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Where Is The Thalamus Located In The Brain

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Location And Functions Of The Thalamus Youll Be Stunned To Know About

The Thalamus

The thalamus is an important part of the complex nervous system in human beings. In this Bodytomy article, we shall find out what it is, where it is located, and what its major functions are.

The thalamus is an important part of the complex nervous system in human beings. In this Bodytomy article, we shall find out what it is, where it is located, and what its major functions are.

Maturation And Parcellation Of The Thalamus

After its induction, the MDO starts to orchestrate the development of the thalamic anlage by release of signalling molecules such as SHH. In mice, the function of signaling at the MDO has not been addressed directly due to a complete absence of the diencephalon in SHH mutants.

Studies in chicks have shown that SHH is both necessary and sufficient for thalamic gene induction. In zebrafish, it was shown that the expression of two SHH genes, SHH-a and SHH-b mark the MDO territory, and that SHH signaling is sufficient for the molecular differentiation of both the prethalamus and the thalamus but is not required for their maintenance and SHH signaling from the MDO/alar plate is sufficient for the maturation of prethalamic and thalamic territory while ventral Shh signals are dispensable.

The exposure to SHH leads to differentiation of thalamic neurons. SHH signaling from the MDO induces a posterior-to-anterior wave of expression the proneural gene Neurogenin1 in the major part of the thalamus, and Ascl1 in the remaining narrow stripe of rostral thalamic cells immediately adjacent to the MDO, and in the prethalamus.

Diet Tips For Hypothalamus Health

As the hypothalamus plays such a vital role in the body, it is very important to keep it healthy. While a person cannot fully avoid genetic factors, they can take dietary steps towards ideal hypothalamus health on a daily basis to reduce the risk of hypothalamic disease.

The hypothalamus controls the appetite, and the foods in the diet influence the hypothalamus. Studies have shown that diets high in saturated fats can alter the way the hypothalamus regulates hunger and energy expenditure.

Sources of saturated fats include lard, meat, and dairy products. Research has also demonstrated that diets high in saturated fats might have an inflammatory effect on the body.

This can make the immune system overactive, increasing the chances of it targeting healthy body cells, increasing inflammation in the gut, and altering the natural working of the body.

Diets high in polyunsaturated fats, like omega-3 fatty acids, can help to reverse this inflammation. These fats might be a safe alternative to other types of oils and fats. Foods with high omega-3 content include fish, walnuts, flax seeds, and leafy vegetables.

Additional healthy dietary choices to support the hypothalamus and best brain function include:

  • vitamin-rich fruits and vegetables

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Relay Of Sensory Information

Thalamus occupies the central position between the cortex and spinal cord as well as other areas of the lower brain. Thus, it acts as an important relay center for the signals passing from the lower centers to the higher centers of the brain. Almost all sensory information pass through the thalamus before going to the higher centers of the brain.

Be Good To Your Brain

Thalamus

So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

  • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
  • Get a lot of playtime .
  • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
  • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
  • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

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Blood Supply And Lymphatics

The basilar communicating artery, posterior cerebral artery, and posterior communicating artery are the major blood supply for the thalamus. The major vascular pedicles supplying the thalamus divide into:

  • Tuberothalamic artery
  • This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author and the source, a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, and any changes made are indicated.

    Final Titles And Dissolution

    Thalamus entered the 1990s with a few more C64 titles, including Creatures and Creatures II: Torture Trouble from the Rowlands brothers, which have been lauded by several computer magazines for the strength of their gameplay and graphics on the aging machine. Cartoon-style platformers Summer Camp and Winter Camp were also released. In 1991, Newsfield ran into serious financial trouble. Newsfield were forced to halt publication of their popular gaming magazines. Europress stepped in to save the magazines, but they slowly died out over the next year or two as their respective markets dwindled.

    Thalamus managed to survive the liquidation of Newsfield, but funds were running low. With 8-bit gaming being superseded by 16-bit gaming, production costs were rising, forcing hundreds of independent publishers, such as Thalamus, to either close down or allow themselves to be consumed by a publishing giant. Thalamus released their final C64 game, Nobby the Aardvark in 1993. With their various Amiga projects spiraling out of budget and no further income, Thalamus had no choice but to close down their operations.

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    Location Of The Thalamus

    The upper portion of the brain is split into two hemispheres, and its lower portion connects to the spinal cord via the brain stem. If the brain is split through the center, the thalamus would be seen held atop the brain stem.

