Blood Supply And Lymphatics
Three groups of arteries from posterior circulation provide blood supply to the pons: anteromedial, lateral, and dorsal. The anteromedial group of arteries originates from the terminal branches of the vertebral artery and the basilar artery that nourish the paramedian ventral pons , bilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus , medial lemniscus, and abducens nucleus.
The lateral group of arteries derives mainly from the superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and long pontine arteries. Perforating branches of lateral group arteries nourish the superior cerebellar peduncle, motor and main sensory trigeminal nuclei, central tegmental tract, superior olivary nucleus, pontine reticular nucleus, abducens nerve nucleus, facial nerve nucleus, and locus ceruleus. Terminal superior cerebellar arteries provide the arterial supply of the dorsal pons that perfuse the superior cerebellar peduncle, the mesencephalic nucleus of the CN V, and the locus ceruleus.
What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain
The brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum:
Cerebrum. The cerebrum is composed of the right and left hemispheres. Functions of the cerebrum include: initiation of movement, coordination of movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, speech and language, judgment, reasoning, problem solving, emotions, and learning.
Brainstem. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages , hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing.
Cerebellum. The cerebellum is located at the back of the head. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance, and equilibrium.
More specifically, other parts of the brain include the following:
Pons: Important Cranial Nerves Nuclei
The sensory nucleus and the trigeminal motor nuclei are located in the mid pons. The main sensory nucleus receives somatic sensory information from the face. The two other nuclei which receive sensory information from the trigeminal nerve are the Spinal trigeminal nucleus and the Mesencephalic nucleus.
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Significance Of The Pons
The pons is a structure of the brain that is vital to the autonomic, sensory, and motor functions of the human body. Along with the medulla oblongata and midbrain, it comprises one of the most important nervous system structures, the midbrain the point through which all transmissions of the central and peripheral nervous systems pass.
Damage to this structure can result in the loss of sensation in the face, loss of the corneal reflex , and loss of the ability to gaze. Additional symptoms related to the damage of the pons are very similar to those of a stroke like a lack of control of the facial muscles which would lead to the face appearing to droop.
As the bridge of the central nervous system, the pons is an integral part of the functionality of the human nervous system and overall survival.
General Overview Of The Human Nervous System
The human nervous system is divided into the peripheral and central nervous system . The peripheral nervous system consists of:
- The somatic nervous system: which is responsible for functions under conscious control such as body movement and reception of external stimuli
- The autonomic nervous system: which regulates functions under subconscious control, such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and digestion.
The central nervous system is subdivided into the spinal cord and brain, which includes the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brainstem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla and serves as a passageway between the brain and spinal cord. Above the pons is the hypothalamus, and to the back sits the 4th ventricle.
The pons which means bridge in Latin is an approximately 3.5 cm. long knob-like structure that occupies the central portion of the brainstem between the midbrain and the medulla. Any messages descending from the brain or ascending to it must cross this critical bridge-like structure.
Role : Involuntary Functions
Finally, the Pons controls involuntary bodily functions. The Pons controls the intensity and frequency of breathing and also controls our sleep and consciousness cycle. Many researchers believe that Pons play a major role in REM sleep where dreams occur. By studying and doing experiments scientists believe that dreaming actually originates from the Pons, so next time you have a bad or weird dream blame your Pons for acting up.
Can We Live Without Our Brains Pons
While humans can live without a gallbladder, lung, and even a kidney, there are certain organs and parts of our bodies that we cannot live without. The Pons is one of those parts that we cannot live without. If you were to remove anything above the brainstem your body could theoretically survive, but if anything below the brainstem is gone you would not be able to survive.
The brainstem is what houses all of our primary functions, such as breathing, which the Pons is responsible for. Because of the part that the Pons plays in hearing, eating, facial expression, and eye movement, the Pons is NOT something you could live without. It relays messages throughout the brain and controls too many important vital functions we as human beings need.
You may have heard stories about people who have had traumatic brain injuries and survived, well it is because their brainstem wasnt touched. If those injuries involved anything to do with the brainstem they would die pretty quickly since that stem is so important.
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What Does The Left Side Of The Brain Control
The left side of the brain is generally dominant for language and other logical tasks. This side of the brain is also used for math or various calculations, according to the University of Washington. The left side of the brain also controls muscles on the right side of the body. Sensory information from the bodys right side crosses over to the left side of the brain.
