Right Brain Left Brain
The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.
Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.
What Part Of The Brain Controls Personality
which are associated with executive functions such as reasoning, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics and movement, memory, and sense of smell.Personality, It is also the area of the brain thatThe frontal lobe is the emotional control center of the brain responsible for forming our personality and influencing out decisions, problem solving, involves several areas of the brain, Parts of the brain and their characteristics, the frontal lobe controls personality, It uses several areas simultaneously to handle all its tasks.Most of the expansion is due to the cerebral cortex, occipital, It is covered inFurthermore, judgment, Brain What Do the Parts of the Brain Control?The Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex, a person who is left-brained is often said to beCertain parts of the brain control certain mental abilities and personality from PSYC 1000 at University of GuelphAnatomy of the BrainThe largest section of the brain located in the front of the head, is also broader in humans, decision-making and reasoning, that was correlated with a thinner prefrontal cortexAuthor: Luca PassamontiAccording to the theory of left-brain or right-brain dominance, the part of the cerebral cortex dedicated to vision, The frontal lobe is located at the front of the central sulcus where it receives information signals from other lobes of the brain.
Trauma Its Effects On The Brain And Coping Skills
Coping with trauma has multiple physical, emotional, and psychological effects, and can have severe effects on the brain as well. The three main parts affected by trauma are the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex.
The amygdala is a part of the brain that mainly regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response. This response typically occurs during traumatic events we either fight back, flee from the situation, or freeze in place. When we experience triggers and/or threatening situations, a part of the brain called the thalamus releases stress hormones, which stimulates the amygdala. When the amygdala is stimulated, a split second decision is made . This means that the cortex, where judgment and critical thinking take place, does not have control over the situation. During these situations, we tend to experience an increase in heart rate, quicker breathing, shaking, sweating, and other physiological symptoms. In some situations, it can take hours to return to normal functioning.
On the bright side, there are multiple ways to cope with how trauma affects the brain.
Knowing how trauma affects the brain as well as how it affects you individually can help you figure out coping skills that work for you. Healing is not linear and you might not feel great every day, but having coping skills at your disposal can make a difference.
You are strong. You can get through this.
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Prefrontal Cortex: Summary And Conclusions
The PFC is a large and complex brain region that is best conceptualized as being located at the highest point of a sensorimotor pyramid, starting with the primary sensory cortices and ending at the primary motor cortex . Highly processed information from sensory association areas converges onto the PFC, which then integrates the information with existing priorities, leading to the construction of adaptive behavioral plans based on this input. Different PFC sectors receive different sensory information and project to different effector areas, but the pattern is consistent. The DLPFC contains its own sensorimotor transfer machinery, while the OFC and mPFC are located in the same sensorimotor circuit .
The magnitude and extended connectivity of the PFC are part of what makes the human brain unique. Since its func tions are so important to human behavior, it is not surprising that multiple psychiatric conditions are associated with abnormalities in the PFC. On the other hand, it is important to note that the PFC is one way-station in a closely coordinated circuit of brain areas. The interactions of the PFC with the striatum, the MD thalamus, and the MTL are essential for proper PFC function. Many consequences of PFC lesions in humans and animals can be replicated by lesions of the striatum, thalamus, or amygdala, or by disconnection of the PFC from these areas.
Kane O Pryor, Robert A Veselis, in, 2006
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging involves the indirect measurement of neural activity by measuring disturbances in local magnetic fields in the brain. These local disturbances are linked to differential amounts of blood flow to the brain, which is linked to neural activity. Early work using fMRI has studied whether individual differences in personality traits and sociocognitive functioning are associated with individual differences in neural activations in certain brain regions during certain tasks. Such studies have demonstrated associations between single brain regionsâ neural responses to certain tasks and individual differences in a wide range of sociocognitive functioning, such as approach/avoidance behavior, sensitivity to rejection, conceptions of the self, and susceptibility to persuasive messages. A small collection of fMRI studies have also demonstrated a significant relationship between brain responses to certain tasks and personality survey measures, such as extraversion and neuroticism.
Resting-state functional connectivity
Graph theory-based analysis
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
The Gateway To Conscious Awareness
Children who have difficulty learning to control a response often have behavioral problems which continue into adulthood, says Professor Cella Olmstead, the principal investigator on the study. She notes that impulsivity is a primary feature of many disorders including addiction, ADHD, obsessive compulsive disorder and gambling. Identifying the brain region and mechanism that controls impulsivity is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
In conditions where learning does not occur properly, it is possible that it is this mechanism that has been impaired, adds co-investigator neuroscience Professor Eric Dumont.
Contact: Kristyn Wallace
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Verification Of Emotional Image Stimuli
The average emotional valence rating in each emotional valence condition was 2.1 Â± 1.1 in negative, 5.2 Â± 0.6 in neutral, and 7.2 Â± 1.0 in positive images, and the statistical analysis revealed significant differences among the three emotional valence conditions = 148.368, p< 0.001, post hoc tests: Negative < Neutral < Positive all, p< 0.01, Î· p 2 = 0.827). In addition, the average arousal rating in each emotional valence condition was 6.9 Â± 1.6 in negative, 3.4 Â± 2.0 in neutral, and 5.3 Â± 2.3 in positive images = 70.694, p< 0.001, post hoc tests: Negative > Positive > Neutral all, p< 0.01, Î· 2 = 0.388). These results were very similar to those of the preliminary experiment .
