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Which Nerves Carry Messages From The Brain To The Muscles

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How Does The Central Nervous System Differ From Other Systems Of The Body

What are Nerve Cells, Neurons & Synapses? | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool

Most systems and organs of the body control just one function, but the central nervous system does many jobs at the same time. It controls all voluntary movement, such as speech and walking, and involuntary movements, such as blinking and breathing. It is also the core of our thoughts, perceptions, and emotions.

What Are The Symptoms Of Early Als Motor Neurone Disease

This disease affects different people in different ways.

The main feature of ALS-MND is muscle weakness which is mild at first, but gradually becomes worse. The first symptoms commonly develop in the hands and arms or in the feet and legs. Less commonly, the first symptoms are in the muscles around the face and throat :

  • Hand and arm symptoms. At first you may notice that your grip is less strong. You may drop things and find it difficult to open bottle tops, turn keys, etc. You may also notice that the muscles in your hands become flatter with time.
  • Feet and leg symptoms. At first you may start to drag one leg or tend to trip easily. You may find it more difficult to climb stairs or rise out of low chairs. You may find you are much more tired after walking.
  • Bulbar muscle symptoms. You may not be able to shout or sing. Your speech may become slurred. There may be a change in the quality of your voice. You may experience some difficulties with swallowing as the muscles which co-ordinate swallowing become affected.
  • Other symptoms that may occur include: muscle cramps, tiredness, twitching of weakened muscles and jerking of an arm or leg whilst you rest.

Voluntary And Involuntary Movement

Over one million axons travel through the spinal cord, including the longest axons in the central nervous system.

Neurons in the motor cortex, the region of the brain that controls voluntary movement, send their axons through the corticospinal tract to connect with motor neurons in the spinal cord. The spinal motor neurons project out of the cord to the correct muscles via the ventral root. These connections control conscious movements, such as writing and running.

Information also flows in the opposite direction resulting in involuntary movement. Sensory neurons provide feedback to the brain via the dorsal root. Some of this sensory information is conveyed directly to lower motor neurons before it reaches the brain, resulting in involuntary, or reflex movements. The remaining sensory information travels back to the cortex.

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The Neurons That Carry Messages From The Central Nervous System To The Muscles Of The Body Are The

-Efferent neurons/motor neurons

Explanation

-A neuron is a highly specialised cell of the nervous system that has two characteristic properties: irritability and conductivity .

-Neurons that receive stimuli from the outside environment and transmit them toward the brain are called afferent or sensory neurons. Those that carry impulses in the opposite direction, away from the brain and other nerve centers to muscles, are called efferent neurons, or motor neurons.

-Efferent neurons are neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.Motor neurons are responsible for transmitting signals from the spinal cord to muscles, enabling muscle contraction.

Based on the question, all of the following are functions of the peripheral nervous system except it interprets signals from the external environment.

One of the structures of the Nervous System is the peripheral nervous system. The other one is called the Central Nervous System.

The peripheral nervous system encompasses all the neurons that exist outside the brain and spinal cord. In other words, it comprises all the nerves that are connected to the spinal cord and the brain, which are parts of the Central Nervous System, and further advance to other parts of the body as well as muscles and organs

The peripheral nervous system is structured into two systems: the autonomic nervous system the somatic nervous system.

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How Does The Central Nervous System Protect Itself From Injury

NERVOUS

The central nervous system is better protected than any other system or organ in the body. Its main line of defense is the bones of the skull and spinal column, which create a hard physical barrier to injury. A fluid-filled space below the bones, called the syrnix, provides shock absorbance.

Unfortunately, this protection can be a double-edged sword. When an injury to the central nervous system occurs, the soft tissue of the brain and spinal cord swells, causing pressure because of the confined space. The swelling makes the injury worse unless it is rapidly relieved. Fractured bones can lead to further damage and the possibility of infection.

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What Makes Up A Nerve Cell

Your neurons work to conduct nerve impulses. They have three parts:

  • Cell body: Similar to the other cells in your body, this area contains various cellular components like the nucleus.
  • Dendrites: Dendrites are extensions from the cell body. They receive signals from other neurons. The number of dendrites on a neuron can vary.
  • Axon: The axon also projects from the cell body. Its typically longer than the dendrites and carries signals away from the cell body where they can be received by other nerve cells. Axons are often covered by a substance called myelin, which helps to protect and insulate the axon.

