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Where Is The Cerebellum Located In The Brain

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What Is The Cerebellum

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum is located on the base of the brain, right behind the brain stem.

The cerebellum controls which muscles should activate and which need to relax. It does this by sending inhibitory or excitatory signals to the right muscle groups.

However, if this region is damaged, then this process is disrupted, which will make muscle coordination difficult, if not impossible.

Besides muscle movement, new discoveries show the cerebellum is crucial in several other functions, including:

  • Cognition

This means that cerebellum brain damage can affect all these functions and many others.

Where Is The Cerebrum Located On The Brain

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The cerebrum or telencephalon is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex , as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. In the human brain, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system.

One may also ask, where is the brain located? The brain is housed inside the bony covering called the cranium. The cranium protects the brain from injury. Together, the cranium and bones that protect the face are called the skull. Between the skull and brain is the meninges, which consist of three layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.

In respect to this, where is the cerebrum located and what does it do?

Cerebrum: is the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement. Cerebellum: is located under the cerebrum.

What is cerebrum function?

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is responsible for memory, speech, the senses, and emotional response. It is divided into four sections called lobes: the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. The diencephalon is inside the cerebrum above the brain stem.

Interesting Theories Concerning The Cerebellum

Timing theory: When early scientists were researching the structure and function of the cerebellar cortex, they hypothesized that the parallel fibers could possibly function as delay lines since the cerebellum could produce time delays up to hundreds of milliseconds in order to precisely control the timing required for the activation of muscles during movement. Of course, we now know that this is not true and that the delays that are potentially produced by the parallel fibers are, in fact, much shorter than these earlier researchers presumed.

References

  • Ninja Nerd Science. . Neurology | Anatomy, and function of the cerebellum . Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVsrexn3pT8
  • Buckner, R. . The cerebellum and cognitive function: 25 years of insight from anatomy and neuroimaging. Neuron, 80, 807-815. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.044
  • Knierim, J. . Cerebellum neuroscience online: An electronic textbook for the neurosciences | Department of neurobiology and anatomy The University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Retrieved from https://nba.uth.tmc.edu/neuroscience/m/s3/chapter05.html

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Cortex And Subcortical Fibers

The outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cortex, which has a slightly gray appearance–hence the term “gray matter.” The cortex has a folded structure each fold is termed a gyrus, while each groove between the folds is termed a sulcus. Cortical anatomy is discussed in greater detail below.

Below the cortex are axons, which are long fibers that emanate from and connect neurons. Axons are insulated by myelin, which increases the speed of conduction. Myelin is what gives the white appearance to these fibers of the brain–hence the term “white matter.”

Limbic system

The limbic system is a grouping of cortical and subcortical structures involved in memory formation and emotional responses. The limbic system allows for complex interactions between the cortex, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem. The limbic system is not defined by strict anatomic boundaries but incorporates several important structures. The limbic structures conventionally include the amygdala, the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies, the cingulate gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus.

Unlike the 6-layered neocortex, the hippocampus only has 3 layers and is termed the archicortex. The hippocampus is felt to be a structure that is crucial to formation of memory–more specifically, a type of memory called declarative or explicit memory. Declarative memory is essentially the ability to recall life events of the past such as what meal was eaten for breakfast or where the car is parked.

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Cerebellum: Functions, Structure, and Location

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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Anatomy Of The Cerebellum And Its Function

    • B.A., Biology, Emory University
    • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

    In Latin, the word cerebellum means little brain. The cerebellum is the area of the hindbrain that controls movement coordination, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone. Like the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is comprised of white matter and a thin, outer layer of densely folded gray matter. The folded outer layer of the cerebellum has smaller and more compact folds than those of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum contains hundreds of millions of neurons for processing data. It relays information between body muscles and areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control.

    Treating The Effects Of Cerebellar Damage

    Most effects of cerebellum brain damage are a result of poor communication between the brain and the muscles. Because of the damage that has occurred, the signals that the brain sends to coordinate movements do not reach the correct muscles.

    Therefore, to treat these effects, patients must improve communication between their brain and the rest of the body. Fortunately, you can accomplish this by activating your brains natural repair mechanism, neuroplasticity. The best way to do this is through repetitious exercise.

    When you practice a task, even if you cant do it perfectly, your brain forms new neural pathways in response. After enough time and practice, the new pathways become stronger and the connection to your muscles may partially return. This allows you to coordinate movement again.

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    The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum

    The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.

    Cerebellum: Location Function Cerebellum Tumor Causes Treatment

    Brain: Cerebrum and Cerebellum ( Brocas, Wernickes, and limbic overview)

    Every part of the brain is significant. But, the cerebellum controls all your physical movement. So, it is one of the vital parts that can help you move according to your wish. The part of the brain plays an important role in your life like:

    • Walk across the room or places
    • Drive a car or bike
    • Throw a ball
    • See things from all directions
    • Vision

    Any problem to the part of the brain can make your movement clumsy. It also leads to coordination difficulties. The issues with cerebellum can affect you rarely. But, it does not mean that you must not become aware of it. Therefore, the article will shed light on the location, function, and problems associated with the cerebellum. As the brain is an important part of the body, you need to learn everything. It will help you preserve the brain health.

