Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control
Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.
- Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
- Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
- Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
- Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.
Studies Of Brocas Area
Since the discovery of Brocaâs area being involved in language production, many studies have since found that this area may serve more functions than was previously believed.
For instance, it has now been recognized that Brocaâs area may play an important role in the comprehension of language.
Cooke et al., used a neuroimaging method called functional magnetic resonance imaging on participants whilst they were presented with written sentences differing in their grammatical structure and short-term memory demands.
The researchers found that there was significant activation in the brain region which corresponds to Brocaâs area when participants were comprehending the sentences.
In other studies, it has been suggested that Brocaâs more can be activated during tasks that do not require producing actual speech .
In a study that used positron emission tomography , it was found that there was greater blood flow in Brocaâs area when participants read silently than when they read verbally.
This suggests that Brocaâs area may have more of a role in the semantic processing for silent than verbal reading.Otherwise, other studies have shown that there has been activation of Brocaâs area during the acquisition of grammatical rules, discrimination of speech sounds, and during the reproduction of rhythms .
Similarly, this area is also thought to be active during movement and action , and during the imitation of movement .
Disorders Of Speech & Language
Aphasia is the term used to describe an acquired loss of language that causes problems with any or all of the following: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Some people with aphasia have trouble using words and sentences . Some have problems understanding others . Others with aphasia struggle with both using words and understanding . Aphasia can cause problems with spoken language and written language . Typically, reading and writing are more impaired than talking or understanding. The severity of the aphasia depends on the amount and location of the damage to the brain.
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Action Recognition And Production
Recent experiments have indicated that Broca’s area is involved in various cognitive and perceptual tasks. One important contribution of Brodmann‘s area 44 is also found in the motor-related processes. Observation of meaningful hand shadows resembling moving animals activates frontal language area, demonstrating that Broca’s area indeed plays a role in interpreting action of others. An activation of BA 44 was also reported during execution of grasping and manipulation.
Newer Implications Related To Lesions In Broca’s Area
Since studies carried out in the late 1970s it has been understood that the relationship between Broca’s area and Broca’s aphasia is not as consistent as once thought. Lesions to Broca’s area alone do not result in Broca’s aphasia, nor do Broca’s aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in Broca’s area. Lesions to Broca’s area alone are known to produce a transient mutism that resolves within 36 weeks. This discovery suggests that Broca’s area may be included in some aspect of verbalization or articulation however, this does not address its part in sentence comprehension. Still, Broca’s area frequently emerges in functional imaging studies of sentence processing. However, it also becomes activated in word-level tasks. This suggests that Brocas area is not dedicated to sentence processing alone, but supports a function common to both. In fact, Broca’s area can show activation in such non-linguistic tasks as imagery of motion.
Broca’s area as a key center in the linking of phonemic sequences
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How Wernickes Area Was Discovered
Early neuroscientists were interested in discovering where certain abilities were localized in the brain. This localization of brain function suggests that certain abilities, such as producing and understanding language, are controlled by certain parts of the brain.
One of the pioneers of this research was a French neurologist named Paul Broca. During the early 1870s, Paul Broca discovered a region of the brain associated with the production of spoken language. He found that damage to this area resulted in problems producing language.
Broca described how one patient known as Leborgne could understand language although he could not speak aside from isolated words and a few other utterances. When Leborgne died, Broca conducted a postmortem exam on the man’s brain and found a lesion in an area of the frontal lobe. This area of the brain is now referred to as Broca’s area and is associated with the production of speech.
About 10 years later, a neurologist named Carl Wernicke identified a similar type of problem in which patients were able to speak but were not able to actually comprehend language. Examining the brains of patients suffering from this language problem revealed lesions at a junction of the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
This region of the brain is now known as Wernicke’s area and is associated with the understanding of spoken and written language.
Pituitary Gland Controls Growth
The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, its because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys and girls bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.
This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.
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Descending Control Of Face And Throat
Vocalizations and orofacial movements are controlled by several brainstem nuclei, such as the trigeminal motor nucleus innervating jaw musculature, the hypoglossal nucleus driving tongue movements, the facial nucleus controlling face and lip movements, and finally the ambiguus nucleus innervating the vocal folds in the larynx. In addition, vocalizations depend on a tight control of respiratory muscles. These nuclei relate to brainstem central pattern generators that produce cyclic activity for behaviors like chewing, swallowing, drinking, laughing and swallowing . It is most likely that these circuits were recruited and remodeled for the development of human speech, as for example, respiratory movements have to be much more controlled during speech than during primate vocalizations .
What Side Of The Brain Controls Speech
The left side of the brain controls speech. As well as the Brocos area, another area that controls speech is called the Wernickes area. It deals with understanding speechand language. That is how we can understand others and react with proper emotion. It is also connected to the sensory cortex.
People who have damaged this speech center are not able to understand what they hear. However, they do not have problems with word formation. This condition is called Wernickes aphasia.
People with damage to both areas have a condition called global aphasia.
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Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Sight
Interestingly enough, vision is controlled by the part of the brain which is furthest away from the eyes themselves the occipital lobe. It is located in the back of your head above the brain stem, the part of our brain that controls breathing.
The occipital lobe also has two hemispheres. The left hemisphere processes information from the right eye and vice versa.
The primary visual cortex gets raw information from the eyes and sends them to the secondary visual cortex for further processing. The secondary visual cortex is made out of the ventral stream and dorsal stream. Visual stimuli are processed in the temporal lobe as well.
Its important to keep the brain healthy and to challenge it with new tasks on a daily basis. That way, we can keep our brains strong and functioning well.
