Friday, May 27, 2022

Which Of The Following Is Part Of The Brain

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How Does Blood Get To The Brain

The Brain

Blood delivers fuel and nourishment to the brain through a complex system of blood vessels that reaches every neighborhood of the brain. The carotid arteries, which run up the left and right sides of the neck, are especially important, supplying blood to the front of the brain and the cerebral cortex.

How is the brain protected? The brain is protected by the bones of the skull and by a covering of three thin membranes called meninges. The brain is also cushioned and protected by cerebrospinal fluid. This watery fluid is produced by special cells in the four hollow spaces in the brain, called ventricles.

Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers

Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.

Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.

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Evidence From Neuroimaging Studies

The published literature of brain imaging findings in depression has had substantial growth over the past 15 years. Imaging studies can be divided by the imaging modality used i.e. magnetic resonance imaging , positron emission tomography , and single photon emission computed tomography . The findings from these studies can broadly be divided into whether regional brain abnormalities were being studied and found or whether brain circuits or connectivity between brain regions was studied.

The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do

Cerebrum

Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?

Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.

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Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.

The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

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What Are The Layers Of The Blood Brain Barrier

Each of the three main CNS interface layers: the BBB, choroid plexus epithelium and the epithelium of the arachnoid mater, functions as a physical, transport, metabolic, and immunologic barrier. The barrier functions are dynamic and respond to regulatory signals from both blood and brain.

What weakens the blood brain barrier? Summary: Until now, scientists have not known exactly how inflammation weakens the blood-brain barrier, allowing toxins and other molecules access to the brain. Until now, scientists have not known exactly how inflammation weakens the Blood-Brain Barrier, allowing toxins and other molecules access to the brain.

The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

  • Breathing
  • Sensory relay
  • Hunger

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Superior Parietal Lobule Damage And Gerstmann Syndrome

Damage within the superiorlobule of the parietal lobe can result in disturbances including apraxia and sensory neglect.

Damage to the angulargyrus region of the parietal lobe of the dominant cerebral hemisphere, either as a result of ischemia or trauma, can result in Gerstmann syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by:

  • agraphia/dysgraphia, the inability to write
  • acalculia, the inability to perform arithmetic functions
  • finger agnosia, the inability to recognize ones own fingers
  • the inability to distinguish between the right and left sides of the body

What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

The Human Brain Is A Specialized Organ That Is Responsible For All Thought And Movement That The Body Produces Learn Which Part Plays What Role

1 Label the following parts of the brain in Figures ...

The human brain allows humans to successfully interact with their environment, by communicating with others and interacting with inanimate objects near their position. If the brain is not functioning properly, the ability to move, generate accurate sensory information or speak and understand language can be damaged as well.

The brain is made up of nerve cells which interact with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and nervous system. These cells relate information back to specific centers of the brain where it can be processed and an appropriate reaction can be generated. Several chemicals are also located in the brain, which help the body maintain homeostasis, or a sense of overall comfort and calm as its basic needs are met. Keeping these chemicals balanced and the nerve cells firing properly are essential to healthy brain function.

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What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter

The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.

Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.

Other Key Parts Of The Brain

Ventricular System The brain is not a solid organ. Instead, there are fluid-filled cavities within the brain called ventricles. The ventricles provide nourishment to the brain. The ventricular system produces and processes cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery substance flowing around the brain to cushion and protect it.

Cranial NervesThe brain also contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Each is responsible for specific body functions.

  • Olfactory nerve: Sense of smell
  • Optic nerve: Vision

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Be Good To Your Brain

So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

  • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
  • Get a lot of playtime .
  • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
  • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
  • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Tour the Subcortical Structures of the Brain using Freeview

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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About The Brain And Spinal Cord

Together, the brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system. This complex system is part of everything we do. It controls the things we choose to dolike walk and talkand the things our body does automaticallylike breathe and digest food. The central nervous system is also involved with our sensesseeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling as well as our emotions, thoughts, and memory.

The brain is a soft, spongy mass of nerve cells and supportive tissue. It has three major parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The parts work together, but each has special functions.

The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, fills most of the upper skull. It has two halves called the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what’s going on around us and tells our body how to respond. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body. This part of the brain also controls speech and emotions as well as reading, thinking, and learning.

The cerebellum, under the cerebrum at the back of the brain, controls balance and complex actions like walking and talking.

The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord. It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most basic body functions, such as body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing.

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

TMS involves inducing an electric current within the brain using pulsating magnetic fields that are generated outside the brain near the scalp . Using this technique the TMS device can only stimulate the surface of the brain immediately underneath where the magnet is placed. Drawing from neuroimaging findings of reduced metabolism of the prefrontal cortex in depression TMS therapy for depression has until present been restricted to the prefrontal cortex. Recently, stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex with TMS received Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of depression resistant to antidepressant medications . Other targets and techniques that have been explored is the application of slow TMS on the right DLPFC .

Even though TMS stimulates the dorsal prefrontal cortex, its effects are thought to be generated by downstream effects on the limbic system . Neuroimaging studies have shown changes in limbic regions such as the striatum and the amygdala though a correlation of these changes with changes in depression has not been demonstrated .

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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

How Many Parts Is The Human Brain Divided Into Is One Of The Parts The Hind Brain

Functional areas of cerebrum

The human brain is divided into three parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The hindbrain is comprised of the brainstem and the cerebellum.

Explanation:

The human brain is divided into three parts:

  • The brainstem which has the pons, the midbrain, and the medulla oblongata.
  • The cerebellum which forms the hindbrain along with the brainstem and is located below the cerebrum.
  • The cerebrum which is the largest section of the brain, is divided into two hemispheres each of which has four lobes: the frontal, the temporal, the parietal, and the occipital.
  • The hindbrain refers to the oldest part of the brain in terms of evolution and is made up of the brainstem and the cerebellum. This section of the brain controls the autonomic body functions.

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    The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act

    Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .

    Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!

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