Nasal Sprays Do Not Work For Proteins
Flamm and Zimmermann have been able to draw valuable conclusions from Stützle’s work: proteins that are dispersed as an aerosol are very sensitive to the shear forces inside the aerosol generator. In order to apply proteins to the nose, they need to be specifically packed or formulated. This is not necessary for small chemical molecules, which are able to enter deep into the nasal cavity by way of gas-borne particles that are finely dispersed with a nasal spray. In addition, computer simulations carried out in cooperation with researchers from the University of Ulm and the Ulm University of Applied Sciences have shown that, when inhaled continuously, protein aerosols not only accumulate in the olfactory region as desired, but also in the nasopharynx where the mucosal immune system is located.
Chapman, Colin D et al.: Intranasal Treatment of Central Nervous System Dysfunction in Humans. Pharmaceutical Research, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11095-012-0915-1/fulltext.html.
Djupesland, Per G et al.: Accessing the brain: the nose may know the way. Journal of Cerebral Blood & Flow Metabolism , 33, 793-794 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.41.
Lorenzetti, Laura: Is the future of pharma about making good drugs great? Fortune, 27.2.2015.
Pardridge, William M: Drug transport across the blood-brain-barrier. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism , 32, 1959-1972 doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2012.126.
Do We Breathe Through Both Nostrils
Our nostrils are separated by a septum, in effect giving us two noses. Most of the time, one nostril allows less air to pass through than the other, with the nasal flow switching every few hours. So a low-airflow nostril gives slow-acting odours more time to be detected, giving us a greater range of smell.
Should Your Nostrils Close When You Breathe In
The nasal valve helps keep the nostrils open especially when inhaling, and as its name would suggest, nasal valve collapse occurs when one or both nostrils doesnt stay open. This can escalate and contribute to other sinus and nasal conditions, particularly regarding sinus drainage and infections of the nose and sinus.
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Nasal Cycle: How Does It Work
A small erectile tissue found in the nasal septum creates a slight obstruction that partially blocks the airflow on one side of the nose. This obstruction changes periodically, alternating between nostrils, and is the key component of the nasal cyclea phenomenon that occurs in 70-80% of healthy adults.
We never truly appreciate our free-flowing state of breathing until we have a cold, our nose get blocked and we end up sounding like orcs from Lord of the Rings!
Reviewevaluation Of Intranasal Delivery Route Of Drug Administration For Brain Targeting
The two main pathways of intranasal drug absorption are the olfactory and trigeminal routes.
The intranasal drugs can bypass the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier.
There are in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models for testing drug penetration by intranasal route.
The drug penetartion from nasal cavity can be enhanced by various formulations and devices.
Transporter modulation can also help in nasal delivery of their substrates.
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What Is The Best Medicine For Sinus Cold
- Best Overall: Mucinex Sinus Max Severe Congestion & Pain. …
- Best Budget: Equate Congestion Suphedrine PE Nasal Decongestant. …
- Best for Sinus Headaches: Advil Sinus Congestion & Pain Relief. …
- Best for Cough: Robitussin Severe CF Maximum Strength Cold, Cough & Flu. …
- Best Spray: Mucinex Sinus Max Nasal Spray.
Yogis Ahead Of Science: One Nostril Breathing Determines How You Feel
- in yoga for your energy
- 6 Aug, 2014
Have you ever heard of the honeymoon nose? The proper name for it is honeymoon rhinitis and it reflects the phenomenon that your nose feels congested after prolonged sexual stimulation. It turns out that your nose is lined up with the same kind of erectile tissue as your genitals and those tissues become swollen when you get excited.
That is not the only time when those tissues in the nose get swollen. In fact, there is a predictable pattern of swelling and shrinkage that was first described by the German physician Richard Kayser in 1895. He had observed periodic cycles of congestion and decongestion that alternated between the right and left nostril, which was later termed nasal cycle. This phenomenon is widely known in the scientific community and has been subject to multiple studies. The funny thing is that yogis had known about it for hundreds of years and used it effectively to change the bodys temperature and ones mental state, but well get to that later.
Here is what science confirmed so far:
- Left nostril dominance
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What The Nose Knows May Affect Your Brain Health
How well you can smell could be a sign of overall brain health.
A growing body of research suggests that the two are strongly linked, though researchers are just starting to figure out how and why.
In a recent study, researchers found that a simple smell test may predict your chance of having dementia.
âAbility to smell is a window into parts of the brain related to core functions, like pleasure, emotion, and memory,â says Jayant Pinto, MD, author of the study and an otolaryngologist and head and neck surgeon at University of Chicago Medicine. The smell test, he adds, allows doctors âto see, a little earlier, a sign that problems are happening.â
In the study, researchers visited the homes of more than 2,900 adults ages 57 to 85 to test how well they could recognize five different odors: peppermint, fish, orange, rose, and leather. Five years later, researchers followed up with the older adults to find out if any of them had gotten a diagnosis of dementia since taking the smell test.