Thanks to Brocas area we can share our thoughts and ideas with people around us. What thoughts would you like to share with us below?
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Speaking Without Broca’s Area
Damage to Broca’s area is commonly associated with telegraphic speech made up of content vocabulary. For example, a person with Broca’s aphasia may say something like, “Drive, store. Mom.” meaning to say, “My mom drove me to the store today.” Therefore, the content of the information is correct, but the grammar and fluidity of the sentence is missing.
The essential role of the Broca’s area in speech production has been questioned since it can be destroyed while leaving language nearly intact. In one case of a computer engineer, a slow-growing glioma tumor was removed. The tumor and the surgery destroyed the left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the anterior insula. However, there were minimal language problems three months after removal and the individual returned to his professional work. These minor problems include the inability to create syntactically complex sentences including more than two subjects, multiple causal conjunctions, or reported speech. These were explained by researchers as due to working memory problems. They also attributed his lack of problems to extensive compensatory mechanisms enabled by neural plasticity in the nearby cerebral cortex and a shift of some functions to the homologous area in the right hemisphere.
General Inability To Speak And Understand Language
Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.
People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .
PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.
Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.
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Functions Of The Brocas Area
Broca’s zone is assumed to be responsible for creating programs for production of language symbols and executing commands for the primary motor field where the impulses are sent from into the muscles of the larynx, palate, tongue, and lips, which enable processes of articulation and phonation.
Also, this area does not play a role only in serial phoneme stacking, morphemes, and flexural extensions, but also in syntactic editing of a sentence. Characteristics of language disorders that occur due to the lesion of Broca’s zone show that it is responsible for the phonetic-phonological and syntactic aspects of the language .
Brodman’s field 44 in the left hemisphere is part of the Broca’s zone and is responsible for the production of speech, more precisely, the integration of speech elements into meaningful sequences, choice of information between different sources, syntax and phonological aspects, complex semantics and verbal working memory.
In this field, motor programs are created for speech activity, control muscle movements of the speech apparatus and related movements of the lips, tongue, larynx, pharynx. The impulse for oral speech goes through the premotor and motor areas of the muscles of the speech apparatus and face.
Brodman Field 45 also forms part of the Brocas Area, but it has more complex functions than the Area 44.
Where Are The Language Centers Of The Brain Located
There are several areas of the brain that play a critical role in speech and language.
- Broca’s area, located in the left hemisphere, is associated with speech production and articulation.
- Wernicke’s area is a critical language area in the posterior superior temporal lobe connects to Broca’s area via a neural pathway.
what are the two major language centers in the brain? Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are considered the major components of the brain involved in speech, but other parts of the brain also play an important role in coordinating the muscles of the mouth to create spoken words. For most people, speech-related brain activity happens on the left side of the brain.
Likewise, which part of the brain is responsible for language?
Language. In general, the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech and is called the “dominant” hemisphere. The right hemisphere plays a large part in interpreting visual information and spatial processing.
Where are Broca and Wernicke area located in the brain?
Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas are cortical areas specialized for production and comprehension, respectively, of human language. Broca’s area is found in the left inferior frontal gyrus and Wernicke’s area is located in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus.
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Paleoanthropological Evidence Of Human Brain Evolution
The study of fossil endocasts of hominin brains has provided important information about the size and shape of the brains, which increased in size from some 500 cc. in australopithecines to more than 1,000 cc. in late Homo erectus. More modern Homo species like Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans show a further increase in brain size up to about 1,500 cc. A contentious issue has been the identification of Broca’s language region in early hominin endocasts. Australopithecines lack a human-like Broca’s cap region, but specimen KNM-ER 1470 displays a more advanced morphology in this area . Compared to other human fossils, Neanderthals and modern humans display an increased depth of the anterior fossa that corresponds to part of Broca’s region and relatively wider frontal lobes . These are also the only human species with the frontal lobes located entirely over the orbits , but the functional implications of these findings are unclear . On the other hand, both humans and apes display larger frontal lobes on the right hemisphere and a larger occipital lobe on the left hemisphere, although asymmetries are more marked in fossil hominins .
Expressive Aphasia Vs Other Aphasias
Patients with expressive aphasia, also known as Broca’s aphasia, are individuals who know “what they want to say, they just cannot get it out”. They are typically able to comprehend words, and sentences with a simple syntactic structure , but are more or less unable to generate fluent speech. Other symptoms that may be present include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition, and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing.
This specific group of symptoms distinguishes those who have expressive aphasia from individuals with other types of aphasia. There are several distinct “types” of aphasia, and each type is characterized by a different set of language deficits. Although those who have expressive aphasia tend to retain good spoken language comprehension, other types of aphasia can render patients completely unable to understand any language at all, unable to understand any spoken language , whereas still other types preserve language comprehension, but with deficits. People with expressive aphasia may struggle less with reading and writing ” rel=”nofollow”> alexia) than those with other types of aphasia.:480500 Although individuals with expressive aphasia tend to have a good ability to self-monitor their language output , other types of aphasics can seem entirely unaware of their language deficits.
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Risks Of Damage To The Frontal Lobe
Seizures. Some seizure disorders are caused by damage to â or a malformation in â the brains frontal lobe. Seizures impact your motor abilities and speech. Your doctor will assess your seizures and determine which region of your frontal lobe may be impacted.
Personality and social skills. Because the frontal lobe is large and in the front of your skull, it is susceptible to damage. Any damage may contribute to changes in your social behavior. Damage may impact your spatial orientation and coordination of your facial muscles.
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