Walk Safely In Rural Areas
- If possible, walk during daylight hours.
- Choose routes that are well-used, well-lit, and safe. Choose routes with places to sit in case you want to stop and rest.
- Stay alert at all times. If youre listening to music as you walk, turn down the volume so you can still hear bike bells and warnings from other walkers and runners coming up behind you.
- Always walk facing oncoming traffic.
- Walk on a sidewalk or a path whenever possible. Watch out for uneven sidewalks, which are tripping hazards.
- Look for a smooth, stable surface alongside the road.
When To See Your Doctor
Ask your doctor if you should get regular screenings to look for early signs of cancer. These can help detect early signs of skin cancer. You also can check for new or changing skin spots at home. Contact your doctor if you notice anything unusual. This includes a spot that hurts, itches, or has changed color or shape.
Your doctor will perform an exam to look at your skin. They might need to remove part or all of the spot to take a biopsy. This will show if the spot contains cancer or not. Your doctor will work with you on treatment if they find cancer.
How Serious Is The Formaldehyde Risk
Part of the issue with formaldehyde in keratin treatments is that products may contain much more formaldehyde than advertised.
For example, a 2014 study of keratin brands marketed in South Africa found that 6 out of 7 products contained 0.96 percent to 1.4 percent formaldehyde levels five times higher than the recommended safe level of 0.2 percent.
An earlier study from 2011 similarly found higher-than-advertised levels of formaldehyde across 4 different brands of keratin treatments.
Its worth noting that keratin treatments are typically done in a salon, where others are likely receiving keratin treatments throughout the day.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry notes that exposure to a formaldehyde level 0.1 to 0.5 parts per million can cause nose and eye irritation, neurological effects, and increased risk of asthma and allergies. At levels of 0.6 to 1.9 ppm, people might experience eczema or changes in their lung function.
The 2011 study mentioned above found that formaldehyde concentrations in the salon during the blow-drying portion of a keratin treatment ranged from 0.08 to 3.47 ppm. During the flat-ironing portion of the treatment, it ranged from 0.08 to 1.05 ppm. The upper limit of both ranges is well beyond what most people can tolerate.
If youre just going in for a single treatment, you might not feel many effects. But if youre a stylist regularly working in a salon, this kind of exposure could have a larger health impact.
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Walk Safely In Urban Areas
- If the road has guardrails, see if theres a smooth, flat surface behind the barrier where you can walk. If you need to walk on a paved shoulder, stay as far away from traffic as possible.
- Watch for bridges and narrow shoulders.
- Cross at crosswalks or intersections. Jaywalking increases your risk of a serious accident. Pay attention to the traffic signal. Cross only when you have the pedestrian crossing signal.
- Never assume a driver sees you crossing the street. Try to make eye contact with drivers as they approach. Before you start to cross a street, make sure you have plenty of time to get across. Rushing increases your risk of falling.
- Look across ALL lanes you must cross and make sure each lane is clear before proceeding. Look left, right, and left again before crossing. Just because one driver stops, dont presume drivers in other lanes will stop for you.
- Check out city parks. Many parks have walking or jogging trails away from traffic.
The Us Environmental Protection Agency
EPAs SunWise program was an environmental and health education program that taught children how to protect themselves from overexposure to the sun. In 2016, the SunWise Program was integrated into the programs run by the National Environmental Education Foundation . NEEFs SunWise program is a free environmental and health education program to teach K-8 children about sun safety, UV radiation, and stratospheric ozone.
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What Changes In The Skin Occur Due To Exposure To The Sun
Exposure to sun causes most of the wrinkles and age spots on our faces. People think a glowing complexion means good health, but skin color obtained from being in the sun can actually speed up the effects of aging and increase the risk of developing skin cancer.
Sun exposure causes most of the skin changes that we think of as a normal part of aging. Over time, the sun’s ultraviolet light damages the fibers in the skin called elastin. When these fibers break down, the skin begins to sag, stretch, and lose its ability to go back into place after stretching. The skin also bruises and tears more easily in addition to taking longer to heal. So while sun damage to the skin may not be apparent when you’re young, it will definitely show later in life. The sun can also cause issues for your eyes, eyelids, and the skin around the eyes.
Changes in the skin related to sun exposure:
- Precancerous and cancerous skin lesions caused by loss of the skin’s immune function.
- Benign tumors.
- Fine and coarse wrinkles.
- Freckles discolored areas of the skin, called mottled pigmentation and sallowness, yellow discoloration of the skin.
- Telangiectasias, the dilation of small blood vessels under the skin.
- Elastosis, the destruction of the elastic tissue causing lines and wrinkles.