The ability to form words primarily lies in the left hemisphere, states the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Both hemispheres are divided into sections, or lobes, which specialize in different functions. The Brocas area, which is found on the left frontal lobe, enables thoughts to be transformed into words.
The left hemisphere of around 95 percent of right-handed individuals and 60 to 70 percent of left-handed persons is dominant for language, explains the University of Washington. The two specific areas of the brain that are important for language are named the Brocas area and Wernickes area.
As most of the signals from the brain to the body and vice versa cross over when reaching the brain, both left and right hemispheres control the opposite side of the body, notes the NINDS. Thus, when the left hemisphere is damaged, the right part of the body is affected. For instance, a stroke in the left hemisphere usually leaves the right arm and leg paralyzed.
Function Of The Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord. It is also responsible for regulating several basic functions of the autonomic nervous system, including:
- Respiration: chemoreceptors
- Reflex centers of vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing
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What Is The Main Function Of The Pons In Your Brain
The pons is a small but vital brain structure that houses bunches of nerve fibers. These fibers connect both the cerebrum and the cerebellum as well as the right and left hemispheres of the brain. They make it possible for these structures to send messages including sensory and motor information back and forth. Without the pons, it would be impossible to move or communicate. People with locked in syndrome may have experienced an injury to this vital structure.
Neurotransmitter Systems In Pons And Medulla Oblongata
Noradrenalin belongs to the monoamine family of neurotransmitters. It is a hormone and neurotransmitter that increases body arousal and reaches high levels during stress . The locus coeruleus located near the 4th ventricle, is the major site of Noradrenalin synthesis in the brain. The LC neurons have projections to all regions of the brain, modulating the arousal state of the brain. Example enzymes involved in noradrenalin synthesis and noradrenalin transport can be found below.
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Function Of Pons In The Brain
Pons is located in the upper part of the brain stem. So, what is its function? Is it affected by midbrain injuries? Let us find out in this Bodytomy article.
Pons is located in the upper part of the brain stem. So, what is its function? Is it affected by midbrain injuries? Let us find out in this Bodytomy article.
The human brain is one of the most fascinating organs that exists in the universe. It is a complex organ that has so many parts and functions that the exact areas of the brain and their functions are still being studied. The brain is generally divided into three parts, which are forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain contains the main part of the brain, which is the cerebrum that forms a bulk of the brain. The midbrain consists of the tectum, tegmentum, and the cerebral peduncles. The hindbrain contains the medulla oblongata, pons, and the cerebellum.
Pons is the region that is located superior to the medulla oblongata, inferior to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum. In simple words, in humans, the pons is above the medulla oblongata, below the midbrain, and anterior to the cerebellum. However, what many people do not know is what function does it actually perform. There are many functions that are served by this part of the brain.
Function of Ponscerebellar peduncles
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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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Nuclei Of Cranial Nerve
The nuclei of important cranial nerves are present in pons. These cranial nerves, arising from the pons have important functions listed below.
The nucleus of the abducent nerve is present in the caudal part of the pons. It controls the movements of eyeball. This nerve provides motor supply to the lateral rectus muscle of eyeball. This muscle causes lateral rotation and abduction of eyeball.
The motor and sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are present in pons. This nerve provides sensory supply to the entire face, part of neck and scalp. This nerve is also important for the process of chewing, swallowing and biting as it provides motor supply to the muscles of mastication.
The nucleus of the facial nerve is also present in pons. It provides motor signals to the muscles of facial expressions. Thus, it is majorly responsible for controlling facial expressions. It also carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
It also provides innervation to the salivary glands and thus controls the process of salivation.
Facial nerve is also involved in corneal reflex arc.
The Brains Pons And Its Function
Just like the thalamus is a relay station, well, so is the Pons. The Pons is one of the most interesting parts of the brain because it serves multiple purposes. It serves as a relay station for the cerebellum and the cerebrum, it is an origin point for different nerves, and it has a massive role in involuntary functions. Lets go over those roles:
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Bontogeny Of Noradrenergic Innervation
The pons and the tegmental part of the medulla are the main regions where NE is synthesized. The main region of synthesis of noradrenergic neurons is the locus coeruleus, as this center possesses about half of the noradrenergic neurons of the brain. NE axonal arbors project upward from the pons and medulla into diverse regions including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and caudally to the spinal cord.9
G.P. Singh, in, 2017
Organization Of The Pons
The pons consists of a) the basilar pons in the front , and b) the pontine tegmentum in the back . The basilar pons and the pontine tegmentum contain nuclei and tracts. The basilar pons contains a complex combination of tracts and nuclei . The pontine tegmentum is made up of cranial nerves which serve the head and neck, associated nuclei, the reticular formation , and tracts .
