Broca And Wernicke’s Areas
Located at the front and middle of the left temporal lobe, respectively, Broca’s area and Wenicke’s area are the regions of the human brain that handle the formation and processing of language. Regardless of what language you’re using, these two regions allow you to form sentences, understand the meaning of what others are saying and pick up on verbal patterns. These regions are the reason why a left temporal lobe hemorrhage can leave a person unable to understand what someone is saying, or lead them to babble incoherently.
Patterns Of Ictal Cerebral Blood Flow
Temporal lobe hyperperfusion will be seen with injection given during the seizure or up to 30 seconds after seizure completion . The area of hyperperfusion is variable but typically involves the anterior pole and medial temporal lobe with a variable degree of lateral temporal cortex. Often, it is extensive and involves the anterior half of the temporal lobe. Hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral basal ganglia is common and correlates well with dystonic posturing of the contralateral arm during the seizure . Hyperperfusion of lesser extent may also be seen in the ipsilateral thalamus.
Propagation of the seizure also frequently leads to a variable degree of byperperfusion in the contralateral medial temporal lobe . This is usually less extensive and of less intensity than in the temporal lobe from which the seizure originates . Involvement of the ipsilateral insula cortex and basal frontal lobe is not infrequent. Secondarily generalized complex partial seizures will show unilateral blood flow increase if injection is given before generalization or if the seizure remains predominantly lateralized to one hemisphere. In such circumstances, hyperperfusion may be seen in the temporal lobe, ipsilateral motor cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus, and contralateral cerebellar cortex.
Priyanka A. Abhang, … Suresh C. Mehrotra, in, 2016
Basic Temporal Lobe Function
The temporal lobes are located at the sides of the brain, and can be considered the “middle” region of each brain hemisphere. As a whole, the temporal lobe is the part of your brain in charge of memory storage, the process of hearing sounds, visual recognition of faces and objects, and the use of language. Though this seems like an incredible number of functions for one small part of the brain to command, the temporal lobes are actually more complex than they look they contain a number of specialized substructures, including the amygdala and auditory cortex, that perform a variety of high-level functions. At the same time, the temporal lobes aren’t the only parts of the brain used in many of these mental processes the frontal and parietal lobes make sense of processed sounds for example, and the hippocampus creates the memories that the temporal lobe then stores and recalls.
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How Does The Temporal Lobe Affect Behavior
affectedtemporal lobetemporaltemporaltemporal lobesbehavior
What are the symptoms of temporal lobe damage?
There are eight principal symptoms of temporal lobe damage:
- Disturbance of auditory sensation and perception.
- Disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input.
- Disorders of visual perception.
- Impaired organisation and categorisation of verbal material.
- Disturbance of language comprehension.
does the temporal lobe control emotions?temporal lobesemotions
What Are Some Important Structures In The Temporal Lobe
As one of just four lobes in the brain, the temporal lobe is less a discrete organ, and more of a home to numerous other structures. Some of the most important structures in the temporal lobe include:
- Limbic lobe: This brain region actually intersects with several lobes, but interacts directly with the temporal lobe to influence the limbic system, including automatic emotional reactions such as the fight-or-flight response and the limbic system. The limbic lobe is home to key memory, learning, and attention processing structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus. This brain region also manages a number of automatic, unconscious bodily functions, as well as unconscious emotional states, such as sexual arousal and appetite.
- Wernicke’s area: This brain region is associated with the understanding and processing of speech.
- Broca’s area: This brain region aids in the production of speech, though some evidence suggests that, when Broca’s area is damaged, nearby regions may compensate. Together with Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area aids communication.
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Substructures Of The Temporal Lobes
The temporal lobe is structurally divided into the superior, middle, inferior and medial gyri.
Superior Temporal Gyrus
âSuperiorâ in anatomical terms means âto the topâ. A âgyrusâ is a ridge on the surface of the brain.
The superior temporal gyrus is situated at the top of the temporal lobes, located somewhat above the ears. The superior temporal gyrus is an area of the temporal lobe which contains other areas with specialized functions.
Some areas of the superior temporal gyrus are vital in auditory processing, including the processing of language. Other areas are specialized for processing a combination of frequencies, whilst others specialize in processing changes in amplitude or frequency.
The superior temporal gyrus has been implicated as being critical in social cognition as well as being involved in the perceptions of emotions from facial expressions .
