Thursday, May 26, 2022

Where Is Visual Information Processed In The Brain

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Third Visual Cortex Including Area V3

Visual Processing and the Visual Cortex

The term third visual complex refers to the region of cortex located immediately in front of V2, which includes the region named visual area V3 in humans. The “complex” nomenclature is justified by the fact that some controversy still exists regarding the exact extent of area V3, with some researchers proposing that the cortex located in front of V2 may include two or three functional subdivisions. For example, David Van Essen and others have proposed the existence of a “dorsal V3” in the upper part of the cerebral hemisphere, which is distinct from the “ventral V3” located in the lower part of the brain. Dorsal and ventral V3 have distinct connections with other parts of the brain, appear different in sections stained with a variety of methods, and contain neurons that respond to different combinations of visual stimulus . Additional subdivisions, including V3A and V3B have also been reported in humans. These subdivisions are located near dorsal V3, but do not adjoin V2.

Ventral V3 , has much weaker connections from the primary visual area, and stronger connections with the inferior temporal cortex. While earlier studies proposed that VP contained a representation of only the upper part of the visual field , more recent work indicates that this area is more extensive than previously appreciated, and like other visual areas it may contain a complete visual representation. The revised, more extensive VP is referred to as the ventrolateral posterior area by Rosa and Tweedale.

Inductive And Deductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning emerges in childhood and is a type of reasoning that is sometimes characterized as bottom-up- processing in which specific observations, or specific comments from those in authority, may be used to draw general conclusions. However, in inductive reasoning, the veracity of the information that created the general conclusion does not guarantee the accuracy of that conclusion. For instance, a child who has only observed thunder on summer days may conclude that it only thunders in the summer. In contrast, deductive reasoning, sometimes called top-down-processing, emerges in adolescence. This type of reasoning starts with some overarching principle and, based on this, propose specific conclusions. Deductive reasoning guarantees an accurate conclusion if the premises on which it is based are accurate.

Figure 3.8.6. Models of inductive and deductive reasoning.

True Or False Youre Ready To Start Working Visually

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Sensory Discrimination Or Perception Issues

Discrimination and perception issues occur when the brain is struggling to interpret and give meaning to sensory input.

  • Struggles to copy words off a whiteboard, or from a book
  • Avoids or has difficulty with activities that require visual acuity. For example, puzzles, mazes, word searches, etc.
  • Reverses letters or words when reading or writing
  • Doesnt notice the difference between similar letters and numbers. Such as confusing a 1 with an l. May also struggle when learning the alphabet.
  • Reading level below what is developmentally expected for their age level.

Central Processing Of Visual Information

Vision: Processing Information

Vivid images of the world, with detail, colour, and meaning, impinge on human consciousness. Many people believe that humans simply see what is around them. However, internal images are the product of an extraordinary amount of processing, involving roughly half the cortex of the brain. This processing does not follow a simple unitary pathway. It is known both from electrical recordings and from the study of patients with localized brain damage that different parts of the cerebral cortex abstract different features of the image colour, depth, motion, and object identity all have modules of cortex devoted to them. What is less clear is how multiple processing modules assemble this information into a single image. It may be that there is no resynthesis, and what humans see is simply the product of the working of the whole visual brain.

Great progress has been made over the last century in understanding the ways that the eye and brain transduce and analyze the visual world. However, little is known about the relationship between the objective features of an image and an individuals subjective interpretation of the image. Scientists suspect that subjective experience is a product of the processing that occurs in the various brain modules contributing to the analysis of the image.

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How Fast Does The Brain Process Visual Information

InJohn Carpenters cult classic Big Trouble in Little China, Kurt Russells ineffectual hero Jack Burton states I never drive faster than I can see, and beyond that its all in the reflexes. But how fast can we actually see, and for that matter process what we see? It takes us approximately half a second to respond to visual stimuli which is really fast.

One MIT study actually found that the brain can process entire images that are seen for as little as13 milliseconds!

That speed is thanks to the nearly 100 billion, with a B, neurons we have. And when you consider that nearly half that time a quarter second is eaten up by sending the motor signal and giving the response, the time spent receiving the input and deciding on a response is incredibly quick.

Visual Processing Disorders: 8 Visual Processing Disorders To Watch For In Your Child

This article provides helpful information regarding visual processing disorders and how to recognize the signs in your child. Integrated Learning Strategies is a learning and academic center. As a reminder, ILS is not a health care provider and none of our materials or services provide a diagnosis or treatment of a specific condition or learning challenge you may see in your child or student. If you seek a diagnosis or treatment for your child or student, please contact a trained professional who can provide an evaluation of the child.

