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Where Is The Frontal Lobe Located In The Brain

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What Happens If Theres Damage To The Frontal Lobe: The Story Of Phineas Gage

Frontal Lobe – Human Brain Series – Part 5

Phineas Gage was a foreman working on a railroad bed in Cavendish, Vermont in 1848. When he was 25 years old, a tamping iron he was using to pack explosive powder detonated and struck him. The iron penetrated his left cheek and exited the back of his skull damaging his frontal lobe.

Incredibly, Phineas survived. But he was never the same. Those that knew him recognized the personality change that had taken place. Their once kind and thoughtful friend was now crude and irresponsible.

Injury to that region of the brain showed that it can cause personality changes, among other symptoms and side effects.

The story of Phineas Gage points to the fact that we didnt know enough about the workings of the brain then, and we are still learning about it to this day. The closest doctors can predict is that,

Frontal Lobes And Voluntary Controlled Behavior

Among the important functions of the frontal lobes are voluntary movement and control of behavior . Below, I detail the role of the frontal lobes in motor behavior with reference to four key regions with distinct yet interrelated functions . While the role of premotor cortex in the mirror neuron network seems to be the most sociologically relevant function on the surface, together these regions enable humans to perform complex motor tasks including speaking and thus it is crucial to have a basic understanding of all of them.

Figure 2. Neuroanatomy of the frontal lobes. presents left view and presents right view. Adapted from the Harvard-Oxford atlas developed at the Center for Morphometric Analysis , and distributed with the FMRIB Software Library , 3D Surface View .

Frontal Lobe Damage Symptoms

Every brain injury is different, and therefore every survivor experiences different effects. Furthermore, the frontal lobe encompasses a large portion of the brain resulting in a wide variety of potential secondary effects that a brain injury survivor may experience.

An individual with damage to the frontal lobe may experience one or more of these secondary effects:

When an individual experiences a traumatic brain injury, one or both hemispheres may become damaged. Even if the trauma made impact on the left side, the right side can sustain damage as the brain rebounds from the initial impact. This is known as a coup-contrecoup injury.

Many of the secondary effects of frontal lobe damage depend upon which hemisphere sustained damage. For example, left neglect occurs when the right frontal lobe sustains damage and language difficulties usually occur if the left frontal lobe sustains damage.

Every brain injury is unique, and therefore every person will experience different secondary effects and recovery outcomes.

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Position Of The Frontal Brain Lobe

First of all, the frontal brain lobe is the largest part of our brain. Secondly, as its name implies, it is positioned in the front of the head. More importantly, the frontal lobe is positioned in both hemispheres.

Its anatomical position implies that it spreads from central sulcus to the front pole. This brain part contains four frontal curves. Those are:

  • Precentral curve,
  • Lower curve .

Most noteworthy, this brain part contains the Broca’s fields. This segment of the frontal brain lobe represents the primary motor cortex. Besides, they contain the Motor Speech Component. The frontal lobe also houses a center for controlling the willing horizontal orientation of a look to the opposite side.

A very important part of the frontal lobe is the prefrontal cortex. It has a role in planning and executing motor activities, taking initiative, motivation, control of emotions, and behavior. The cortical urinary center is located in this lobe. The inflow of blood into the frontal lobe is made possible by the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.

The Premotor Area And Broca’s Area

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The premotor area lies in front of the primary motor cortex on the lateral surface . The premotor cortex receives visual and somatosensory information and is involved in visually guided movements and limb positioning in space as well as limb ownership . In addition to areas involved in limb movements, the premotor cortex also includes the frontal eye fields, a region that shows increased neuronal activity during the execution of eye movements . The frontal eye field, which is extensively connected to extrastriate visual cortex , controls saccadic eye movements by shifting eye gaze as well as attention .

Broca’s area, which is located in the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant sphere , controls the ability to coordinate the muscles necessary for speaking . Named after famous French anatomist Paul Broca due to his studies associating lesions in this area with speech impediments , Broca’s area coordinates vocalizations and is also considered to be specialized in identifying natural principles of language . Lesions in this area lead to Broca’s aphasia, which is characterized as difficulty in motor production of speech while comprehension is intact . In addition to speaking, it is also demonstrated that Broca’s area and its right homolog is involved in musical syntax processing .