The auditory cortex, the main arearesponsible for processing auditory information, is located within the temporal lobe.
The auditory cortex is a part of the superior temporal gyrus which essentially receives input from the ears and analyses it.
Once it has done this, the cortex then filters out unnecessary information, and passes on the relevant information to be processed and understood.
This area of the temporal lobes is therefore responsible for processing auditory information, especially important in processing the semantics in language and vision.
Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Medial temporal lobe epilepsy occurs in the deeper structures of the temporal lobe and has more diverse symptoms that develop slightly more slowly and last a little longer than neocortical seizures. These include autonomic nervous system reactions such as abdominal pain, cognitive effects such as déjà vu or quite the opposite a sudden unfamiliarity with a common situation and sensory distortions .
Other symptoms are behavioral arrest and automatisms. Automatisms can involve all kinds of actions such as repetitive or unusual hand movements, swallowing, lip-smacking, and chewing. Caregivers sometimes observe one dilated pupil which indicates that the seizure is occurring on the same side of the brain as the dilated pupil . One-sided limb movements, on the other hand, point to the contralateral side of the brain, as does a sideways gaze Look Left means repeated bursts of abnormal, heightened electrical activity in the right hemisphere.
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Brain: Temporal Lobe Vagal Nerve & Frontal Lobe
The human brain has a right and left temporal lobe, wherein one mirrors the other. Mesial temporal lobe anatomy involves specific structures frequently implicated as a cause for seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The structures include the hippocampus, the parahippocampus, and the amygdala. Many or all of these will be removed during surgery to stop seizures arising in this area. The most common reason for which seizure surgery is performed in the temporal lobe is for scarring in the hippocampus, or hippocampal sclerosis. Removal of the hippocampus in this situation will lead to stopping seizures in the majority of the patients.
The anatomy of this region is depicted in the following drawing.
Specific structures the surgeon looks for during surgery include arteries and veins supplying the region, the third and fourth cranial nerves , the brainstem, and the base of the skull. These structures are identified and protected during surgery to prevent post-operative neurological symptoms.
Blood supply to the hippocampus involves an arterial supply from the posterior cerebral artery and venous drainage into the basal vein of Rosenthal as depicted in the cadaver specimen to the left. Other arteries sometimes seen during surgery include the middle cerebral artery system, the anterior choroidal artery, and the internal carotid artery.
What Is A Stroke
A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .
During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.
Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.
The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.
Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.
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What Is The Temporal Lobe
It is the region located in one of the lobes of the brain that is fundamental for basic abilities of the organism such as speech and auditory perception, although it is also related to affectivity, memory and recognition.
The structures of the limbic system, including the olfactory cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, are found within the temporal lobes. Damage to this area of the brain can cause problems with memory, understanding language, and maintaining emotional control.
Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
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Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
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Where Is The Anterior Temporal Lobe And What Does It Do
The anterior temporal lobe is thought to be critical for semantic memoryour knowledge of objects, people, words, and facts. However, there is substantial disagreement over the precise role of the ATL in semantic memory, and there is considerable variability in the anatomic findings that link the ATL with semantic processing. The inconsistent findings across studies may be related to the diverse anatomic structures within the ATL and their differential contribution to distinct modalities of semantic information .
Much of the evidence implicating the ATL in semantic memory has come from neuropsychology. In particular, patients with semantic dementia, a neurodegenerative disease affecting the ATL, exhibit a profound deficit in semantic knowledge with a relative sparing of most other cognitive domains . These patients have little trouble performing episodic recall tasks, visual perceptual tasks, or numerical tasks, and can even retain complex behaviors like performing novel musical piecesyet they have a striking impairment on nearly all assessments of semantic knowledge. Given the broad anatomic extent of disease in semantic dementia, these findings have implicated a large region of the ATL in semantic memory.
Relationship Between Cognition And Extent Of Temporal Lobe Damage
In general, patients with unilateral temporal lobe lesions are much less affected on cognitive tasks than patients with damage to both temporal lobes. For example, the retrieval of personal events from the past is only mildly affected in patients with selective left and right temporal lobe lesions but profoundly impaired in subjects with bilateral damage. Studies in patients who have progressive diseases affecting the temporal lobes can be particularly useful in addressing this issue because a patient can be tested early on in the disease when they have relatively selective unilateral damage and then later when there is degeneration in both temporal lobes. Data from such patients can then be compared with those from studies of subjects who have unilateral temporal lobe damage to either the right or left hemisphere, as in patients who have undergone surgery for intractable epilepsy, to ensure that the results are generalizable across patient populations.
