Saturday, June 25, 2022

Which Part Of The Brain Controls Speech

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General Inability To Speak And Understand Language

What part of the brain controls speech?

Widespread damage to the brains language centers can result in global aphasia. People with global aphasia will have an extremely hard time expressing and understanding language.

People with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, often experience loss of speech slowly over time. This is called primary progressive aphasia .

PPA is not Alzheimers disease but can be a symptom of Alzheimers disease. PPA can also be an isolated disorder without the other symptoms of Alzheimers disease. Some people with PPA have normal memories and can continue leisure activities and sometimes even work.

Unlike aphasia that results from stroke or brain trauma, PPA results from slow deterioration of one or more areas of the brain used in speech and language.

Overview Of The Autonomic Nervous System

, MD, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic

The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. This system works automatically , without a persons conscious effort.

Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive.

Cranial Nerves And Muscles Involved In Swallowing

Swallowing occurs in three sequential phases, all requiring the careful coordination of muscles in the mouth, pharynx , larynx , and esophagus . These muscles are all under the control of a group of nerves called your cranial nerves.

The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brainstem, located at the base of your brain. Your cranial nerves control functions such as smelling, tasting, swallowing, seeing, moving your face and eyes, and shrugging your shoulders. Several of the cranial nerves are involved with controlling the coordination and movements involved in chewing and swallowing.

The following cranial nerves are involved in swallowing:

  • Trigeminal
  • Vagus
  • Hypoglossal nerve

In turn, cranial nerves are controlled by processing centers in the brain where information related to swallowing is processed. These centers include areas located in the cerebral cortex, the medulla oblongata, and the cranial nerve nuclei.

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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Emotions

Now, you know what parts of the brain deal with thinking and memory. Lets have a quick look at the part that is responsible for emotions.

All positive and negative emotions, and spontaneous feelings think excitement and sadness, are being processed in the limbic system.

The limbic system control your emotions and interacts with other parts of the brain.

In the same time, another part of the brain called amygdala handles emotional reactions such as love, hate, and sexual desire.

With centuries of research, the human brain remains the biggest mystery in the world. It is the most complex part of the body that controls movement, sight, and thinking.

Becoming Mindful Of The Brain And Its Functions

What Areas of the Brain Relate to Language and Reading?

The human brain is the epicenter of the central nervous system, which controls the bodys most vital tasks. Everything from movement of limbs and facial features to regulating bodily functions like breathing is sent as a message from some part of the brain.

Comprised of billions of nerve cells that communicate with the body through the spinal cord, the brain is a complicated organ separated into several sections and subsections. Below is a breakdown of the parts of the brain, and how they contribute to the bodys functions and abilities.

The Cerebrum

Also called the cortex, the cerebrum makes up the largest part of the brain. It is associated with higher functions, such as cognitive thoughts and actions. There are four sections of the cerebrum , each of which contributes to the body differently. The four lobes and their functions are as follows:

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum resembles a smaller version of the cortex, because of its densely wrinkled appearance and its halved parts. It is responsible for several physical tasks, like movement, balance, posture and coordination. Although smaller in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the entire brain. It is critical for accomplishing day-to-day tasks as simple as walking or sitting down.

The Limbic System

The Brain Stem

There are three parts of the brain stem: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. Below is an explanation of what each part does in relation to the brain system:

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About Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

Right hemisphere brain damage, or RHD, is damage to the right side of the brain. Our brains have two sides, or hemispheres. In most people, language skills are in the left side of the brain. The right side controls attention, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. RHD may lead to problems with these important thinking skills. A person with RHD may have trouble communicating with others because of this damage. In many cases, the person with RHD is not aware of their problems.

Is Increased Rpop Activation A Result Of Dis

There was no evidence that the enhanced activation within RpOp in patients with LpOp damage could be explained by dis-inhibition . To the contrary, we found that in neurologically intact controls, there was positive covariance between the responses of the RpOp region that showed the highest activation in patients with LpOp damage and responses of the homologous LpOp region . This was observed during both pseudoword reading and pseudoword repetition .