    The thalamus is thus located close to the central region, buried underneath the cerebral cortex between it and the mid-brain below with nerve fibers projecting out to the cerebral cortex in all directions. It lies above the hypothalamus.

    In humans, the thalamus can be divided into two halves, which are prominent bulb-shaped masses located obliquely and symmetrically on either sides of the third ventricle.

    Brain Modeling And Boundary Conditions

    Diencephalon (Thalamus, Epithalamus, and Hypothalamus)

    The cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and the tumor are segmented from preoperative MRI. The cerebrum and tumor are meshed, with a higher density of elements in the tumor area in order to better capture its deformations. The tentorium cerebelli is identified as the border between the cerebrum and cerebellum. Since this membrane is quite rigid, the nodes of the model located on the tentorium cerebelli are assigned to fixed Dirichlet conditions.

    The dura mater surface is generated as the external surface of the brain FE mesh at the beginning of the simulation. As this membrane is stuck to the skull, it is fixed throughout the simulation. Sliding constraints are used, allowing the brain to move along the dura mater without any friction. Displacements in the normal direction inside the cranial cavity are allowed.

    During the simulation, loads are imposed through displacements to register the vascular tree embedded within the model onto the US extracted data. Both these vessels loads and contacts between the brain and dura mater are handled using Lagrangian Multipliers, with an ICP-inspired method proposed by Courtecuisse et al. .

    Ranganathan Parthasarathy, … Robert E. Vadnal, in, 1993

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    Hormones Of The Hypothalamus

    To maintain homeostasis, the hypothalamus is responsible for creating or controlling many hormones in the body. The hypothalamus works with the pituitary gland, which makes and sends other important hormones around the body.

    Together, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland control many of the glands that produce hormones of the body, called the endocrine system. This includes the adrenal cortex, gonads, and thyroid.

    Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus include:

    • antidiuretic hormone, which increases how much water is absorbed into the blood by the kidneys
    • corticotropin-releasing hormone, which helps regulate metabolism and immune response by working with the pituitary gland and adrenal gland to release certain steroids
    • gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which instructs the pituitary gland to release more hormones that keep the sexual organs working
    • oxytocin, a hormone involved in several processes, including the release of a mothers breast milk, moderating body temperature, and regulating sleep cycles
    • prolactin-controlling hormones, which tell the pituitary gland to either start or stop breast milk production in lactating mothers
    • thyrotropin-releasing hormone activates the thyroid, which releases the hormones that regulate metabolism, energy levels, and developmental growth

    In these cases, there are some hormone tests that doctors might prescribe to get to the root of the disorder.

    The Thalamus And Hypothalamus

    Both the thalamus and hypothalamus are associated with changes in emotional reactivity. The thalamus, which is a sensory way-station for the rest of the brain, is primarily important due to its connections with other limbic-system structures. The hypothalamus is a small part of the brain located just below the thalamus on both sides of the third ventricle. Lesions of the hypothalamus interfere with several unconscious functions and some so-called motivated behaviors like sexuality, combativeness, and hunger. The lateral parts of the hypothalamus seem to be involved with pleasure and rage, while the medial part is linked to aversion, displeasure, and a tendency for uncontrollable and loud laughter.

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    Cerebrum And The Cerebral Cortex

    When you picture the iconic shape of the human brain, the majority of whats visible is the cerebrum with its wrinkly, pinkish-grey outer appearance. It makes up around 85% of the brain and consists primarily of grey matter, divided into two hemispheres.

    The cerebrum is where most of the important brain functions happen, such as thinking, planning, reasoning, language processing, and interpreting and processing inputs from our senses, such as vision, touch, hearing, taste and smell.

    The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the cerebral cortex, and in each hemisphere it is traditionally divided into four lobes – frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. Communications between the two hemispheres are maintained by a fibrous bridge called the corpus callosum, which is formed in utero.

    Beneath the surface of the hemispheres are large knots of neurons called basal ganglia, which specialise in programming and executing our motor functions. When basal ganglia are affected by diseases such as Parkinsons, patients have tremors and uncontrolled movements.

    Nuclei Within The Thalamus

    Know your brain: Diencephalon â Neuroscientifically Challenged

    The thalamus is made up of a series of nuclei, all of which are responsible for the relay of different sensory signals.

