Sunday, May 22, 2022

Which Part Of The Brain Controls Respiration

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What Are The Parts Of The Brain

How Different Parts of Your Brain Control Your Breathing

Every second of every day the brain is collecting and sending out signals from and to the parts of your body. It keeps everything working even when we are sleeping at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this amazing control center. You can see each part and later learn what areas are involved with different tasks.

Does Alcohol Really Kill Your Brain Cells

Theres no question that alcohol affects the brain in negative ways. It can impair brain function even in the short term. In the longer term, it can lead to serious brain damage. It doesnt actually kill brain cells, though.

Long-term heavy drinking can cause shrinking of the brain and result in deficiencies in white matter. This can lead to:

  • slurred speech
  • family history of substance abuse

Alcoholics are prone to developing a brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Symptoms include:

  • mental confusion
  • paralysis of nerves that control eye movement
  • muscle coordination problems and difficulty walking
  • chronic learning and memory problems

Drinking during pregnancy can affect your babys developing brain, a condition known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome tend to have smaller brain volume . They can also have fewer brain cells or normally functioning neurons. This can cause long-term behavioral and learning problems.

Alcohol may interfere with the brains ability to grow new brain cells, which is another reason this myth may persist.

Why is it so easy to believe these myths about the brain? Theres a grain of truth running through some of them. Others seep into our own brains through repetition, and we fail to question their validity.

If you previously bought into some of these brain myths, take heart. You werent alone.

Frontal Lobe Damage Symptoms

Symptoms of damage to the frontal lobe can vary because there are so many functions carried out by the frontal lobes. These symptoms may include one or more of the following:

  • Weakness on one side of the body or one side of the face
  • Falling
  • Low attention span, easily distracted
  • Reduced or increased sexual interest or peculiar sexual habits
  • Impulsive or risky behavior

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What Parts Of The Brain Is Responsible For Respiration

Now that we have that covered, lets talk about the involvement of the brain in this process.

Your brain starts where the spinal cord enters the skull, and the first section that you encounter is called the Brain Stem. The brain stem contains the following structures:

  • The medulla oblongata
  • The Pons
  • The Midbrain

The medulla oblongata is involved in regulating many of the bodily processes that are controlled automatically like blood pressure, heart rate and yes, you guessed it . . . RESPIRATION.

The way this works is relatively straightforward. The medulla oblongata basically detects carbon dioxide and Oxygen levels in the bloodstream and determines what changes need to happen in the body.

It can then send nerve impulses to muscles in the heart and diaphragm, letting them know that they need to either step up their game or slow down a bit.

The reason I mentioned the heart is because the respiratory system is very much tied to the circulatory system.

Where Is The Brain Located

Control centers that regulate breathing

The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

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Influence From The Higher Brain Centres

The higher centres of the brain are the areas where we understand and manipulate information and experience thoughts, feelings and emotions. These centres can also influence respiration.

Respiratory rate and depth alter when the centres of the limbic system involved with emotions such as pain, anger or excitement are activated, though this effect is involuntary and outside our control. Centres in the hypothalamus are activated and influence both the rate and the depth of respiration via the pons and the medullary inspiration centre. Respiration can be increased or decreased via this pathway. Examples of this mechanism in action include gasping with fear or cold, a rise in respiratory rate when the body temperature is high, and breath-holding during times of anger.

From the cerebral cortex we can also voluntarily change our respiratory pattern by sending signals direct to the muscles of inspiration and bypassing the medullary centres . The cortex is the area of the brain where we interpret and manipulate information and when we need, for example, to swim a length under water, sing or simply chat to friends, we can consciously control our breathing pattern. Many of us, in our younger days, tried to hold our breath until we collapsed, but it is impossible to alter our breathing beyond certain limits because the other respiratory control mechanisms ultimately override the influence of the higher centres.

Control Of Ventilatory Pattern

Ventilation is normally unconscious and automatic, but can be overridden by conscious alternative patterns. Thus the emotions can cause yawning, laughing, sighing , social communication causes speech, song and whistling, while entirely voluntary overrides are used to blow out candles, and breath holding . Hyperventilation may be entirely voluntary or in response to emotional agitation or anxiety, when it can cause the distressing hyperventilation syndrome. The voluntary control can also influence other functions such as the heart rate as in yoga practices and meditation.

The ventilatory pattern is also temporarily modified by complex reflexes such as sneezing, straining, burping, coughing and vomiting.