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    Brain Structure And Function

    The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:

    This image is from:

    Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.

    Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.

    Trouble Detecting Visual Motion

    Another side effect associated with cerebellum brain damage is problems with visual detection.

    This can make it difficult, sometimes impossible, to tell which direction an object is moving.

    Unfortunately, there arent very many ways to treat this problem. Sometimes, as the cerebellum heals, it will go away on its own.

    Otherwise, you will need to learn some techniques to compensate. An occupational therapist can show you some helpful ones that will let you navigate around your environment safely.

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    A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

    The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

    Phylogenetic And Functional Divisions

    Cerebellum Anatomy, Structure, Function, Pictures, Diagrams

    The cerebellum can also be divided in three parts based on both phylogenetic criteria and on functional criteria . From the phylogenetically oldest to the newest, the three parts are:

    Much of what is understood about the functions of the cerebellum stems from careful documentation of the effects of focal lesions in human patients who have suffered from injury or disease or through animal lesion research.

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    What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain

    The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:

    • Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.

    • Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.

    • Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.

    More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:

    Role Of The Cerebellum In Motor Learning

    There is considerable evidence that the cerebellum plays an essential role in some types of motor learning, most clearly in tasks in which fine adjustments must be made to an actionâs performance. There has been much dispute about whether learning takes place within the cerebellum itself, or whether it merely serves to provide signals that promote learning in other brain structures.

    One of the most extensively studied cerebellar learning tasks is the eyeblink conditioning paradigm. A blink response is elicited when a neutral conditioned stimulus, such as a tone or a light, is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus, such as an air puff.

    After many conditioned-unconditioned stimuli pairings, an association is formed whereby a learned blink, or conditioned response, occurs and precedes US onset. The magnitude of learning is measured by the percentage of all paired CS-US trials that result in a CR.

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    The Role Of The Cerebellum

    There are three main parts of the brain. The cerebrum is in the front, the cerebellum in the back, and the brain stem is at the bottom of the brain. The brain stem connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord.

    While the cerebrum controls speech, learning, and thinking, and the brain stem controls involuntary functions like breathing and blood pressure, the cerebellum controls voluntary motor movements.

    Theories And Computational Models

    The Cerebellum

    The large base of knowledge about the anatomical structure and behavioral functions of the cerebellum have made it a fertile ground for theorizingâthere are perhaps more theories of the function of the cerebellum than of any other part of the brain. The most basic distinction among them is between “learning theories” and “performance theories”âthat is, theories that make use of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum to account for its role in learning, versus theories that account for aspects of ongoing behavior on the basis of cerebellar signal processing. Several theories of both types have been formulated as mathematical models and simulated using computers.

    Theories in the “learning” category almost all derive from publications by Marr and Albus. Marr’s 1969 paper proposed that the cerebellum is a device for learning to associate elemental movements encoded by climbing fibers with mossy fiber inputs that encode the sensory context. Albus proposed in 1971 that a cerebellar Purkinje cell functions as a perceptron, a neurally inspired abstract learning device. The most basic difference between the Marr and Albus theories is that Marr assumed that climbing fiber activity would cause parallel fiber synapses to be strengthened, whereas Albus proposed that they would be weakened. Albus also formulated his version as a software algorithm he called a CMAC , which has been tested in a number of applications.

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    Clinical Relevance: Cerebellar Dysfunction

    Dysfunction of the cerebellum can produce a wide range of symptoms and signs. The aetiology is varied causes include stroke, physical trauma, tumours and chronic alcohol excess.

    Fig 1.4 CT scan of a left sided cerebellar stroke.

    The clinical picture is dependent on the functional area of the cerebellum that is affected. Damage to the cerebrocerebellum and spinocerebellum presents with problems in carrying out skilled and planned movements and in motor learning.

    A wide variety of manifestations are possible. These can be remembered using the acronym DANISH:

    • Dysdiadochokinesia
    • Ataxia
    • Scanning speech
    • Hypotonia

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    The cerebellum, which stands for “little brain”, is a structure of the central nervous system. It has an important role in motor control, with cerebellar dysfunction often presenting with motor signs. In particular, it is active in the coordination, precision and timing of movements, as well as in motor learning.

    During embryonic development, the anterior portion of the neural tube forms three parts that give rise to the brain and associated structures:

    • Forebrain
    • Midbrain
    • Hindbrain

    Position Volume Origin And Arterial Supply

    The cerebellum is an integral part of the central nervous system. It is located in the posterior cranial pit and is covered with a duplicate dura mater, which is scientifically called tentorium cerebelli.

    Although it only takes up a tenth of the volume of brain tissue, it contains as many as half of the whole number of brain neurons. It is anatomically roughly divided into two hemispheres, vermis, and the flocculonodular lobe.

    The cerebellum covers the fourth cerebral chamber and has a close anatomical relationship with the brainstem and the temporal bone pyramids. When it comes to the arterial supply, it sources from the posterior cerebral circulation and the venous drainage is connected to the surrounding sinuses of the dura.

    Developmentally, it originates from the posterior brainstem. The cerebral cortex is three-layered and contains the Purkinje cells, which are among the largest human brain cells.

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    The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

    The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

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