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Which Body Cavity Protects The Brain

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Dorsal Cavity And Ventral Cavity

Cranial Cavity and Brain – Meninges and Dural Partitions

There are a number of different cavities in the body.

To make them easier to understand, lets create a flow chart.

First, there are 2 main cavities in the body.

They include the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity.

Body Cavities Labeled Diagram: There are 2 main cavities in the body, the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity.

We know from the anatomical directional terms lecture that anterior means front or toward the front of the body, and posterior means back or toward the back of the body.

We also learned from the lecture another name for anterior is ventral, and another name for posterior is dorsal.

You can think of a ventriloquist for ventral, which literally translates to stomach talker.

If you point to your stomach then you are pointing to the front of your body, and this can help you remember ventral means front.

For dorsal, you can think of the dorsal fin on the back of a fish to help you remember dorsal means back.

Ventral and Dorsal Definitions: Ventral means front or toward the front of the body, and dorsal means back or toward the back of the body.

We also learned in the medical prefix lecture that ventri- means stomach, abdomen, toward the front, or the anterior aspect of the body.

We also discussed the prefix dorso- means back or posterior.

Ventral and Dorsal Medical Prefixes: Ventri- means anterior and Dorsi- means posterior.

Dorsal Cavity

Lets start with the dorsal cavity.

The dorsal cavity is highlighted in red and labeled with a star below.

Subdivisions Of The Posterior And Anterior Cavities

The posterior and anterior cavities are each subdivided into smaller cavities. In the posterior cavity, the cranial cavity houses the brain, and the spinal cavity encloses the spinal cord. Just as the brain and spinal cord make up a continuous, uninterrupted structure, the cranial and spinal cavities that house them are also continuous. The brain and spinal cord are protected by the bones of the skull and vertebral column and by cerebrospinal fluid, a colorless fluid produced by the brain, which cushions the brain and spinal cord within the posterior cavity.

The anterior cavity has two main subdivisions: the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity . The thoracic cavity is the more superior subdivision of the anterior cavity, and it is enclosed by the rib cage. The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and the heart, which is located in the mediastinum. The diaphragm forms the floor of the thoracic cavity and separates it from the more inferior abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity is the largest cavity in the body. Although no membrane physically divides the abdominopelvic cavity, it can be useful to distinguish between the abdominal cavity, the division that houses the digestive organs, and the pelvic cavity, the division that houses the organs of reproduction.

Body Cavities And Serous Membranes

The body maintains its internal organization by means of membranes, sheaths, and other structures that separate compartments. The dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity are the largest body compartments ). These cavities contain and protect delicate internal organs, and the ventral cavity allows for significant changes in the size and shape of the organs as they perform their functions. The lungs, heart, stomach, and intestines, for example, can expand and contract without distorting other tissues or disrupting the activity of nearby organs.

Subdivisions of the Posterior and Anterior Cavities

The posterior and anterior cavities are each subdivided into smaller cavities. In the posterior cavity, the cranial cavity houses the brain, and the spinal cavity encloses the spinal cord. Just as the brain and spinal cord make up a continuous, uninterrupted structure, the cranial and spinal cavities that house them are also continuous. The brain and spinal cord are protected by the bones of the skull and vertebral column and by cerebrospinal fluid, a colorless fluid produced by the brain, which cushions the brain and spinal cord within the posterior cavity.

Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

To promote clear communication, for instance about the location of a patients abdominal pain or a suspicious mass, health care providers typically divide up the cavity into either nine regions or four quadrants ).

Membranes of the Anterior Body Cavity

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The Vertebral Cavity Is The Posterior Portion Of The Dorsal

. It flows into the superior vena cava at approximately the level of T2 making a significant contribution to the flow of blood. A vertebral column is found in about 50000 animal species. Adjacent to each vertebra emerge spinal nerves.

Anatomically and histologically the cervix is distinct from the uterus and hence we consider it as a separate anatomical structure. The skull has a space called cranial cavity and. The thoracic spine sits between the cervical spine in the neck.

The cranial cavity is the anterior portion of the dorsal cavity consisting of the space inside the skull. A cervical thoracic or lumbar vertebra has a cylindricallyshaped body anteriorly and a neural arch posteriorly composed primarily of the laminae and pedicles as well as the other structures in the posterior aspect of the vertebra that protects the spinal cord. The spinal cord consists of grey and white matter and a central cavity the central canal.

A body cavity is a fluid-filled space inside the body that holds and protects internal organs. The skull is a vital bone in the body as it houses the brain one of the delicate organs in the body. In this article we shall look at the structure of the cervix its vasculature.

The vertebral column houses the spinal canal a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. These two body cavities are subdivided into smaller body cavities. This can cause serious nerve and muscle damage in the lower body.

