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Blood-brain barrier: a protective layer that surrounds the brain and controls what things can move into the area around the brain.
Circadian rhythm: the body’s natural clock that runs on roughly a 24 hour cycle. Many animals have a 24 hour cycle that includes sleeping, eating and doing work… more
CLSM: confocal laser scanning microscope makes high quality images of microscopic objects with extreme detail… more
Metabolism: what living things do to stay alive. This includes eating, drinking, breathing, and getting rid of wastes… more
Puberty: the change from child to adult where the body is able to reproduce.
Vertebra: any of the bones that make up the backbone.
What Are The Basics About The Lobes Of The Brain
Anatomically, it is very easy to recognize the division that exists between the two hemispheres of the brain, because seen from above a remarkable space keeps them separated.
It is the interhemispheric fissure, which is something like a rectilinear crack that separates the upper and more superficial parts of the brain and defines where one cerebral hemisphere begins and where another ends.
However, beyond this obvious sign thanks to which we can get a very superficial idea about the anatomy of the brain, if what we want to examine is the structure of each of these elements, things get complicated.
Each hemisphere is covered by a layer called the cerebral cortex , and this cortex can be divided into different sections according to its different functions and locations.
This classification into differentiated areas within each of the cerebral hemispheres shows us the existence of several lobes of the brain. Lets see how they are.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Happiness
Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.
Imaging studies suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.
A 2015 study found that people with larger gray matter volume in their right precuneus reported being happier. Experts think the precuneus processes certain information and converts it into feelings of happiness. For example, imagine youve spent a wonderful night out with someone you care about. Going forward, when you recall this experience and others like it, you may experience a feeling of happiness.
It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.
As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Dopamine is associated with your bodys reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.
Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. Its also involved in social bonding with a partner.
History Of The Cerebellum
The distinct appearance of the cerebellum was first described thousands of years ago by philosophers. The Roman physician Galen gave the earliest written surviving descriptions of this part of the brain.
It was not until the early 19th-century, however, that physicians and researchers began to learn more about the functions of this region of the brain. Experimental work that involved ablating portions of the cerebellum in animals revealed that this part of the brain is important in the coordination of movement.
The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers
Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.
Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.
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What Are The 6 Lobes Of The Brain
The cerebrum is divided by a longitudinal fissure into 2 hemispheres, each containing 6 discrete lobes:
We explained how we can find an almost infinite number of organic structures within each hemisphere that are responsible for carrying out various tasks and functions that affect our actions. In this article you could find an overview of some of the most important sections of our thinking machine: the 5 lobes of the brain.
If you have any questions or comments let us know!
Why Is This Useful
For people in an unconscious state that are unable to wake up, there may be a possibility for some sort of therapy as scientists start understanding what parts of the brain control consciousness and thus, what parts to target. This would be similar to the way deep brain stimulation is currently being experimented with as a treatment for Parkinsons Disease.
It also might be possible to stimulate some parts of the brain to address depression as well as a variety of consciousness disorders.
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Right Brain Left Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
Information Transport And Boundary Assistants
The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.
Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons
The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons
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The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata
Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.
Which Region Of The Brain Is Necessary For Consciousness
For thousands of years, everyone from great thinkers, priests and philosophers to psychologists and neuroscientists have battled to understand human consciousness.
As far back as the ancient Maya and Inca four millennia ago, whole civilizations have struggled to define consciousness. Countless philosophers since then as well as many leading minds in many different fields today continue to do so.
There are many questions relating to what consciousness is from a philosophical standpoint
But, up until recently, there were just as many questions on the physical side too:
Specifically, which region of the brain is necessary for consciousness?
In the past few years, scientists think they might have found at least part of the answer to this latter question
To understand the answer though, we need to know a little about how the human brain works:
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The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions
The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.
The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.
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What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:
- The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
- The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.
The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.
The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.
The brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.
The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.
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S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
What Does The Brain Do
The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.
Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.
When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.
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Where Is The Brain Located
The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.
The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.
The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.
Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.
Where Do Emotions Come From
The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.
Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:
- Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the hypothalamus is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
- Hippocampus. The hippocampus helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
- Amygdala. The amygdala helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
- Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.
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The Cerebellum’s Left And Right Hemispheres
The cerebellum also has two hemispheres: the left cerebellar hemisphere and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Just as the longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum’s hemispheres, the “vermis” separates the cerebellum’s hemispheres.
Cerebellar hemispheres seen from front and back / The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons
Where Is Consciousness In The Brain
Scientists trying to figure out which part of the brain is responsible for consciousness already understand some of the basics which are required for consciousness. These include:
- The state of being awake, psychologically and physiologically
- Being able to know and perceive things
They have also looked at patients at times when consciousness was absent in order to see the differences.
A great many studies have been conducted. In recent years, theyve started to show clear results
Perhaps none more so than the team under Michael Fox at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, which is part of Harvard Medical School.
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What Is The Corpus Callosum
The cerebrum’s inner core houses the brain’s “white matter.” The major part of the inner core is known as the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is a thick tract of fibrous nerves that serve as a kind of switchboard enabling the brain’s hemispheres to communicate with one another. Whereas the cerebral cortex is the cerebrum’s outer layer made up of gray matter, and is responsible for thinking, motor function and information processing the corpus callosum is the cerebrum’s inner core, made up of white matter, with four parts of nerve tracts connecting to different parts of the hemispheres.
Home of the white matter: corpus callosum./Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The corpus callosum’s nerve fibers are coated with myelin. This fatty substance helps increase the transmission of information between the next part of the cerebrum: the two hemispheres.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Fear
From a biological standpoint, fear is a very important emotion. It helps you respond appropriately to threatening situations that could harm you.
This response is generated by stimulation of the amygdala, followed by the hypothalamus. This is why some people with brain damage affecting their amygdala dont always respond appropriately to dangerous scenarios.
When the amygdala stimulates the hypothalamus, it initiates the fight-or-flight response. The hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol.
As these hormones enter the bloodstream, you might notice some physical changes, such as an increase in:
- heart rate
- blood sugar
In addition to initiating the fight-or-flight response, the amygdala also plays a role in fear learning. This refers to the process by which you develop an association between certain situations and feelings of fear.
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