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Structure Of The Medulla Oblongata

The region between the anterior median and anterolateral sulci is occupied by an elevation on either side known as the pyramid of medulla oblongata. This elevation is caused by the corticospinal tract. In the lower part of the medulla, some of these fibers cross each other, thus obliterating the anterior median fissure. This is known as the decussation of the pyramids. Other fibers that originate from the anterior median fissure above the decussation of the pyramids and run laterally across the surface of the pons are known as the external arcuate fibers.

The region between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulcus in the upper part of the medulla is marked by a swelling known as the olivary body, caused by a large mass of gray matter known as the inferior olivary nucleus.

The posterior part of the medulla between the posterior median and posterolateral sulci contains tracts that enter it from the posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. These are the fasciculus gracilis, lying medially next to the midline, and the fasciculus cuneatus, lying laterally.

The lower part of the medulla, immediately lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus, is marked by another longitudinal elevation known as the tuberculum cinereum. It is caused by an underlying collection of gray matter known as the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve.

An Invitation To Imagine

How does the brain control breathing

Humanity has used creativity to make sense of the nonsensical sincebefore the development of language. As we uncover how it works and where it might come from, we have a better sense ofhow to cultivate imagination. Explore the talks from TEDxMileHigh: Imagine. Together, lets abandon the need for permission and give ourselves collective permission to imagine.

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What Its Like To Hallucinate

Visual hallucinations, specifically simple hallucinations are more prevalent among the general population. These hallucinations include lights, colors, lines, or simple geometric shape. They can reflect abnormal activity anywhere along the visual pathways in the eye or the brain, Kelley said.

When people have these simple geometrical hallucinations, the primary visual cortex is activate. This is the part of the brain that perceives edges and patterns. Images cannot be formed with the primary visual cortex. They generate when a higher part of the visual cortex, according to Sacks, is involved in the temporal lobe, specifically the fusiform gyrus.

To experience a drug-free hallucination, click on the video below to see the world melting before your eyes with objects and people distorted in real-time, the DailyMail reported. This is known as motion aftereffects, which makes you see movement in objects that are stationary. You can recreate the effect on-the-go with the Strobe Illusion iPhone app for 99 cents.

The mind is a terrible thing to waste, so use it wisely.

Where Are The Respiratory Control Centers Located In The Body

respiratory control centers: The medulla which sends signals to the muscles involved in breathing, and the pons which controls the rate of breathing. chemorecepters : These are receptors in the medulla and in the aortic and carotid bodies of the blood vessels that detect changes in blood pH and signal the medulla to correct those changes.

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Section : The Functional Involvement Of The Pons In The Respiratory Control Mechanisms

In the newborn brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats, the medulla , was capable of generating a three- or four-phase respiratory pattern: pre-I, inspiratory, post-I and late E . On the other hand, in in situ arterially perfused brainstemspinal cord preparation from adult rats, the pontine structures are necessary for the generation of the normal three-phase respiratory pattern: inspiratory, post-I, and late E , similar to that which is recorded in vivo . A series of sequential rostrocaudal microtransections through the brainstem demonstrated the dynamics of the transformation/reorganization of the pontine-medullary respiratory network . The three-phase rhythm was only detected in the intact preparation, whereas two-phase rhythm without the post-I phase emerged after the removal of the pons. These results, along with those of previous studies, suggest that the inputs from the pontine circuits shape the respiratory pattern through the activation of the post-I neurons and the inspiratory off-switch mechanisms .

Control Mechanisms During Exercise And Sleep

CH22 ANS Control of Breathing

The control of breathing during both sleep and exercise is worthy of further examination. During slow-wave sleep, sensory stimuli are reduced, behavioral modifications are minimal, the central control mechanisms are depressed, and alveolar ventilation is reduced. The arterial CO2 runs 2 to 3 mm Hg higher than in the waking state. The situation is different during rapid eye movement sleep. Breathing becomes irregular. Muscular activity is greatly reduced indeed, the skeletal muscles, including those of the larynx and pharynx, relax. This may produce upper airway obstruction and apnea. This type of apnea is termed obstructive. Arousal occurs when the increasingly low Pao2 and high Po2 stimulate the carotid chemoreceptors. This type of sleep apnea is seen in all persons however, it is especially common in older men. In patients with COPD whose normal ventilation is severely reduced, further reduction attributable to apneic episodes may be extremely detrimental. If the depression of the central mechanisms is severe enough, a central type of sleep apnea may occur. Respiratory activity ceases until arousal occurs. This may be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome.

M.T. Cao, C.M. Pandya, in, 2013

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How Can I Change My Brain To Be Happy

6 Simple Ways to Train Your Brain for Happiness, According to Science. Ask yourself if youre thinking positive. Memorize a list of happy words. Use associations. Practice gratitude. Spend a few minutes each day writing about something that made you happy. Celebrate your successes, even the small ones.