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

Risks Of Damage To The Frontal Lobe

How the Brain Controls Speech | Stephen Fry’s Planet Word | BBC Studios

Seizures. Some seizure disorders are caused by damage to â or a malformation in â the brain’s frontal lobe. Seizures impact your motor abilities and speech. Your doctor will assess your seizures and determine which region of your frontal lobe may be impacted.

Personality and social skills. Because the frontal lobe is large and in the front of your skull, it is susceptible to damage. Any damage may contribute to changes in your social behavior. Damage may impact your spatial orientation and coordination of your facial muscles.

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Brain Areas That Control Language And Speech

Several areas of the brain must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.

Without the brain, there would be no language. The human brain has a few areas that are specific to language processing and production. When these areas are damaged or injured, capabilities for speaking or understanding can be lost, a disorder known as aphasia. These areas must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.

Brocas area, located in the frontal lobe of the brain, is linked to speech production, and recent studies have shown that it also plays a significant role in language comprehension. Brocas area works in conjunction with working memory to allow a person to use verbal expression and spoken words. Damage to Brocas area can result in productive aphasia , or an inability to speak. Patients with Brocas can often still understand language, but they cannot speak fluently.

Wernickes area, located in the cerebral cortex, is the part of the brain involved in understanding written and spoken language. Damage to this area results in receptive aphasia . This type of aphasia manifests itself as a loss of comprehension, so sometimes while the patient can apparently still speak, their language is nonsensical and incomprehensible.

The angular gyrus, located in the parietal lobe of the brain, is responsible for several language processes, including number processing, spatial recognition, and attention.

Practice Questions

Components Of The Brainstem

The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons.

Brainstem Anatomy: Structures of the brainstem are depicted on these diagrams, including the midbrain, pons, medulla, basilar artery, and vertebral arteries.

The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake cycles, alertness, and temperature regulation.

The pons lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum. It also has tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.

Medically Reviewed By: Whitney White, MS. CMHC, NCC., LPC

Weâve known for a long time that anger and other emotions are controlled in the brain. A more recent discovery that different parts of the brain âcontrolâ different emotions.

So, what part of the brain controls anger? How do we know? What do we do with that kind of information?

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Communication Strategies: Some Dos And Donts

  • Make sure you have got the persons attention before you begin.
  • Minimize or eliminate background noise .
  • Keep your voice at a traditional level, unless the person has indicated otherwise.
  • Keep communication simple, but an adult. Simplify your own structure and reduce your rate of speech. Emphasize keywords. Dont talk down to the person with aphasia.
  • Give them time to talk. Resist the urge to complete sentences or offer words.
  • Communicate with gestures, writing, drawings, and facial expressions
  • Confirm that you just are communicating successfully with yes and no questions.
  • Praise all attempts to talk and downplay any errors. Avoid insisting that every word be produced perfectly.
  • Engage in normal activities whenever possible. Dont shield people with aphasia from family or ignore them during a group conversation. Rather, attempt to involve them in family decision-making as much as possible. Keep them informed of events but avoid burdening them with day to day details.
  • Encourage independence and avoid being overprotective.
  • Brain Structure And Function

    The human

    The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:

    This image is from:

    Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.

    Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.

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    Tips For Helping Someone With Rhd

    • Ask questions to keep them on topic.
    • Try not to use sarcasm or abstract language. For example, do not use sayings like, “It’s raining cats and dogs.” A person with RHD may not understand these sayings.
    • Try to have a routine every day so your loved one knows what to expect.
    • Break down directions into small steps. Repeat directions as needed.
    • Talk to them in quiet places. Turn off the TV or other loud noises. This will help them pay attention.
    • Make sure that someone is there to watch them, if you worry about their safety.
    • Stand to their right side, and put objects to their right if they has left-side neglect.
    • Use calendars, clocks, and notepads to remind them about important information.

    To find a speech-language pathologist near you, visit ProFind.