Your brain alone contains approximately

So how exactly do neurons work? Lets explore one type of neuron signaling below:

  • When neurons signal another neuron, an electrical impulse is sent down the length of the axon.
  • At the end of the axon, the electrical signal is converted into a chemical signal. This leads to the release of molecules called neurotransmitters.
  • The neurotransmitters bridge the gap, called a synapse, between the axon and the dendrites of the next neuron.
  • When the neurotransmitters bind to the dendrites of the next neuron, the chemical signal is again converted into an electrical signal and travels the length of the neuron.
  • Nerves are made up of bundles of axons that work together to facilitate communication between the CNS and PNS. Its important to note that peripheral nerve actually refers to the PNS. Axon bundles are called tracts in the CNS.

    What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

    The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

    • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
    • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

    The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

    The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

    Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

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    Structure Of The Nervous System

    Neurons

    Neurons or nerve cells carry signals throughout the nervous system. Groups of nerve cells get together to form the nerve tissue or nerves. A signal can pass through a nerve cell with a speed of 265 miles/hour. Even though signals pass through one neuron with such speed, having a group of neurons or nerves helps the signal travel through faster and with more strength.

    Every neuron has a basic structure consisting of three main parts: the dendrites, cell body, and axon. The diagram outlines the structure of a basic nerve cell.

    The main part of a nerve cell is the cell body. The cell body contains the main control center of the cell, the nucleus and all the other structures found in any typical body cell. The cell body controls the cellâs functions. For example, it supplies the rest of the cell with food and energy and controls the elimination of waste products.

    From the cell body extends several hair-like branches called dendrites . These structures carry signals to the cell body from other neurons or the environment. Attached to the cell body is another long, thick, tail-like structure called the axon . The axon carries the signals away from the cell body. The dendrites and axons are called nerve fibers.

    There are three types of neurons classified according to their function. While the basic structure of these neurons are the same, they have slight variations to help them maximize their functions. The diagram below shows three main types of neurons.

    Spinal Cord

    Newborn Screening And Follow

    How Nervous System Works Animation – Nerve Conduction Physiology. Central & Peripheral Anatomy Video

    Newborn screening for SMA is done using a small amount of blood collected from your babys heel. To learn more about this process, visit the Blood Spot Screening page.

    During screening, a special machine looks for a specific change in the SMN1 gene in your babys blood. Babies with this specific change in the SMN1 gene might have SMA.

    If your babys blood spot screening result for SMA is out-of-range, your babys health care provider will contact you. Together, you will discuss next steps and follow-up plans.

    An out-of-range screening result does not mean that your baby definitely has the condition. It does mean that your baby needs more follow-up testing. To learn more about screening results, visit the Blood Spot Screening Results page.

    Your baby may need follow-up genetic testing after an out-of-range screening result.

    You should complete any recommended follow-up testing as soon as possible. Babies with this condition can have serious health problems soon after birth if they are not diagnosed and treated quickly.

    False-negative results may happen. Newborn screening only looks for one specific change in the SMN1 gene . It is estimated that 2 to 5 percent of SMA cases are caused by a different genetic change that is not currently detected by newborn screening.

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    Bladder Control Problems & Nerve Disease

    For the urinary system to do its job, muscles and nerves must work together to hold urine in the bladder and then release it at the right time. Nerves carry messages from the bladder to the brain to let it know when the bladder is full. They also carry messages from the brain to the bladder, telling muscles either to tighten or release. A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the bladder do not work properly.

    What Are The Treatments For Lack Of Coordination Between The Bladder And Urethra

    The job of the sphincter muscles is to hold urine in the bladder by squeezing the urethra shut. If the urethral sphincter fails to stay closed, urine may leak out of the bladder. When nerve signals are coordinated properly, the sphincter muscles relax to allow urine to pass through the urethra as the bladder contracts to push out urine. If the signals are not coordinated, the bladder and the sphincter may contract at the same time, so urine cannot pass easily.

    Drug therapy for an uncoordinated bladder and urethra. Scientists have not yet found a drug that works selectively on the urethral sphincter muscles, but drugs used to reduce muscle spasms or tremors are sometimes used to help the sphincter relax. Baclofen is prescribed for muscle spasms or cramping in patients with multiple sclerosis and spinal injuries. Diazepam can be taken as a muscle relaxant or to reduce anxiety. Drugs called alpha-adrenergic blockers can also be used to relax the sphincter. Examples of these drugs are alfuzosin , tamsulosin , terazosin , and doxazosin . The main side effects are low blood pressure, dizziness, fainting, and nasal congestion. All of these drugs have been used to relax the urethral sphincter in people whose sphincter does not relax well on its own.