Function Of The Medulla Oblongata

The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord. It is also responsible for regulating several basic functions of the autonomic nervous system, including:

  • Respiration: chemoreceptors
  • Reflex centers of vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing

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Voluntary Control Of Breathing

Voluntary control of breathing is mediated by the descending corticospinal tract and its influence on the motor neurons innervating the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. The rate and rhythm of breathing are influenced by the forebrain, as observed during voluntary hyperventilation or breath-holding as well as during the semivoluntary or involuntary rhythmic alterations in ventilatory pattern that are required during speech, singing, laughing, and crying.

Electrophysiologic and imaging studies support the belief that specific areas of cortex are involved in different phases of voluntary breathing. The diaphragm can be activated by stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation.20 The diaphragm lacks significant bilateral cortical representation, consistent with the finding of attenuation of diaphragmatic excursion only on the hemiplegic side in patients with hemispheric stroke.21 The intercostal muscles are similarly affected by hemispheric lesions. Positron emission tomographic studies have shown an increase in cerebral blood flow in the primary motor cortex bilaterally, the right supplementary motor cortex, and the ventrolateral thalamus during inspiration the same structures, along with the cerebellum, are involved in expiration.17,19

Marla R. Wolfson, Thomas H. Shaffer, in, 2004

/7use Your Less Dominant Hand

Control of Breathing | Respiratory System 05 | Anatomy & Physiology

Using your non-dominant hand for writing, eating or doing other small works also help to activate the right side of the brain. This is because the left side of our body is controlled by the right side of our brain. These tasks actually challenge your brain, making you more creative and improving your motor skill.

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The Real Neuroscience Of Creativity

So yea, you know how the left brain is really realistic, analytical, practical, organized, and logical, and the right brain is so darn creative, passionate, sensual, tasteful, colorful, vivid, and poetic?

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So yea, you know how the left brain is really realistic, analytical, practical, organized, and logical, and the right brain is so darn creative, passionate, sensual, tasteful, colorful, vivid, and poetic?

Stop it.


Thoughtful cognitive neuroscientists such as Anna Abraham, , Adam Bristol, Kalina Christoff, Andreas Fink, Jeremy Gray, Adam Green, Rex Jung, John Kounios, Hikaru Takeuchi, Oshin Vartanian, Darya Zabelina and others are on the forefront of investigating what actually happens in the brain during the creative process. And their findings are overturning conventional and overly simplistic notions surrounding the neuroscience of creativity.

The latest findings from the real neuroscience of creativity suggest that the right brain/left brain distinction does not offer us the full picture of how creativity is implemented in the brain.* Creativity does not involve a single brain region or single side of the brain.

Instead, the entire creative process from preparation to incubation to illumination to verification consists of many interacting cognitive processes and emotions. Depending on the stage of the creative process, and what youre actually attempting to create, different brain regions are recruited to handle the task.

Or else this can happen:

A Range Of Neurological Vision Loss

  • visual field defects such as homonymous hemianopia, when one half of the visual field in each eye is missing
  • double vision where a single object is seen as two and cannot be merged together
  • fluctuating vision this means the impairment is variable, for example, the person may be able to see something one day, but not the next
  • visual acuity problems reduced clarity of vision
  • eye movement problems for example, jittery eye movements or the tendency of the eyes to flicker around when the person is trying to look steadily at something
  • strabismus the eyes are not aligned for example, it may turn inwards or outwards.

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The Bilaterally Synchronizing Tract

The inter-preBötC tract was not anatomically distinct but was found to be a functional structure by a pan-slice, high-speed imaging procedure , in which compound action potentials were spatiotemporally tracked from one side of the preBötC during the microstimulation of the other side. The suppression of the recursive autoactivation of the bilateral CNQX population was used to unveil the one-shot traffic . To the best of our knowledge, this was the first and remains the only visualization of compoundaction potential conduction through the brain tract of vertebrates, which is different from general activity propagation where rapid dynamics such as return of activity to the baseline are not observed .

How Does The Brain Work


The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Sight

Interestingly enough, vision is controlled by the part of the brain which is furthest away from the eyes themselves the occipital lobe. It is located in the back of your head above the brain stem, the part of our brain that controls breathing.

The occipital lobe also has two hemispheres. The left hemisphere processes information from the right eye and vice versa.

The primary visual cortex gets raw information from the eyes and sends them to the secondary visual cortex for further processing. The secondary visual cortex is made out of the ventral stream and dorsal stream. Visual stimuli are processed in the temporal lobe as well.

Its important to keep the brain healthy and to challenge it with new tasks on a daily basis. That way, we can keep our brains strong and functioning well.

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