How Does Air Pollution Affect Humans And Ecosystems
People experience a wide range of health effects from being exposed to air pollution. Long-term health effects from air pollution include heart disease, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases such as emphysema. Air pollution can also cause long-term damage to peoples nerves, brain, kidneys, liver, and other organs.
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Can Ultraviolet Radiation Cause Cancer
The three basic skin cancers, basal- and squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma, have been linked to long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation and probably result from changes generated in the DNA of skin cells by ultraviolet rays.
ultraviolet radiation, that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extending from the violet, or short-wavelength, end of the visible light range to the X-ray region. Ultraviolet radiation is undetectable by the human eye, although, when it falls on certain materials, it may cause them to fluorescei.e., emit electromagnetic radiation of lower energy, such as visible light. Many insects, however, are able to see ultraviolet radiation.
Ultraviolet radiation lies between wavelengths of about 400 nanometres on the visible-light side and about 10 nm on the X-ray side, though some authorities extend the short-wavelength limit to 4 nm. In physics, ultraviolet radiation is traditionally divided into four regions: near , middle , far , and extreme . Based on the interaction of wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation with biological materials, three divisions have been designated: UVA , also called black light UVB , responsible for the radiations best-known effects on organisms and UVC , which does not reach Earths surface.
Protect Yourself From The Sun
Some people think about sun protection only when they spend a day at the lake, beach, or pool. But sun exposure adds up day after day, and it happens every time you are in the sun. Even though sunlight is the main source of UV rays, you dont have to avoid the sun completely. And it would be unwise to stay inside if it would keep you from being active, because physical activity is important for good health. But getting too much sun can be harmful. There are some simple steps you can take to limit your exposure to UV rays.
Simply staying in the shade is one of the best ways to limit your UV exposure. If you are going to be in the sun, Slip! Slop! Slap!® and Wrap is a catchphrase that can help you remember some of the key steps you can take to protect yourself from UV rays:
- Slip on a shirt.
- Wrap on sunglasses to protect the eyes and skin around them.
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How Is Skin Cancer Diagnosed
Skin cancer is suspected by its appearance on the skin. The diagnosis must be confirmed with a biopsy. This involves taking a sample of the tissue, which is then placed under a microscope and examined by a dermatopathologist, a doctor who specializes in examining skin cells. Sometimes a biopsy can remove all of the cancer tissue and no further treatment is needed.
What Are The Parts Of Skin
Skin has three layers: the epidermis , dermis , and the subcutaneous tissue.
The epidermis is the upper layer of skin. This tough, protective outer layer is thin in some areas and thick in others. The epidermis has layers of cells that constantly flake off and are renewed. In these layers are three special types of cells:
- Melanocytes make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of melanocytes the more melanin made, the darker the skin. Exposure to sunlight increases the production of melanin, which is why people get suntanned or freckled.
- Keratinocytes make keratin, a type of protein that’s a basic component of hair, skin, and nails. Keratin in the skin’s outer layer helps create a protective barrier.
- Langerhans cells help protect the body against infection.
Because the cells in the epidermis are completely replaced about every 28 days, cuts and scrapes heal quickly.
Below the epidermis is the dermis. This is where our blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles are. The dermis nourishes the epidermis. Two types of fibers in the dermis collagen and elastin help skin stretch and stay firm.
The dermis also contains a person’s sebaceous glands. These glands make the oil sebum , which softens the skin and makes it waterproof.
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Wear Sunglasses That Block Uv Rays
UV-blocking sunglasses are important for protecting the delicate skin around the eyes, as well as the eyes themselves. Research has shown that long hours in the sun without protecting your eyes increase your chances of developing certain eye diseases.
The ideal sunglasses should block 99% to 100% of UVA and UVB rays. Before you buy, check the label to make sure they do. Labels that say UV absorption up to 400 nm or Meets ANSI UV Requirements mean the glasses block at least 99% of UV rays. Those labeled cosmetic block about 70% of UV rays. If there is no label, dont assume the sunglasses provide any UV protection.
Darker glasses are not necessarily better because UV protection comes from an invisible chemical in or applied to the lenses, not from the color or darkness of the lenses. Look for an ANSI label.
Large-framed and wraparound sunglasses are more likely to protect your eyes from light coming in from different angles. Children need smaller versions of real, protective adult sunglasses not toy sunglasses.
What Are The Parts Of Hair
Human hair consists of:
- the hair shaft, the part that sticks out from the skin’s surface
- the root, a soft thickened bulb at the base of the hair
- the follicle , a sac-like pit in the skin from which the hair grows
At the bottom of the follicle is the papilla , where the actual hair growth happens. The papilla contains an artery that nourishes the root of the hair. As cells multiply and make keratin to harden the structure, they’re pushed up the follicle and through the skin’s surface as a shaft of hair.