Spinal Cavity Supports And Protects Spinal Cord Ventral

What Is The Function Of The Body Cavities

Dorsal Cavity

The body cavities house and protect the internal organs. There are two main body cavities: the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity. The dorsal or posterior cavity contains the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity. The cranial cavity houses and protects the brain, while the spinal cavity houses and protects the spinal cord.

The ventral or anterior cavity is separated into the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity. The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs. It is protected by the rib cage. The abdominopelvic cavity is further divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. The stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys are in the abdominal cavity. The urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, sigmoid colon, and rectum are in the pelvic cavity.

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Abdominopelvic Regions And Quadrants

Because its so large, the abdominopelvic cavity is separated into regions and quadrants. The quadrants are self-explanatory and can be figured out fairly easily by looking at the abdominopelvic cavity. They consist of the:

  • Right upper quadrant
  • Right lower quadrant
  • Left lower quadrant

Simply draw a cross over the cavity seperating it into four boxes, then use the directional terms accordingly.

Abdominopelvic Regions: Image by Mary Weis

The 9 regions of the abdominopelvic cavity are listed below .

  • Umbilical region center-most region
  • Epigastric region superior to the umbilical region
  • Hypogastric region inferior to the umbilical region
  • Right and left iliac -located lateral to the hypogastric region
  • Right and left lumbar regions lateral to the umbilical region
  • Right and left hypochondriac regions lateral to the epigastric region

Other body cavities

  • Nasal cavity is part of the respiratory system. Located within the nose .
  • Orbital cavities house the eyes
  • Oral cavity the mouth, contains the teeth and gums
  • Synovial cavities surround freely movable joints and secrete a lubricating fluid like serous membranes.

What Are The Two Types Of Body Cavities

The ventral cavity and the dorsal cavity are the two biggest cavities in the human body. These two bodily chambers are further separated into sub-bodies. Figure 10.5 depicts the dorsal and ventral chambers, as well as their subdivisions.

The dorsal or thoracic cavity is the main reservoir for lymphocytes . It is also where the heart, lungs, and many major blood vessels are located. The dorsal cavity contains the spinal column and ribs. The ribs protect the lungs and heart, while the spinal column provides support for the head and trunk.

The ventral or abdominal cavity is the main reservoir for mesenteries , fat, and intestines. The ventral cavity contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, pancreas, and part of the colon. Other important organs such as the kidneys, liver, and reproductive organs are located within the pelvic cavity which is a smaller compartment adjacent to the ventral cavity.

Cavity anatomy can be difficult to visualize because most of them are empty. However, this anatomical knowledge is critical for physicians to perform certain procedures or examine certain areas of the body with ultrasound machines or x-rays.

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What Cavity Has No Bony Protection

The ventral body cavity is a human body cavity that is in the anterior aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity is further divided into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity, but there is no physical barrier between the two.

The Two Temporal Bones

Body Cavities and Membranes (Dorsal, Ventral)- Anatomy and Physiology

These two bones are located on the sides, one on each side of the head. These two bones protect the temporal lobes, thus ensuring that auditory language and speech understanding are not susceptible to trauma.

They also protect the brainstem, which is the major communication pathway for the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. The temporal bones are therefore responsible for ensuring that the area responsible for controlling respiration and heart rate is not affected.

These two bones have a hole that serves to support the ear, thus allowing sounds to reach the eardrum on each side of the head. Otherwise, we could not perceive any sound.

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Body Cavity Flow Chart And Table

We now have a good understanding of the major body cavities by organizing them and breaking them down with the flow chart below.

Body Cavities Labeled Diagram: Summary flow chart of the major body cavities.

Here is a table that summarizes everything we learned to also make it easier for you.

Body Cavities Table: Summary of the major body cavities and features including their main organs, membranes, and fluid.

Quick Recap On Body Cavities And Membranes

That wraps up the major body cavities and membranes. To recap, there are two major cavities in the body: the dorsal cavity and the ventral body cavity. The dorsal is divided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral cavity, which contains the spinal cord.

The ventral body cavity can also be divided into two portions: thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. The thoracic cavity contains the left pleural cavity, right pleural cavity, and the mediastinum, which contains the pericardial cavity that surrounds the heart, along with other organs.

The abdominopelvic cavity can be subdivided into two additional cavities : abdominal and pelvic cavities, which not only contains various digestive and reproductive organs, but also contains the peritoneal cavity.

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Abdominal Regions And Quadrants

To promote clear communication, for instance about the location of a patients abdominal pain or a suspicious mass, health care providers typically divide up the cavity into either nine regions or four quadrants .

