizziness sensation of spinning, swaying, or tilting, which is frequently associated with balance problems and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, or hearing loss
In addition, researchers are studying the link between cerebellum dysfunction and the following:
- Anxiety disorders: A category of disorders including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder that are marked by excessive or irrational anxiety or fear that is disproportionate to the actual threat
- Autism spectrum disorder: A developmental condition that causes impairments in social interactions and communication
- Dyslexia: A disorder that makes it difficult to process speech and results in problems with reading, writing, and spelling
- Schizophrenia: A psychotic disorder characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and beliefs that are not connected to reality
Recommended Reading: Corpus Callosum Coronal
Coordinating The Body’s Voluntary Movements
Movement is a complex process that requires a number of different muscle groups working together. Consider how many muscle groups are involved in the process of walking, running, or throwing a ball.
While the cerebellum is not thought to initiate movement, this part of the brain helps organize all of the actions of the muscle groups involved in a particular movement to ensure that the body is able to produce a fluid, coordinated movement. This includes eye movements and movements associated with speaking.
Function Of The Brain
Physiological functions of human brain involves in reception of information from the body, understanding it , and guiding the bodys reply. Brain is the maximum responsible of the thinking and motion the body generates. The human brain also mediates in vital actions such as: To breath, to control blood pressure, and to release hormones. The brain allows human being to interact successfully with the environment, by communicating and interacting with others.
Extensive of the physiological functions of the brain involve reception of information from the rest of the body, interpreting the information, and supervisory the bodys response. The main human brain functions are to keep the organism alive, so that it can interact with the environment. All the human being deliberates, feels and does is connected to specific functions of his/her brain:
Picture 3: Functions of Human Brain
You May Like: Shrinking Brain Tumors Naturally
Homeostatic Imbalances: Cleft Lip And Cleft Palate
During embryonic development, the right and left maxilla bones come together at the midline to form the upper jaw. At the same time, the muscle and skin overlying these bones join together to form the upper lip. Inside the mouth, the palatine processes of the maxilla bones, along with the horizontal plates of the right and left palatine bones, join together to form the hard palate. If an error occurs in these developmental processes, a birth defect of cleft lip or cleft palate may result.
Cleft lip is a common development defect that affects approximately 1:1000 births, most of which are male. This defect involves a partial or complete failure of the right and left portions of the upper lip to fuse together, leaving a cleft .
An Introduction To The Brain
The basic facts about the brain are well known. Weighing in at around 1.3 kilograms, it is one of the largest organs in the human body. It sits inside the skull, immersed in a fluid that cushions it from sudden impacts to the head.
It is nothing remarkable to look ata wrinkled object about the size of a number 13 chickenbut it consists of a complex and intricately tangled mass of nerve cells, called neurons.
Neurons are the basic units that make up the brain and nervous system. They are specialised cells that act like telegraph wires carrying messages in the form of electrochemical impulses throughout the body. These impulses travel very quickly: it takes about a hundredth of a second for a pain in your little toe to register in your brain. This is quite remarkable, given that the impulse travels a complex path through many neurons and across the gaps between neurons to reach its destination. It is estimated that the adult human brain contains about 86 billion neurons.
Also Check: How Do Puzzles Help The Brain
What Is A Stroke
A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .
During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.
Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.
The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.
Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.
Where Is The Brain Located
The brain is located in the top part of the head called the skull. The skull, which is made up of 28 bones, serves the sole purpose of protecting the brain from injury and trauma.
The brain is made up of many parts, but all of these parts are divided into one of two categories. The right hemisphere and the left hemisphere are the two main parts of the brain. The cells that are in the right part of the brain control the left part of the body the cells that are in the left part of the brain control the right part of the body. These cells are necessary for function of life, and the brain contains enough cells to last throughout a lifetime.
In order for the brain to survive, it must be constantly receiving oxygen. The longest a brain can go without oxygen is around 3 to 5 minutes. After that time period, irreparable injury will occur to the brain. The brain is a medium-sized organ and is about the size of a grapefruit. It ranges from pink to gray in color. It is made up of soft material and adult brains weigh around 3 pounds while children’s brains weigh from about 1 to 2 pounds.
Don’t Miss: Does Mike Tyson Have Brain Damage