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Where Is The Pons
The pons is a major division of the brainstem. It is found above the medulla and below the midbrain, and is anterior to the cerebellum. Pons is Latin for “bridge” the structure was given its name by the Italian anatomist Costanzo Varolio, who thought that the most conspicuous portion of the pons resembled a bridge that connected the two cerebellar hemispheres. This part of the pons is now referred to as the basal or basilar pons not only is it the most distinct area of the pons, it is also one of the more recognizable areas of the brain. Posterior to the basal pons is an area sometimes called the dorsal pons or pontine tegmentum. Much of this area is also considered part of the reticular formation. The pontine tegmentum includes the tissue between the basal pons and the fourth ventricle the pons makes up the floor of the fourth ventricle.
Diagram Of Human Brain: Location And Parts Of Brain
The human brain is the root of our intelligence. It is the central unit of the human body, responsible for controlling physical functions, physiological processes, and cognitive skills. It regulates almost every element of the human body. The brain processes information coming from all the body parts. It works by sending and receiving messages to various regions of the body via neurons. The human brain has the same fundamental anatomy as most other mammals, but the human brain is bigger in size and more evolved than other mammalian brains. In this article, we will look at the diagram of the human brain and its various parts.
Table of Content
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Damage To The Hindbrain
Symptoms or conditions associated with damage to the hindbrain depends on the structure which is damaged.
Damage to the pons is associated with symptoms such as impaired breathing, sleep disturbances, loss of taste, loss of muscle function , and deafness.
In worse cases, this could result in paralysis or death. A type of stroke, called pontine stroke, is limited to the pons and can lead to paralysis. A rare condition associated with damage to an area of the pons is called âLocked-in Syndromeâ.
If an individual has this condition, they are aware of their surroundings and can see and hear. However, they cannot activate any voluntary muscles that are under conscious control, so they will be unable to move or react.
This condition can be the result of an injury or a lack of blood supply whilst experiencing a stoke.If the brainstem in general gets damaged, this can result in difficulties with balance and moving, dizziness, and lack of motor function.
The brain stem has also been associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnoea. In particular, if the medulla becomes damaged, this can lead to respiratory failure, paralysis, or loss of sensation.
Damage to this structure can be fatal as it helps the heartbeat, therefore damage to this area can cause a termination in heartbeat, resulting in death.Finally, cerebellar damage results in the break down and destruction of nerve cells which can have long-last effects.
Where Are The Pons Medulla And Midbrain Located
The midbrain connects the pons and cerebellum with the forebrain and can be divided into a ventral part, the tegmentum, and a dorsal part, the tectal or quadrigeminal plate . The cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius is located in the midbrain and joins the third and fourth ventricles, surrounded by periaqueductal gray matter .
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What Happens If There Is Damage To The Pons
Since the main function of the pons is to connect different parts of your nervous system, any damage to it would disrupt that connection and cause serious complications as a result. These can include sleep disturbances, sensory problems, and impaired voluntary movement control among others.
If one of the arteries that deliver blood to the pons becomes clogged, your brain could stop receiving the oxygen it needs to maintain its normal processes.
Commonly referred to as lacunar stroke, this condition could limit your movement, cause difficulty while speaking, and result in loss of memory. In more severe cases, it could even have a fatal outcome.
The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator Device
The Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator is an authorized medical device in the United States. The PoNS device is indicated for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild-to-moderate symptoms from multiple sclerosis and is to be used as an adjunct to a supervised therapeutic exercise program in patients 22 years of age and over by prescription only.
PoNS is an authorized medical device commercially available in Canada intended for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild and moderate symptoms from MS and is to be used in conjunction with physical therapy. The device is also intended for use as a short term treatment of chronic balance deficit due to mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury and is to be used in conjunction with physical therapy in Canada. In the US, PoNS is authorized and indicated for use as a short term treatment of gait deficit due to mild to moderate symptoms from multiple sclerosis and is to be used as an adjunct to a supervised therapeutic exercise program in patients 22 years of age and over by prescription only. PoNS is currently under review for market authorization by the AUS TGA PoNS is not commercially available in Australia or other markets.
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