Monday, May 2, 2022

Where Is The Memory Part Of The Brain

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Emotions And False Memories

Quickly Memorize the Parts of the Brain

A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid episodic memory of the circumstances surrounding a piece of surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing news was heard. However, even flashbulb memories can have decreased accuracy with the passage of time, even with very important events. For example, on at least three occasions, when asked how he heard about the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President George W. Bush responded inaccurately. In January 2002, less than 4 months after the attacks, the then sitting President Bush was asked how he heard about the attacks. He responded:

I was sitting there, and my Chief of Staffwell, first of all, when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake.

Contrary to what President Bush recalled, no one saw the first plane hit, except people on the ground near the twin towers. The first plane was not videotaped because it was a normal Tuesday morning in New York City, until the first plane hit.

How Cells In The Memory Work

Neurons, or nerve cells, are what most people call brain cells. Neurons are not like other cells. They do not divide, and if they die, they are not replaced. On average the human brain has over 100 billion neurons or brain cells.

These brain cells communicate with one another through synaptic connectors, sometimes referred to as synapses. There are over a trillion synapses in the brain that communicate information between neurons. With this complex system, it is estimated that humans have a memory capacity of anywhere between one and 1,000 terabytes worth of data.

When you are encoding or retrieving information from your memory, the neurons work together through the synapses to allow the process. It is electrical as well as electrochemical, with chemicals like dopamine and serotonin having an impact on how the neurons communicate.

Memories Are Triggered By Senses

We now know that the memory comprises of several chunks of information. The more the sense and emotions involved, the easier it will be to access the memory. In the film Ratatouille, when Remy feeds Ratatouille to Anton, the critic gets a flashback of his mother. It shows Anton as a child, eating the same dish that was made by her mother.

This is a clear depiction of how memory works. The taste of a sensory trigger brought the memory of Anton’s mother. Thus, consciousness is based on several such connections. Similarly, a smell of perfume or a song can also take you to a trip down the memory lane because sensory stimuli are involved in accessing a certain memory.

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What Are The Three Lobes Of The Cerebellum

The cerebellum’s hemispheres are each divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are split up by two fissures , called the primary fissure and the posterolateral fissure.

The three lobes of the Cerebellum, where purple is the anterior lobe, green is the posterior lobe and orange is the Flocculonodular lobe./Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

Unlike the cerebral cortex, there are no clear separation of functions in the cerebellar cortex. The best way to identify the tasks are by the information each section processes.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The anterior lobe and the vermis together are known as the spinocerebellum. The spinocerebellum helps regulate muscle tone and body movement. It’s also responsible for our sense of our body’s position in relation to our surroundings, and in relation to other parts of our body . This area receives input from our spinal cord, auditory and visual systems.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The posterior lobe is called the cerebrocerebellum. This area is responsible for planning movements that are about to happen, managing sensory information to determine action and motor learning. It receives information from the cerebral cortex .

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

Which Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Memory And Intelligence

Where are memories stored in the brain?

So, now you may be wondering, what part of the brain controls memory?

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The answer to this question may be a bit more complex than you think. The truth is, there is no one memory part of the brain. In fact, different memories are stored in different places all over the brain

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What Part Of The Brain Is Associated With Memory

Brain memory is a complex topic, but we will do our best to break down where memories are stored in the brain by first focusing on two main different types of memory: implicit memory and explicit memory.

So, what part of the brain controls memory? All of its different, interconnected regions work together as the memory part of the brain. They each play their unique role in both memory consolidation and memory recall.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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What Can Go Wrong

If one or both parts of the hippocampus are damaged by illnesses such as Alzheimers disease, or if they are hurt in an accident, the person can experience a loss of memory and a loss of the ability to make new, long-term memories.

They may be unable to remember some things that happened shortly before the hippocampal damage, but they may still remember things that happened longer ago. This is because the long-term memories are stored in another part of the brain, once they become long term.

Transient global amnesia is a specific form of memory loss that develops suddenly, seemingly on its own, and then goes away fairly quickly.

Most people with transient global amnesia eventually regain their memories, but the reasons why the problem occurs and why it resolves are unclear. It may be that damage to the hippocampus is involved.

Damage to the hippocampus can make it hard to remember how to get from one place to another. The person may be able to draw a map of the neighborhood they lived in as children, but find going to a store in a new area can be difficult.

The hippocampus is a sensitive part of the brain. A range of conditions can adversely affect it, including long-term exposure to high levels of stress.