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What Does The Frontal Lobe Do

The frontal lobe is the slowest part of the brain to mature, continuing to create and prune neural connections until a person’s mid-twenties. This means that brain damage early in life renders the frontal lobe particularly vulnerable, potentially affecting behavior and cognition forever.

The frontal lobe is involved in a wide range of higher cognitive functions. Although all mammals have a frontal lobe, highly social mammals, such as dolphins and primates, tend to have more developed frontal lobes. This suggests that our social interactions may play a key role in the development of intelligence, and that the brain must devote significant resources to responding to the demands of social interactions. Humans have larger and more developed frontal lobes than any other animal.

Some of the many functions of the frontal lobe include:

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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Frontal Lobe Damage: What To Expect And How To Recover

Elizabeth Denslow, OTR/L Flint Rehab

As its name suggests, the frontal lobe is located in the front region of the brain, near the forehead. Damage to the frontal lobe may cause a variety of effects such as impaired muscle movements, personality changes, and impulsive behavior. Fortunately, many individuals are able to recover functions affected by frontal lobe damage and improve their quality of life.

To help you understand what to expect after frontal lobe damage, this article will discuss:

Brain Map Frontal Lobes

Frontal Lobe â Cerebral Cortex | Lecturio

The frontal lobes are located directly behind the forehead. The frontal lobes are the largest lobes in the human brain and they are also the most common region of injury in traumatic brain injury. The frontal lobes are important for voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions. Executive functions refer to a collection of cognitive skills including the capacity to plan, organise, initiate, self-monitor and control ones responses in order to achieve a goal. The frontal lobes are considered our behaviour and emotional control centre and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms.

Damage to the frontal lobes can result in:

  • Loss of simple movement of various body parts
  • Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements needed to complete multi-stepped tasks, such as making coffee
  • Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others
  • Inability to express language
  • Loss of flexibility in thinking and persistence of a single idea or behaviour
  • Inability to focus on a task and to filter out distractions
  • Mood fluctuations
  • Difficulty inhibiting or controlling a response or impulse
  • Reduced motivation, initiation and persistence on activities
  • Reduced awareness/insight into difficulties

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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Frontal Lobe Function Location In Brain & Damage

By Olivia Guy-Evans, published May 08, 2021

The frontal lobe is located behind the forehead, at the front of the brain. These lobes are part of the cerebral cortex and is the largest brain structure.

The frontal lobeâs main functions are associated typically with âhigherâ cognitive functions, including decision-making, problem-solving, thought and attention.

It contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning and Brocaâs Area, which is essential for language production

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The Frontal Lobe Location Function And Damage

Our brain is a marvelously complex artwork of evolutionary engineering that regulates all our bodily functions. All that we are is stored within its cells.

Fun Fact: Your brain accounts for up to 20 percent of your bodys total haul, with the frontal lobe being larger and more developed in humans than in any other organism.

We need to understand how our minds work so we can work our minds better.

Jim Kwik, Author of Mindvalleys Superbrain Quest

Modern day science has uncovered many interesting things when it comes to the brain. In this article, well learn more about the important role that the frontal lobe plays in our daily lives.

Get To Know Your Brain Series The Frontal Lobe

The Brain

1 Minute Read

So, you just made a terrible decision. Something so absurd you smack the front of your head in disgust. Well, you actually just smacked the part of your brain that made that decision. The frontal lobe, located in the front part of the brain, is the largest of the four main lobes and is considered our emotional control center and home to our personality and decision-making abilities.

The frontal lobes also are linked to sensory and memory centers throughout the brain and allow us to determine how to use information that is stored elsewhere. To put it simply, it allows us to think things through and rationalize decision making.

Other important functions of the frontal lobe include:

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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

Substructures Of The Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning and Brocaâs area, which is essential for language production.

Prefrontal Cortex

The prefrontal cortex is primarily responsible for the âhigherâ brain functions of the frontal lobes, including decision-making, problem-solving, intelligence, and emotion regulation.