Corianne Rogalsky, in, 2016
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Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain
In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.
Symptoms Based On Tumour Location In The Brain
Symptoms of a brain tumour can vary depending on the tumour’s location.
The brain is divided into two halves called the right and left hemispheres. The brain can also be divided into four areasknown as lobes plus two other important areas called the brain stem and the cerebellum.
The presence of a brain tumour can cause damage to healthybrain tissue, disrupting the normal function of that area.
Remember that many of the symptoms due to raised intracranial pressure can be caused by other medical conditions. So if you are experiencing these symptoms, it does not necessarily mean you have a brain tumour.
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Temporal Lobe: Function Location And Structure
The temporal lobe, which crosses both hemispheres of the brain, helps process sensory input, including pain and auditory stimuli.
- Temporal Lobe
The brains of all mammals, including people, contain four lobes in the cortex, including the occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. Located just beneath the lateral fissure and crossing both fissures of the brain is the temporal lobe. This vital structure helps process sensory input, including pain and auditory stimuli. It also helps you understand language, retain visual memories, and both process and remember emotions.
Damage to this region of the brain can have global consequences for virtually every bodily function, since much of what we do depends on emotions and sensory input.
Which Of The Following Is Located In The Temporal Lobes
The temporal lobe is responsible primarily for declarative memory, which is memory that can be said out loud, and is subdivided into episodic and semantic memory. Located within the middle temporal lobe are the hippocampus and the amygdala.
where is the temporal lobe located quizlet?
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Is The Limbic System In The Temporal Lobe
limbic systemtemporal lobe
. Just so, is the temporal lobe part of the limbic system?
The limbic system is a complex set of structures found on the central underside of the cerebrum, comprising inner sections of the temporal lobes and the bottom of the frontal lobe. It combines higher mental functions and primitive emotion into a single system often referred to as the emotional nervous system.
Subsequently, question is, how does the limbic system interact with the frontal lobe? The limbic system is another subcortical structure that consists of structures and nerve fibers located deep within the cerebrum. This system connects the hypothalamus with other areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, including the amygdala and hippocampus.
Also question is, what does the temporal lobe do?
The temporal lobe is involved in primary auditory perception, such as hearing, and holds the primary auditory cortex. The primary auditory cortex receives sensory information from the ears and secondary areas process the information into meaningful units such as speech and words.
What emotions does the frontal lobe control?
The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls important cognitive skills in humans, such as emotional expression, problem solving, memory, language, judgment, and sexual behaviors.
Characteristics Of The Temporal Lobe
The main characteristics of the temporal lobe are as follows:
- It is related to hearing, taste, hearing, language and comprehension.
- It has a very important role in peoples vision, memory and emotions.
- It is located under Silvios fissure, in front of the occipital lobe.
- The structures of the limbic system of the temporal lobe are responsible for regulating many of our emotions, as well as forming and processing memories.
- It regulates our fight or run away response, and also helps us develop a healthy sense of fear through the conditioning of fear.
- In addition, the olfactory cortex is found in the temporal lobe.
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Medial Temporal Lobe Function
Medial temporal lobe function is represented by Brodmann areas 21 and 38. These areas have extremely complex features. We will try to keep it simple!
BA 21 has multiple functions that include language, visual, auditory, and deductive reasoning processing. Thanks to area 21, our language is rich we can categorize spoken words and written texts into meaningful phrases and sentences a process known as semantics. While some people think language is unique to humans, many young animals slowly learn to call or sing, just as human young learn to speak. An interesting report from Columbia University lists many reasons why speech semantics and rich language can also be attributed to non-human species.
BA 21 helps us to recognize speech attributes such as word emphasis, intonation, and rhythm . Prosody is best described with the classic human skill of sarcasm. Wow, youre really clever is positive when the voice that tells you is upbeat, slightly singsong, and high in pitch. If the sentence is said more slowly and with a lower pitch than normal, that person is probably being sarcastic. It is BA 21 that helps us to distinguish whether someone is being sarcastic or not. Of course, this also has a lot to do with our memories. If we have never encountered sarcasm, well take it as a well-deserved compliment!