The more detailed regional approach subdivides the cavity with one horizontal line immediately inferior to the ribs and one immediately superior to the pelvis, and two vertical lines drawn as if dropped from the midpoint of each clavicle . There are nine resulting regions. The simpler quadrants approach, which is more commonly used in medicine, subdivides the cavity with one horizontal and one vertical line that intersect at the patients umbilicus .

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

PPT

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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Membranes Of The Anterior Body Cavity

A serous membrane is one of the thin membranes that cover the walls and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. The parietal layers of the membranes line the walls of the body cavity . The visceral layer of the membrane covers the organs . Between the parietal and visceral layers is a very thin, fluid-filled serous space, or cavity .

There are three serous cavities and their associated membranes. The pleura is the serous membrane that surrounds the lungs in the pleural cavity the pericardium is the serous membrane that surrounds the heart in the pericardial cavity and the peritoneum is the serous membrane that surrounds several organs in the abdominopelvic cavity.The serous membranes form fluid-filled sacs, or cavities, that are meant to cushion and reduce friction on internal organs when they move, such as when the lungs inflate or the heart beats. Both the parietal and visceral serosa secrete the thin, slippery serous fluid located within the serous cavities. The pleural cavity reduces friction between the lungs and the body wall. Likewise, the pericardial cavity reduces friction between the heart and the wall of the pericardium. The peritoneal cavity reduces friction between the abdominal and pelvic organs and the body wall. Therefore, serous membranes provide additional protection to the viscera they enclose by reducing friction that could lead to inflammation of the organs.

Membranes In The Ventral Body Cavity

The walls of the ventral body cavity and outer covering of its organs contain a thin covering called the serosa . It is a double-layered membrane made up of two parts called the parietal serosa and visceral serosa . The serous membranes are separated by a thin layer of fluid called serous fluid. Serous fluid is secreted by both membranes and acts as a lubricant, allowing organs to slide in the cavity without causing friction.

Typically, the serous membranes are named according to the cavity and organ they associate with. For instance, the parietal pericardium lines the pericardial cavity.

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Neurocranial Bones: Brain Protection

A total of eight bones flattened and naturally welded together form the structure that protects the brain from blows and injuries, thus ensuring that the nervous system does not suffer damage throughout the life of the person.

We have heard it said many times that babies cannot hit their heads because they dont have bones yet. This, despite the fact that you always have to watch out for the little ones, is not entirely true.

At the moment we are born we already have these skull bones the problem is that, due to the disproportionate size of the brain in relation to the other organs at birth, these bones are not well welded together. As childhood progresses, these holes disappear, thus forming a compact structure.

Next we will see one by one these bones of the neurocranium: two temporal bones, two parietal bones and one frontal, occipital, ethmoid and sphenoid.

The Two Parietal Bones

Body Cavities

The two parietal bones occupy the area that makes up the crown and its surroundings. They are two symmetrical bones and welded together.

Its function is to protect the part of the cerebral cortex underneath, which is where perception, imagination, judgment, thought, etc. occur. In the same way, it ensures the integrity of the parietal lobes and the subcortical organs underneath. These parietal lobes are responsible for regulating moods and processing sensory stimuli.

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What Cavity Is Bound By The Skull

The cranial cavity is the space inhabited by the brain and enclosed by the skull bones. The spinal cavity is the space within the vertebral bodies occupied by the spinal cord. These two spaces are separated by a membrane called the dura mater. A small amount of fluid fills the dorsal body cavity.

The term “cavity” also may be applied to spaces within the bone that contain blood or nerve tissue. For example, the hollow center of a bone is known as a cavity. The word “cavity” is used in biology to describe any void or open space within the body’s tissues. Human cavities include: mouth, nose, ear, eye, throat, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and groin area. Other animals have similar or corresponding areas that can be considered human cavities too.

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Function Of The Dorsal Cavity

Like most body cavities, the dorsal cavity protects whats inside by providing a cushion from damage and impacts with the environment and other organisms. The space around the brain and spinal column is filled with fluid, which acts as a buffer around the structures. As forces push against the dorsal cavity, the fluid inside is pressurized and pushed back. This severely reduces the force against the brain and spinal cord. Both of these structures are made of highly sensitive nervous tissue, which is easily damaged.

The fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord is called cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid produced by special cells within the brain. The fluid is very similar to blood plasma, except that the fluid has almost no proteins and no red blood cells. The cavity and the cerebrospinal fluid function together not only to protect the brain, but they allow the removal of wastes and regulation of intracranial pressure. These functions allow the brain cells to work efficiently and allow regulation of blood pressure in the brain.

Interestingly, the dorsal cavity and cerebrospinal fluid actually decrease the weight of the brain by making it buoyant. While a brain by itself is around 1500 grams, when suspended in cerebrospinal fluid it is equivalent to only around 50 grams. This massive decrease in functional weight allows the brain to be much larger without collapsing under its own weight.

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