Those who couldnât identify at least four of the five odors on the test were twice as likely as others to have dementia 5 years later.
The lower their score on the smell test, the greater their odds of having dementia. This decline in memory and thinking skills comes in several forms, including Alzheimerâs disease, Parkinsonâs, and Lewy body dementia, among others.
What Is The Purpose Of This Nasal Cycle
Though a definitive reason for the nasal cycle is yet to be understood, many theories have been postulated. Two of the most popular ones put forth revolve around cleansing and a range of smells.
We are constantly breathing in dirt and germs from our environment. One study suggests that the nasal cycle is important for the elimination of trapped dirt and germs. Alternating the dominant nostril causes a congestion-decongestion cycle on each side, resulting in a cleansing of mucus, along with the dirt and germs trapped within it.
Another study hypothesizes a smell-oriented theory. This means that as the nasal cycle progresses and the airflow keeps changing between nostrils, one becomes receptive to a particular smell. This allows our brain to process a greater range of odors.
When airflow varies in each nostril, the molecules of odorants drawn in through each side also vary. This affects the way our olfactory mucosa captures smells.
How quickly an odorant is absorbed by the olfactory mucosa influences our sense of smell.
When an odorant is one that can be absorbed easily by the olfactory mucosa, but the airflow rate is low, fewer odorant molecules are picked up and sent to the receptors, thus provoking a weaker perception of smell. Conversely, when the airflow is greater, more molecules are available for absorption by the olfactory mucosa, resulting in our experiencing a stronger smell.
Smelling is quite a complicated process.
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Is Our Airflow Greater In One Nostril Than The Other
People usually breathe more through one nostril at a time, with the dominant nostril switching periodically. This is known as the nasal cycle.
Lets try something: hold your index finger horizontally, right below your nose. Now exhale and note the airflow pattern on your finger. Do you find that one nostril is exhaling more air than the other?
It is a little-known fact that the human body has unequal airflow between the right and left nostril, with one being dominant, meaning that it has more free-flowing air than the other.
This flow of air alternates periodically, at intervals anywhere between one hour to seven hours, with more air flowing through one half of the nose than the other.
The reason why this switching goes largely unnoticed is that the total airflow resistance remains the same, and the volume of air supplied remains more or less constant.
Yoga And The Nasal Cycle
One of the practices of Yoga, Indias ancient science for health and wellness, is Pranayama . A basic Pranayama technique is Anulom Vilom, or alternate nostril breathing, which is said to balance your autonomic nervous system.
When the right nostril is more active, it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in our body being in an active state. When the left nostril is more active, it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, resulting in a relaxing effect.
One fascinating study reported that breathing through a particular nostril can have a stimulating or relaxing effect on the nervous system.
In this study, 48 male subjects between 20-48 years of age were divided into three groups. They were told to breathe either through their right or left nostril or alternate between the two. This was followed for 27 cycles of inhalation and exhalation, four times a day, for a duration of one month.
The findings showed significant and measurable differences in the oxygen consumption and metabolism levels between the three groups.
The practice of pranayama is known to influence the nasal cycle.
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What Happens After Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery
After your operation, your nose and sinuses may be packed with bandages. These are usually removed within a week after the surgery. You also will be given antibiotics to fight infection. If you feel pain or discomfort, let your healthcare providers know. Most people spend 1 to 2 days in the hospital before going home.
Once you are discharged, take any prescriptions you are given as instructed and follow all postoperative instructions.
- Pain that can’t be managed with prescribed medications
- Fever of more than 100.4F
- Shaking chills
- Redness, tenderness, heat, or pus, which are signs of infection, at the surgery site
- Swelling in the area around the nose
- Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
- Chest pain
- Any clear drainage from the nose
Your healthcare team may give you other instructions about what you should do after your procedure.
What Are The Benefits Of Simha Pranayama Or Lions Breath
Benefits of Simha Pranayama or Lions Breath Simha Pranayama or Lions Breath is beneficial in relieving tension occurring in the jaws because of teeth grinding and jaw clenching. It prevents the throat from drooping with age as Simha Pranayama/Lions Breath stimulates platysma which is a thin and broad muscle.
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So Much More Than Just Balance
Breathing exercises in general are known to have powerful effects on the autonomic nervous system and brings physiological and psychological benefits. But what about alternate nostril breathing?
One study on healthy male subjects in 2011 showed that a 6 week programme of alternate nostril breathing, with no other yogic interventions, increased lung capacity, reduced blood pressure and heart rate. These results were confirmed when another author repeated the study in 2014.
A really interesting study on healthy engineering students in 2011 demonstrated how alternate nostril breathing can be usedto improve academic performance. The students practised the prnyma every evening after their classes for three months. At the end of the study they all reported improved feelings of well being, better memory, stress relief and improved physical relaxation.