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    Subdivisions Of The Peripheral Nervous System

    The sensory division carries sensory signals by way of afferent nerve fibers from receptors in the central nervous system . It can be further subdivided into somatic and visceral divisions. The somatic sensory division carries signals from receptors in the skin, muscles, bones and joints. The visceral sensory division carries signals mainly from the viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

    The motor division carries motor signals by way of efferent nerve fibers from the CNS to effectors . It can be further subdivided into somatic and visceral divisions. The somatic motor division carries signals to the skeletal muscles. The visceral motor division, also known as the autonomic nervous system, carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. It can be further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

    The sympathetic division tends to arouse the body to action. The parasympathetic divisions tend to have a calming effect.

    Nerve fibers of the PNS are classified according to their involvement in motor or sensory, somatic or visceral pathways. Mixed nerves contain both motor and sensory fibers. Sensory nerves contain mostly sensory fibers they are less common and include the optic and olfactory nerves. Motor nerves contain motor fibers.

    Nerve Roots Supply Dermatomes

    Nervous system (Lecture 1 (Nerves (Afferent (Carry ...

    With few exceptions, complete overlap exists between adjacent dermatomes. This means that the loss of a single nerve root rarely produces significant loss of skin sensitivity. The exception to this rule is found in small patches in the distal extremities, which have been termed “autonomous zones.” In these regions, single nerve roots supply distinct and nonoverlapping areas of skin. By their nature the “autonomous zones” represent only a small portion of any dermatome and only a few nerve roots have such autonomous zones.

    For example, the C5 nerve root may be the sole supply to an area of the lateral arm and proximal part of the lateral forearm. The C6 nerve root may distinctly supply some skin of the thumb and index finger. Injuries to the C7 nerve root may decrease sensation over the middle and sometimes the index finger along with a restricted area on the dorsum of the hand. C8 nerve root lesions can produce similar symptoms over the small digit, occasionally extending in to the hypothenar area of the hand. In the lower limb, L4 nerve root damage may decrease sensation over the medial part of the leg, while L5 lesions affect sensation over part of the dorsum of the foot and great toe. S1 nerve root lesions typically decrease sensation on the lateral side of the foot.

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    What Bladder Control Problems Does Nerve Damage Cause

    Nerves that work poorly can lead to three different kinds of bladder control problems.

    Overactive bladder. Damaged nerves may send signals to the bladder at the wrong time, causing its muscles to squeeze without warning. The symptoms of overactive bladder include

    • urinary frequencydefined as urination eight or more times a day or two or more times at night
    • urinary urgencythe sudden, strong need to urinate immediately
    • urge incontinenceleakage of urine that follows a sudden, strong urge to urinate

    Poor control of sphincter muscles. Sphincter muscles surround the urethra and keep it closed to hold urine in the bladder. If the nerves to the sphincter muscles are damaged, the muscles may become loose and allow leakage or stay tight when you are trying to release urine.

    Urine retention. For some people, nerve damage means their bladder muscles do not get the message that it is time to release urine or are too weak to completely empty the bladder. If the bladder becomes too full, urine may back up and the increasing pressure may damage the kidneys. Or urine that stays too long may lead to an infection in the kidneys or bladder. Urine retention may also lead to overflow incontinence.

    What Are Clinical Trials And Are They Right For You

    Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.

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    The Somatic Nervous System

    The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the central nervous system. The somatic nervous system derives its name from the Greek word soma, which means “body.”

    The somatic system is responsible for transmitting sensory information as well as for voluntary movement. This system contains two major types of neurons:

    • Motor neurons: Also called efferent neurons, motor neurons carry information from the brain and spinal cord to muscle fibers throughout the body. These motor neurons allow us to take physical action in response to stimuli in the environment.
    • Sensory neurons: Also called afferent neurons, sensory neurons carry information from the nerves to the central nervous system. It is these sensory neurons that allow us to take in sensory information and send it to the brain and spinal cord.

    How The Spinal Cord And Muscles Work Together

    Nerve Action

    The spinal cord is divided into five sections: the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions. The level of injury determines the extent of paralysis and/or loss of sensation. No two injuries are alike.

    This diagram illustrates the connections between the major skeletal muscle groups and each level of the spinal cord. A similar organization exists for the spinal control of the internal organs.

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