When people think of eyesight, the terms 20/20 vision, sunglasses and eye exams come to mind. Vision is so much more than that and can affect the academic process in ways you might never think of when your child is struggling with reading, writing and spelling. When you realize that 80 to 85 percent of learning occurs through your childs visual system, it makes you rethink the learning process and focus on the importance of eyesight and how it impacts how they process information through their visual system.

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Trace Vision From The Retina To The Visual Cortex And Learn About Visual Field Loss In Kids With Cvi

This is the third article in our five-part series about the visual system.

Following the early visual pathway

Think of the visual pathway like a highway, with neurons as the cars and your vision as the driver. Ideally, the pathway is smooth and efficient, with predictable curves and directions leading from your optic nerve to your occipital lobes primary visual cortex. But sometimes that pathway is interruptedand the driver has to adjust.

Here are the key points along the route:
If your child has interruption or damage to certain areas along this pathway, it could cause reduced visual acuity and contrast vision, and visual field loss.

Optic nerve conditions Kids with CVI are often found to have abnormal optic nerves in one or both eyes. Some children with CVI have optic nerve hypoplasia , a congenital condition in which the optic nerve is underdeveloped, or optic nerve atrophy , mild to severe damage to the optic nerve. Some parents say that their childs eye report notes small, pale optic nerves. The impact on visual function is wide-ranging and unique to each child, but common issues include:

  • Light sensitivity
  • Reduced acuity and contrast vision
  • Visual field loss
  • Reduced depth perception

In the image above: Examples of visual field loss when fibers of certain areas of the visual pathway are interrupted

  • Midline of optic chiasm hemianopia on the outer half of eye
  • Optic radiations in left sideuneven right homonymous hemianopia
  • Supports for visual field loss

    References:

    What Part Of The Brain Is Responsible For Vision

    Visual sensory information | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy

    Visual processing happens in the occipital lobe of the brain, which is the above the cerebellum at the back of the skull. The occipital lobe does the heavy lifting, collecting and parsing all of the raw visual data that is taken in by our eyes.

    However, the occipital lobe doesnt work alone to process visuals. The parietal lobe helps with things like recognition, spatial awareness, and navigating our environment. The temporal lobe, which houses memory function, allows us to permanently attach meaning to things we see for instance, when we see a red octagon with four white letters, our temporal lobe helps us remember that that means we need to hit the breaks and look both ways.

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    Visual Processing Isnt All One Way

    This bottom-to-top processing of our visual world may seem the logical path, but it isnt the whole story. Such a ‘bottom-up‘ approach would be far too slow and laborious, but more importantly, it would render our visual world full of ambiguity and we would struggle to survive. Instead, our perception relies to a very large extent on our previous experience and other ‘top-down‘ mechanisms such as attention. QBI Professors Jason Mattingley and Stephen Williams are both studying how attention can alter visual processing, using cognitive and cellular approaches, respectively.

    As an example of top-down processing, consider the image below:

    Wuhazet – Henryk ychowski

    Square A looks lighter, but is actually darker than square B. Clearly, our visual system is doing a terrible job at seeing reality. But that isnt its purpose. Instead, our brains are trying to make sense of what they are seeing, rather than seeking the truth.

    In the case of the above image, we automatically see based on past experience light and dark squares arranged in a checkerboard fashion, with a centrally lit portion and a shadow cast around the edges. With all of this information, we interpret A as a light square in shadow, and B as a brightly lit dark square. It isnt reality, but it is the most likely explanation given all of our previous experience and the data at hand. This is how our visual system works, ultimately to help us understand the world and so promote our survival.

    Optic Nerves Chiasm And Tracts

    The axons of the ganglion cells exit the eye at the level of the lamina cribrosa, collectively forming the optic nerve. Each optic nerve consists of approximately 1 million retinal ganglion cell axons. The nerve connects to the posterior aspect of the eye in a position that is about 15° nasal to the macula. The optic nerve head is approximately 1.8 mm in diameter.

    The area where the axons exit the eye is called the optic disc. Because no receptors exist in this region, nothing can be seen in the corresponding part of the visual field. This blind spot appears not as a dark spot but simply as a region from which one cannot obtain visual information. The blind spot is approximately 5° in size and about 15° temporal to fixation in the visual field of each eye. When both eyes are open, the blind spot of each eye is filled in by the visual field of the other eye.

    The optic nerves of the 2 eyes continue posteriorly and meet at the optic chiasm, located just anterior to the stalk of the pituitary gland. At the optic chiasm, the optic nerves decussate. The axons from the nasal retina cross over to the opposite side of the brain, and the axons from the temporal retina project ipsilaterally.