More recently, scientists have even shown that it even makes a difference which nostril you start with. The first breath in nadi shodhana is usually through the left nostril, and this traditional variation has been shown to reduce heart rate and blood pressure while increasing reactivity. These physiological responses are the result of stimulating the parasympathetic, or calming side of our bodies. From the traditional point of view, youre stimulating the feminine aspects of the ida nadi.
What Is The Meaning Of Lions Breath Pose
Lion pose, or simhasana, is a strong seated posture incorporating a powerful breathing technique, called lions breath, that dispels negativity by helping you tap into your inner power and energy. Simha means lion in Sanskrit and, according to B.K.S. Iyengar, it is dedicated to the man-lion incarnation of Lord Vishnu .
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The Nose Is A Window To The Brain
Your nose may provide a direct path for harmful substances from the environment to reach your brain. âYour olfactory nerve is sitting out there sampling air,â says Pinto. âThatâs what itâs supposed to do, but itâs at risk for viruses, bacteria, whateverâs in your nose.â
Thatâs especially risky since cells in the nose transmit directly to the brain. Neurons capture odors and send signals to the smell center at the base of the brain, known as the olfactory bulb. The signals then go to different areas throughout the brain, says Marie-Elyse Lafaille-Magnan, who researches the link between the sense of smell and the odds of Alzheimerâs at McGill University in Montreal.
Some of the areas the olfactory bulb transmits signals to are related to thinking and memory.
In fact, on autopsy, researchers have found brain tangles associated with Alzheimerâs disease, known as tau, in the olfactory bulbs of people who had Alzheimerâs, Parkinsonâs, and other forms of dementia linked to smell loss.
These tiny particles that get into the brain through the nose may actually start the disease process, says Richard Doty, PhD, director of the Smell and Taste Center at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.
A nose that doesnât work so well gives the brain less information. Some research suggests that this lack of stimulation may weaken other systems.
The Ins And Outs Of Alternate Nostril Breathing
Ever wondered why you feel so good after alternate nostril breathing ? Let me explain
Alternate nostril breathing, or nadi shodhana prnyma, is the first of the prnyma practices described in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika . Nadi Shodhana literally means nadi purification and the practice is believed to balance the subtle energy, or prana, of the energetic body. It is said to do this by balancing the flow of energy through the ida and pingala nadis that wind their way up the body from the pelvis through the chakras to end in the nostrils. But how does it do this?
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Feasible But Not Yet Studied In Detail: The Path From The Nose Into The Brain
Many researchers around the world are studying how drugs can travel from the nasal mucosa into the blood stream. However, only a handful of researchers are specifically studying the intranasal transport of drugs into the brain.
Flamm’s task is no small one. He needs to find a way to bring a drug into the olfactory region without it being taken up by the entire body, where it can lead to undesired adverse drug effects. In addition, the immune system of the nasal mucosa is very active as it produces a large number of antibodies and lymphocytes that recognise and destroy foreign substances. The planned drug application system therefore must not, under any circumstances, activate the immune system.
Flamm will work with two model drugs: a low-molecular weight muscle relaxer and a peptide hormone . Insulin can cross the blood-brain barrier by way of transcytosis . The hormone is an important growth and differentiation factor in the CNS and improves, as Zimmermann herself has shown, the cognitive ability of Alzheimer’s patients, at least for a short period of time. In addition, studies with Alzheimer’s patients and healthy individuals have shown that intranasally administered insulin exerts distinct influences on central nervous functions in humans. This is why the researchers from Biberach have decided to focus initially on insulin.
What Are The Benefits Of Practicing Lions Breath
The Benefits of Lions Breath. There are many benefits associated with practicing simhasana and lions breath. It can free us from negative emotions allowing us to feel more grounded and centered. It is a powerful energizing breath that awakens the body and calms the mind, helping to expel pent-up anger, frustration and stagnant physical energy.
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Intranasal Administration Is Undergoing Thorough Investigation
The doctoral student and his supervisor both enjoy research activities with application potential. Zimmermann, who has worked for many years in preclinical Alzheimer’s research in industry and academia, states: “We are not looking for yet another trial where mice are administered droplets to the nose. We want to do it properly this time.” Zimmermann has tested many methods, all linked to the issue of how to bring drugs effectively into the brain. She considered the intranasal application of drugs a fairly promising method. However, most papers she read were limited to describing the effect a certain drug had, and did not measure the drug concentrations that actually reached the brain, stomach or lungs.
Prof. Zimmermann wanted to change this and so she contacted some of her colleagues for assistance: Prof. Chrystelle Mavoungou, a drug approval specialist, and Prof. Annette Schafmeister, an expert in aerosol technology. Martina Stützle, another doctoral student in Zimmermann’s team, is specifically focused on developing protein aerosols for intranasal nose-to-brain drug delivery.