    Transmission Of The Message

    In the last stage the message is transmitted to the primary motor cortex in order to specify the movement. There are many brain regions that participate in conjunction with these areas, providing supplementary but essential information.

    For example, the hippocampus and the associative sensory cortex are essential in aspects related to memory, the right hemisphere in the spatial aspects and global vision of the written word, and the prefrontal zones in the executive functions involved .

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    How Much Influence Does The Way They Raise Us In Making Decisions

    Undoubtedly, another substantial bias in any decision is obedience, since throughout childhood, and even in the labor system, it is taught about the importance of following orders and mandates.

    Consequently, the tendency to comply with the received provision is maintained even when not aware of it, and hence the buy now of some notices.

    Everything is closely linked to authority, and the influence capacity of reference groups can be observed, where the need to belong makes what is decided an almost impossible norm if it is not carried out.

    Therefore, factual dominance is interesting in decisions, especially because of the tendency to cling to the first action without considering all the potentially possible ones and hence the propensity to opt for the first dishes on a menu or the first items exposed in a local.

    Now, how does the brain decide which responses to heed? How do you ignore one of the processes for the other? What determines whether fear or desire wins? All these issues have not yet been definitively resolved given the great variety of factors that intercede and influence such complex processing.

    Different Types Of Aphasia

    How Speech Movements Are Controlled by Our Brain

    Global aphasia

    This is the most severe form of aphasia and is applied to patients who can produce a few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language

    Injury encompasses both Wernickes and Brocas areas, global aphasia can occur. In this case, all components of speech and language are affected. Patients can say a few phrases at most and understand only a few words and phrases. They commonly cant lift out commands or title objects. They cant read or write or repeat words said to them.

    Brocas aphasia

    Brocas aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such as the left brain inferior frontal gyrus, among others.

    Damage to a discrete part of the brain within the left frontal lobe of the language-dominant hemisphere has been shown to significantly affect the utilization of spontaneous speech and motor speech control. Words could also be uttered very slowly and poorly articulated.

    Wernickes aphasia

    This type of aphasia usually has profound language comprehension deficits, even for single words or simple sentences. This can be because in Wernickes aphasia individuals have damage in brain areas that are important for processing the meaning of words and speech. Such damage includes left posterior temporal regions of the brain, which are a part of whats known as Wernickes area, hence the name of the aphasia.

    Anomic aphasia

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    Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Degeneration of the angular gyrus in the temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe can lead to lvPPA. Typical symptoms include slowed speech with normal articulation, impaired comprehension of sentence syntax as well as impaired naming of things. lvPPA is probably associated with Alzheimers disease pathology.

    Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

    Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

    The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

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    What Is A Stroke

    A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .

    During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.

    Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.

    Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.

    Things That Can Go Wrong With The Brain

    Which part of the human brain is more developed than any other mammal ...

    Because the brain controls just about everything, when something goes wrong with it, its often serious and can affect many different parts of the body. Inherited diseases, brain disorders associated with mental illness, and head injuries can all affect the way the brain works and upset the daily activities of the rest of the body.

    Problems that can affect the brain include:

    Brain tumors. A brain tumor is an abnormal tissue growth in the brain. A tumor in the brain may grow slowly and produce few symptoms until it becomes large, or it can grow and spread rapidly, causing severe and quickly worsening symptoms. Brain tumors in children can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors usually grow in one place and may be curable through surgery if theyre located in a place where they can be removed without damaging the normal tissue near the tumor. A malignant tumor is cancerous and more likely to grow rapidly and spread.

    Epilepsy. This condition is made up of a wide variety of seizure disorders. Partial seizures involve specific areas of the brain, and symptoms vary depending on the location of the seizure activity. Other seizures, called generalized seizures, involve a larger portion of the brain and usually cause uncontrolled movements of the entire body and loss of consciousness when they occur. Although the specific cause is unknown in many cases, epilepsy can be related to brain injury, tumors, or infections. The tendency to develop epilepsy may be inherited in families.

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