In the SCR analysis, to ensure the perceptual input of emotional image stimuli, the average of the SCR during the image presentation was significantly higher than those during rest in all emotional valence conditions . These results could mean that the participants perceived the emotional image stimuli.
Two Analyses One Pair Of Conclusions
The authors of the study performed two investigations involving over 3,000 participants.
The first analyzed data from people participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging , an ongoing study of community-dwelling adults. The participants completed a 240-item questionnaire based on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory test to identify their Big Five traits. Within a year of the questionnaire, the absence or presence of amyloid plaques and tau proteins in their brains was assessed via PET scans.
The second was a meta-analysis of 12 studies that investigated associations between the pathology of Alzheimers disease and personality traits.
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Effects Of Executive Functions During Everyday Events On Fa
ANCOVA revealed that there were no significant overall effects of DEX scores on FA. In addition, ANCOVA revealed that there were no effects of the interaction between DEX scores and sex on FA. This was also true for analysis of areas with a strong a priori hypothesis using SVC, indicating that the association between WM structural integrity and EFEEs was not clear in this study.
Brain Structure And Function
The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:
This image is from:
Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.
Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.
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Relationship Between Both Halves Of The Brain
Although we have commented that each hemisphere has its peculiarities and has its own functions, this does not mean that they are radically different from each other or that they do not carry out activities together.
What must be understood is that there are activities that are carried out mainly by one of the two hemispheres and others in which it is the task of its counterpart.
As a curiosity, the research points out that interhemispheric differences are something distinctive of the human species.
In most people, both hemispheres complement each other. Normally, verbal aspects such as speech are under the control of the left hemisphere however, there are cases, especially in left-handed people, in which speech is an activity exerted by areas located in both hemispheres.
In addition, it has been seen that, in situations in which a brain injury occurs, there may be changes in the location of certain functions.
This transfer of functions is especially significant in childhood, at which time, thanks to brain plasticity, the brain tries to save its own capacity from the injured area by making it another area, and it may be from the opposite hemisphere, who becomes position.
Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory is based on the idea that there are three brain systems that all differently respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli.
What Do The Parts Of The Brain Control
Researchers study the parts of the brain and what each part does in order to understand where functions of the brain occur. Discoveries about brain anatomy assist medical professionals in diagnosing and treating brain disorders and tumors. There are three main divisions of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.
Where Do Emotions Come From
The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.
Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:
- Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the hypothalamus is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
- Hippocampus. The hippocampus helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
- Amygdala. The amygdala helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
- Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.
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Effects Of Executive Functions During Everyday Events On Rwmv
ANCOVA analysis revealed an overall negative main effect of DEX scores on rWMV in the WM areas in the left hemisphere or WM structures mainly consisting of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus , and in the WM areas in the right hemisphere, that is close to the superior temporal sulcus , the right hippocampus and the right parahippocampal gyrus or the WM structures mainly consisting of ILF and IFOF .
Among areas with a strong a priori hypothesis, SVC was employed and an overall negative effect of DEX scores on rWMV in the WM areas in the left OFC, which was adjacent to BA 11, was observed .
There was no overall positive effect of DEX scores on rWMV. ANCOVA revealed that there were no effects of the interaction between DEX scores and sex on rWMV. The significance of these results was not affected when the RAPM scores were removed from covariance. Note that lower DEX scores indicate higher functioning.
When the males and females were analyzed separately using multiple regression analyses with the same covariates, among the abovementioned significant correlations, only the significant correlations observed in the left temporal WM area and the WM area of the left OFC remained significant when only the data from male were analyzed. However, as can be seen in Fig. b and d, similar associations between the DEX score and rWMV were also observed within these areas in females.
Frontal Lobe Function Location In Brain & Damage
By Olivia Guy-Evans, published May 08, 2021
The frontal lobe is located behind the forehead, at the front of the brain. These lobes are part of the cerebral cortex and is the largest brain structure.
The frontal lobeâs main functions are associated typically with âhigherâ cognitive functions, including decision-making, problem-solving, thought and attention.
It contains the motor cortex,which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible forhigher-level cognitive functioning and Brocaâs Area, which is essential for language production
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Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging to understand the neurobiological basis of personality and sociocognitive functioning involves assessing the relationship between individual differences in these factors and individual differences in measures of brain structure, such as gray matter volume, cortical thickness, or structural integrity of white matter tracts.
A separate but similar line of research has used diffusion tensor imaging to measure the structural integrity of white matter in the brain. One study has shown that neuroticism is negatively correlated with the structural integrity of white matter tracts that connect various brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, and other regions in the subcortex. On the other hand, Openness and Agreeableness are positively associated with the structural integrity of these white matter tracts. Openness was also positively associated with the structural integrity of white matter interconnecting dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in both hemispheres.
Gender Differences And Factors Correlations In Neo
Comparison of the 5 personality scores between men and women revealed a significant difference for neuroticism and conscientiousness . For openness , agreeableness and extraversion no significant gender differences were detected.
Mean scores of the 5 NEO FFI personality scales separately for males and females error bars represent standard errors. Significant differences between males and females, marked by a star, were found for neuroticism and conscientiousness.
Correlations between factors were calculated separately for males and females and across the whole sample using SPSS 20 . Most of them were significant at P < 0.05 for both males and females and across the entire sample however, openness was found to be independent of most of the other factors, especially in the female sample . Furthermore, neuroticism was the only factor correlating negatively with most of the others: with agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion in men and in the mixed sample, in women also with openness.
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