    The nuclei are both excitatory and inhibitory in nature and receive sensory or motor information from the body, presenting selected information via the nerve fibers to the cerebral cortex.

    Described below are a list of some of the main groups of nuclei within the thalamus and what they are responsible for:

    Anterior nucleus

    The anterior nucleus is thought to be involved with memory due to its extensive connectivity to the hippocampus.

    It is also connected to the mammillothalamic tract and the cingulate gyrus .

    As these areas are linked with the limbic system, they are involved in organizing memory and emotion. The anterior nucleus essentially receives input from the limbic system and projects to the cingulate gyrus.

    Dorsomedial nucleus

    The dorsomedial nucleus is thought to be involved in emotional behavior and memory.

    This nucleus relays information from the amygdala and olfactory cortex, which then projects to the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system, in turn relaying them to the prefrontal association cortex.

    Because of this, the dorsomedial nucleus has an important role in attention, organization, planning, and higher cognitive thinking.

    Ventral posterolateral and ventral posteromedial nucleus

    Further, the ventral posteromedial nucleus receives sensory information from the trigeminal nerve regarding the face.

    Lateral posterior nucleus

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      The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act

      Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .

      Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!

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      What Is The Mind

      Think about how the physical structure of the brain creates the metaphysical structure known as the mind.

      Our thoughts are more than compilations of sensory inputs from the visual world, auditory world, olfactory world, tactile world and the world of taste. There is a long list of memories charged with emotional content that flavour our thoughts.

      • Similar to pop-ups on a computer screen the thalamus pops information up to the cortex all the time. The cortex may serve as the screen on which the pop-ups appear, but who or what is watching the screen? Where that entity resides is a big question. Is the brain and the inputs it receives, both external and internal, part of a physical organ that is less than a greater organ, the mind. Or is our mind and in turn our behavior is controlled by the impulses our brain receives or by the controlling entity, the self.

      Ventral And Dorsal Group

      Overview of the Thalamus

      The details surrounding the connections of the dorsal group of nuclei are uncertain. However, they are believed to communicate with the cingulate gyrus, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, along with other thalamic nuclei.

      The ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei are believed to be involved in motor cortex activities. They both have pathways leading to the substantia nigra, premotor cortex, reticular formation and the corpus striatum. Additionally, the ventral lateral nucleus also connects to the cerebellum and red nucleusof the roof of the midbrain.

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      Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

      The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

      There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

      A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

      Right Brain Left Brain

      The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

      Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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      Cortex And Subcortical Fibers

      The outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cortex, which has a slightly gray appearance–hence the term “gray matter.” The cortex has a folded structure each fold is termed a gyrus, while each groove between the folds is termed a sulcus. Cortical anatomy is discussed in greater detail below.

      Below the cortex are axons, which are long fibers that emanate from and connect neurons. Axons are insulated by myelin, which increases the speed of conduction. Myelin is what gives the white appearance to these fibers of the brain–hence the term “white matter.”

      Limbic system

      The limbic system is a grouping of cortical and subcortical structures involved in memory formation and emotional responses. The limbic system allows for complex interactions between the cortex, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem. The limbic system is not defined by strict anatomic boundaries but incorporates several important structures. The limbic structures conventionally include the amygdala, the hippocampus, the fornix, the mammillary bodies, the cingulate gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus.

      Unlike the 6-layered neocortex, the hippocampus only has 3 layers and is termed the archicortex. The hippocampus is felt to be a structure that is crucial to formation of memory–more specifically, a type of memory called declarative or explicit memory. Declarative memory is essentially the ability to recall life events of the past such as what meal was eaten for breakfast or where the car is parked.

      Causes And Risk Factors

      Thalamus

      The most common causes of hypothalamic diseases are injuries to the head that impact the hypothalamus. Surgeries, radiation, and tumors can also cause disease in the hypothalamus.

      Some hypothalamic diseases have a genetic link to hypothalamic disease. For instance, Kallman syndrome causes hypothalamic problems in children, most noticeably delayed or absent puberty, accompanied by an impaired sense of smell.

      Hypothalamus problems also appear to have a genetic link in Prader-Willi Syndrome. This is a condition in which a missing chromosome leads to short stature and hypothalamic dysfunction.

      Additional causes of hypothalamic disease can include:

      • eating disorders, such as bulimia or anorexia
      • genetic disorders that cause excess iron buildup in the body

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