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    What Visual Information Is Processed In The Human Dorsal Stream

      The idea of a division between a dorsal and a ventral visual stream is one of the most basic principles of visual processing in the brain . The ventral stream originates in primary visual cortex and extends along the ventral surface into the temporal cortex the dorsal stream also arises in primary visual cortex, but continues along the dorsal surface into parietal cortex. The ventral stream is believed to mainly subserve recognition and discrimination of visual shapes and objects, whereas the dorsal stream has been primarily associated with visually guided reaching and grasping based on the moment-to-moment analysis of the spatial location, shape, and orientation of objects. It has been proposed, however, that the dorsal stream also processes tools as a category, so that manipulable objects would be processed by those brain regions that are important for the execution of actions. However, because dorsal and ventral visual regions are heavily interconnected, it is difficult to tell in healthy subjects whether information is processed along the dorsal stream only, or whether it is fed to parietal cortex via ventral visual regions.

        Vision In The Brain: Is It True Or False That Vision Rules The Brain

        The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing

        This post explores the scientific data behind often-quoted stats around visual thinking, visual learning, and the use of images in learning. Youll learn what we know about how much what we see impacts what we think.

        At ImageThink, we know firsthand the power that visuals have when it comes to boosting cognitive power. Since 2009, we have used graphic facilitation and live illustration to empower strategy sessions, clarify complexity, and spark creative problem solving for Fortune 50 companies the world over.

        But dont take our word for it. In this series of posts, were exploring the scientific data behind often-quoted stats regarding visual thinking, visual learning, and the power of images in cognitive development. You can read more about it

        A pretty strong case has been made for visuals as learning and teaching tools. Lets look at the actual makeup of our brain tissues and find out what percentage of the brain is used for vision.

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        True Or False More Of Our Neurons Are Dedicated To Vision Than The Other Four Senses Combined

        True.

        In fact, we may be out-evolving our sense of smell.

        According to John Medina in his book Brain Rules, in the fight for more neural real estate thats going on between our olfactory cortex and the visual cortex, vision is winning. He writes: about 60 percent of our smell-related genes have been permanently damaged in this neural arbitrage, and they are marching toward obsolescence at a rate fourfold faster than any other species sampled. Why? In the crowded, zero-sum world of the sub-scalp, Medina said, something has to give. So smell those rosebuds while ye may.

        Check out our recent post on the Science of Live Scribing to learn more visual thinking factoids.

        Cortical Regions That Process Orthography

        No reading-specific brain areas have been identified with any of the currently available neuroimaging techniques including positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetoencephalography. What these studies show is that reading activates a set of regions that overlap with those involved in auditory language processing, speech production, and object naming. The current data are therefore most consistent with reading-specific processing emerging in the coordination of activity across multiple cortical areas that are each involved in other skills.

        Rosaleen A. McCarthy, Elizabeth K. Warrington, in, 1990

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        First Steps To Neuronal Mechanisms

        A major step forward in the understanding of binocular stereoscopic vision came in the 1960s. Two advances were especially significant. First, Bela Julesz, working at Bell Laboratories, invented the random dot stereogram and exploited this new paradigm to define and explore what he termed cyclopean vision. Cyclopean refers to the mythical giant Cyclops, who had just one eye in the center of his forehead. Juleszs RDS consisted of fields of randomly bright and dark pixels, which were correlated between the left and right eyes images. When placed in a stereoscope, a region of this figure was revealed as segregated from the background because it was at a different binocular depth . Figures demonstrating stereoscopic segregation had been prepared before, but Juleszs development of a computer-based method was truly original and profoundly influential. Julesz argued that the perception of the revealed figure reflects central processing by the brain, separate from the influence of either eye alone. He conducted a series of studies that investigated the classical visual illusions presented in their novel cyclopean form.

        Computational Stereo

        Development of Stereo Vision

        Talis Bachmann, Gregory Francis, in, 2014

        Better Retention And Comprehension With Visual Content

        Chapter 9 part 3: visual processing

        The use of visual content has a profound effect on our brains ability to learn and process new information. A combination of words and pictures has proven time and again to be a more effective teaching tool than words alone.

        For example, as Ruth Colvin Clark and Richard E. Mayer write in their book, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, accompanying text-based instructions with a graphic improved students performance on a test by a median amount of 89%. Whereas students had gotten less than 40% of answers correct after reading a text comprised of words alone, the number of correct answers improved to around 65% when words were combined with graphics.

        Meanwhile, color can play a strong role in memory too. Scientists have observed a significant improvement in memory recognition when study participants are presented with color images vs. black-and-white images. While these studies didnt compare images to text, it can perhaps be concluded that color graphics might offer a similar improvement in memory over text, which is generally presented in black and white.

        The so-called multimedia principle, which posits that people learn more deeply from words and graphics than from words alone, has become among the most well-established educational principles, and has been applied widely in educational spheres.

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