This area has also been found to be associated with the social skills and personality of humans.

This idea is supported by the famous case study of Phineas Gage, whose personality changed after losing a part of his prefrontal cortex after an iron rod impaled his head.

The frontal cortex has also shown to be activated when an experience becomes conscious. Different ideas and perceptions are bound together in this region, both of which are necessary for conscious experience.

Concluding that this area may be especially important for consciousness.

Cognitive disorders that have shown to be linked to this region are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , Autism, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia.

The prefrontal cortex can be further divided into the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex.

Motor and Premotor Cortex

The motor cortex is critical for initiating motor movements, as well as coordinating motor movements, hence why it is called the motor cortex.

Brocaâs Area

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Can You Live Without Your Frontal Lobe

In theory,it is possible for you to live without a frontal lobe. But you would be completely paralyzed of your mobility and cognitive abilities.

Interestingly enough, it can also result in a lack of emotions and not allowing you to react accordingly. An example of this was discovered that when emotion was impaired, so was decision-making.

As with the case of Phineas Gage, he managed to live without a part of his frontal lobe. But not without distorting his personality completely.

A better question to ask here is:

Can The Frontal Lobe Heal?

Depending on the nature of the damage, with the right healthful diet, exercise and physical therapy treatment, this puts the patient on the track to begin to regain as much functionality as possible.

Results, of course, vary from patient to patient, as well as how your brain processes and adapts to the situation while learning to work around the injury.

In some cases, the brain can compensate for damage to a particular lobe by rewiring and utilizing its other regions to make up for it.

Occupational, speech, and physical therapy can help dramatically. These treatments prove to be very helpful in the early stages of recovery, as the brain begins to heal.

Jim Kwik, the author of our Superbrain program, believes that our brain is a muscle as well. Which means we can train our brain to become stronger, better and sharper to overcome injury if we are dedicated enough to doing so.

Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain

Frontal Cortex (Lobe) Anatomy | The Anatomy of Impulsive Behavior

In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.

Image: DJ / CC BY-SA 2.0 Albert Kok / Public Domain

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Frontal Lobe Damage Treatment

Treatment for frontal lobe damage focuses on identifying the functions that have been affected by the brain injury and practicing those functions.

Its important to know, however, that frontal lobe damage can affect an individuals motivation and ability to participate in goal-directed behaviors such as rehabilitation. Additionally, they may not believe that they have any functional deficits from their brain injury to be working on . When this occurs, it can be challenging for frontal lobe brain injury survivors to participate in a rehabilitation program.

For this reason, cognitive rehabilitation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy may need to be prioritized so that the individual can find long-term motivation to pursue other therapies. We will discuss these first.

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What Are Some Important Structures In The Frontal Lobe

Most neuroscientists divide the frontal lobe into four distinct regions, each containing a number of vital structures. Those include:

  • Medial frontal lobe: This region contains the cingulate gyrus, which is a part of the limbic system. It also contains the superior frontal gyrus, which research suggests plays a role in self-awareness.
  • Lateral frontal lobe: This region contains the superior frontal gyrus, which aids in self-awareness, as well as the middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus. The inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in language processing.
  • Polar region: This region is home to the frontomarginal gyrus, as well as the transverse frontopolar gyri.
  • The orbital frontal lobe contains a number of structures, including the anterior orbital gyrus, medial orbital gyrus, posterior orbital gyrus, and gyrus rectus. The orbital gyri is connected to the vagus nerve, an important part of the limbic system that coordinates and controls emotional and automatic reactions.

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What Is The Main Function Of The Frontal Lobe

All mammalian species have a frontal lobe, though its complexity varies from species to species. Biologists believe it is a relatively recent evolutionary addition.

The lobes of the brain govern different cognitive and biological processes, with the frontal lobe being the last part of the human brain to develop.

Its located in the front of our skull and is split in to of two parts the left frontal cortex and the right frontal cortex. Together, they make up two-thirds of the brain.

The left frontal cortex manages and controls the muscles on the right side of the body, while right frontal cortex controls the left side of the body.

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