Each hair has three layers:
Hair grows by forming new cells at the base of the root. These cells multiply to form a rod of tissue in the skin. The rods of cells move upward through the skin as new cells form beneath them. As they move up, they’re cut off from their supply of nourishment and start to form a hard protein called keratin. This process is called keratinization . As this happens, the hair cells die. The dead cells and keratin form the shaft of the hair.
Hair grows all over the human body except the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and lips. Hair grows faster in summer than winter, and slower at night than during the day.
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What Are Some Sources Of Ultraviolet Radiation
Sunlight is the greatest source of UV radiation. Man-made ultraviolet sources include several types of UV lamps, arc welding, and mercury vapour lamps.
UV radiation is widely used in industrial processes and in medical and dental practices for a variety of purposes, such as killing bacteria, creating fluorescent effects, curing inks and resins, phototherapy and suntanning. Different UV wavelengths and intensities are used for different purposes.
Table 1 gives some examples of occupations with a potential risk of ultraviolet exposure. Table 2 gives examples of devices which employ UV radiation.
|Table 1 Workers at Potential Risk from Exposure to UV Radiation|
Food and drink irradiators
|Some Devices Emitting UV Radiation|
|Bactericidal lamps Carbon, xenon and other arcs Dental polymerizing equipment||Counterfeit currency detectors|
Custom Lens Colors And Tinting
Custom lens color is created by dipping the lenses into a “tint tank,” where the tint is infused into the lenses.
Brown and gray are the most popular colors for sunglass lenses. Brown is the best color overall because it offers the best contrast and the best depth perception. Brown lenses provide the wearer the broadest light spectrum through to the eye while blocking blue light and offering optimum contrast. Brown is excellent for applications where distances need to be constantly judged, like driving or participating in sporting activities. Brown is also best for lower light situations, like fishing in the late afternoon or early morning. Grey tint is best for bright light situations like water sports because it blocks out the sun’s brightest rays.
Tint density is defined as a percentage, where 0% is completely clear, and 100% permits zero light to pass through. A 10% to 20% tint is typically used for a fashion tint, and a 50% to 80% tint is used for outdoor protection from the sun.
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Are All The Different Types Of Sunscreens Safe For Me To Use
Yes. There are 2 types of sunscreens: organic and inorganic . They are both safe and they both protect you from sun damage, just in different ways. The level of protection provided by both types of sunscreens depends on their SPF. Recent studies have looked at the absorption of organic sunscreens into the skin, but no harmful effects have been seen. If absorption into the skin is a concern you have, you can use inorganic sunscreens, which have Titanium dioxide or Zinc oxide as their ingredients. As always, it is a good idea to talk to your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.
Can You Get Sick From Too Much Sun Exposure
In addition to its long-term effects, the sun can make you sick from just one severe sunburn. Your skin may turn red and blister while youre still out in the sun, or it may not occur for several hours. In the meantime, you could develop sun poisoning, which can cause symptoms that include the following:
- Red blotches or bumps on your face
- A reddish-brown color on your neck that may include burning and itching
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How Does The Ozone Layer Affect Your Exposure To Uv Radiation From The Sun
Certain industrial chemical pollutants in the atmosphere are gradually eroding earth’s protective shield which stops the sun’s UV radiation from reaching the earth. In recent years, there has been growing concern about increasing levels of UV radiation in the sunlight, especially during the summer months. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer and eye cataracts.
What Are The Health Impacts Of Air Pollution
Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. It increases the risk of respiratory infections, heart disease and lung cancer. Both short and long term exposure to air pollutants have been associated with health impacts. More severe impacts affect people who are already ill.
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Are Sunscreens Safe For Children
Yes. Not only are sunscreens safe for children over age 6 months, if used regularly in childhood they can prevent skin cancers from developing in later life. Recently, a researcher reported that if sunscreens were used regularly by children through the age of 18, there would be a 72% reduction in the cases of skin cancer later in life.
For children under the age of 6 months, protective clothing and shade should be utilized. If these methods are not available, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends applying a minimal amount of sunscreen with SPF 15 or greater to areas such as the infants face and the back of the hands.
What Causes Heat Stroke
Our bodies make a tremendous amount of internal heat and we normally cool ourselves by sweating and radiating heat through the skin. However, in certain circumstances, such as extreme heat, high humidity, or vigorous activity in the hot sun, this cooling system may begin to fail. This allows heat to build up to dangerous levels.
If a person becomes dehydrated and cannot sweat enough to cool his or her body, his or her internal temperature may rise to dangerously high levels. This causes heat stroke.
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