Several diseases and factors are known to impair the hippocampus ability to do its job.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

Memorize the Parts of the Brain – part 1

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

Vascular Contributions To Alzheimers Disease

People with dementia seldom have only Alzheimers-related changes in their brains. Any number of vascular issuesproblems that affect blood vessels, such as beta-amyloid deposits in brain arteries, atherosclerosis , and mini-strokesmay also be at play.

Vascular problems may lead to reduced blood flow and oxygen to the brain, as well as a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, which usually protects the brain from harmful agents while allowing in glucose and other necessary factors. In a person with Alzheimers, a faulty blood-brain barrier prevents glucose from reaching the brain and prevents the clearing away of toxic beta-amyloid and tau proteins. This results in inflammation, which adds to vascular problems in the brain. Because it appears that Alzheimers is both a cause and consequence of vascular problems in the brain, researchers are seeking interventions to disrupt this complicated and destructive cycle.

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Where Are Memories Stored In The Brain

  • Learning & Memory
  • Memories arent stored in just one part of the brain. Different types are stored across different, interconnected brain regions. For explicit memories which are about events that happened to you , as well as general facts and information there are three important areas of the brain: the hippocampus, the neocortex and the amygdala. Implicit memories, such as motor memories, rely on the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Short-term working memory relies most heavily on the prefrontal cortex.

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    Now that we have identified the MMA, let us take a closer look at what happens in the brains of people who have AD. AD is the most common form of dementia, and it most frequently afflicts people close to your grandparents age. People who suffer from AD start to lose their memories of who they are, where they have been, and what they have done. In later stages of the disease, they begin to lose their ability to speak, do simple everyday tasks, plan, solve problems, and interact well with other people. In other words, AD progresses beyond amnesia, impacting their feelings and knowledge about who they are and, eventually, every aspect of their lives .

    In order to diagnose AD, doctors look for multiple symptoms in the brain. These include :

    • Shrinkage of the brain because brain cells are dying

    • An increase in a sticky buildup that causes brain cells to die and

    • A reduced amount of glucose uptake, meaning that the brain is not consuming enough sugar to function properly.

    To look for brain regions that have shrunk, doctors use a technique called magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brain. To see the parts of the brain that have sticky buildup and/or are not getting enough sugar, doctors use a different technique called positron emission tomography to scan the brain. If you would like to learn more about AD and its diagnosis, check out Ref. .

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    Neurotransmitters And The Information System

    In addition to the information-processing circuits arranged in neuronal modules and in columns of incoming nerve tracts, the brain is replete with other systems of input. In the prefrontal cortex, for example, nerve fibers containing the neurotransmitter dopamine are found in especially high concentration, and researchers have wondered for some time what role dopamine might play in prefrontal circuits of information. The evidence gathered on this point over the past few years has begun to make clear the enormous extent to which dopamine shapes not only our physical functioning in the world but also our ability to process new information, to associate ideas effectively, and even to maintain a sense of well-being in balance with realistic perceptions.

    In a test to see whether interference with the D-1 receptors would have any effect on cognitive function, Goldman-Rakic’s research team injected a compound that blocks the D-1 receptor sites in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys trained in the delayed-response test described earlier. About 20 minutes after the injection, the animals showed an impairment of working memory, moving their eyes to the wrong location when the trial included a delay but they responded correctly in a “sensory-guided” version of the task, in which the target light was left on as a guide. The D-1 receptors thus appear to be implicated in the efficiency of working memory.

    The Cell Structure Of The Brain

    The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

    When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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    The Geography Of Thought

    Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

    When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

    As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.

    The Horrors Of Dementia

    Your Brain is You: Learning and Memory (Part 5 of 6)

    Dementia is often commonly regarded as a disease. The truth is dementia is not a disease it is a group of several symptoms caused by some brain-related disorder. Although speech and language could also be affected, memory loss is relatively common in people with dementia. Stroke and Alzheimers disease can lead to dementia. The brain activity, including the normal process of memory-making and accessing, is disrupted. The neurons degenerate, causing the symptoms of memory loss. Type of damage can vary with the kind of dementia and other condition.

    The memory loss due to aging is different from this. Unlike skin cell that regenerates themselves regularly, nerve cells do not. This means that with the normal process of aging, they will degrade. The amount of neurotransmitter will also decrease. This can lead to the loss of specific memories.

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    The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

    Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

    For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

    Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

    NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

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