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The Reticular Activating System
The reticular activating system is a network of neurons that runs through the core of the hindbrain and into the midbrain and forebrain. The RAS is made up of the midbrain reticular formation, the mesencephalic nucleus , the thalamic intralaminar nucleus , the dorsal hypothalamus, and the tegmentum.
The reticular activating system: The reticular activating system is involved in arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and the control of reflexes.
The RAS is involved with arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and the control of reflexes. The RAS is believed to first arouse the cortex and then maintain its wakefulness so that sensory information and emotion can be interpreted more effectively. It helps us fulfill goals by directing our concentration toward them and plays a role in individuals responses to situations and events.
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When we get to the bottom of the rabbit hole this is what we will find!
As we stand between the infinite light and the infinite darkness.
Things beyond our ability to know, and to understand.
For the finite mind, cannot know the infinite! It Is beyond our vision and comprehension.
What we can know is love, which is: Kindness, Goodness, Patience, Forgiveness, Truth and things such as these.
For things such as these, are the very purpose of our existence.
First, we must be complete in altrustic love, then we can have an infinite eternity to explore the infinate.
But for now we must understand the concept of developing this altruistic love in all things, and all actions, even of mind and heart by understanding these from the soul or our very being.
-Stands with a Roar-
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How Can I Make My Brain Happy
6 Simple Ways to Train Your Brain for Happiness
Memorize a list of happy words.
Spend a few minutes each day writing about something that made you happy.
Celebrate your successes, even the small ones.
In this post we answered the question What part of the brain is responsible for happiness? We explained how happiness is produced in the brain and what are the substances in charge.
If you have any questions or comments please let us know!
Can A Psychopath Feel Love
Psychopaths are not impervious to loves benefits, and they suffer when theyre absent. Though they are largely disassociated from feelings of sincerity and vulnerabilityemotions which are central to forming strong romantic bondspsychopaths are not impervious to loves benefits, and they suffer when theyre absent.
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What Part Of The Brain Controls Anger
Much like fear, anger is a response to threats or stressors in your environment. When youre in a situation that seems dangerous and you cant escape, youll likely respond with anger or aggression. You can think of the anger response and the fight as part of the fight-or-flight response.
Frustration, such as facing roadblocks while trying to achieve a goal, can also trigger the anger response.
Anger starts with the amygdala stimulating the hypothalamus, much like in the fear response. In addition, parts of the prefrontal cortex may also play a role in anger. People with damage to this area often have trouble controlling their emotions, especially anger and aggression.
Parts of the prefrontal cortex of the brain may also contribute to the regulation of an anger response. People with damage to this area of the brain sometimes
What Part Of The Brain Controls Happiness
Happiness refers to an overall state of well-being or satisfaction. When you feel happy, you generally have positive thoughts and feelings.
Imaging studies suggest that the happiness response originates partly in the limbic cortex. Another area called the precuneus also plays a role. The precuneus is involved in retrieving memories, maintaining your sense of self, and focusing your attention as you move about your environment.
A 2015 study found that people with larger gray matter volume in their right precuneus reported being happier. Experts think the precuneus processes certain information and converts it into feelings of happiness. For example, imagine youve spent a wonderful night out with someone you care about. Going forward, when you recall this experience and others like it, you may experience a feeling of happiness.
It may sound strange, but the beginnings of romantic love are associated with the stress response triggered by your hypothalamus. It makes more sense when you think about the nervous excitement or anxiety you feel while falling for someone.
As these feelings grow, the hypothalamus triggers release of other hormones, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Dopamine is associated with your bodys reward system. This helps make love a desirable feeling.
Vasopressin is similarly produced in your hypothalamus and released by your pituitary gland. Its also involved in social bonding with a partner.
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Different Parts Of Your Brain Are Responsible For Different Emotions
Your brain is made up of many different parts that all work together to process the information it receives. The main part of the brain responsible for processing emotions, the limbic system, is sometimes called the “emotional brain” .
Part of the limbic system, called the amygdala, assesses the emotional value of stimuli. It’s the main part of the brain associated with fear reactions — including the “fight or flight” response. A person who has a seizure in the temporal lobe sometimes reports an intense feeling of fear or danger .
The part of the brain stretching from the ventral tegmental area in the middle of the brain to the nucleus accumbens at the front of the brain, for example, has a huge concentration of dopamine receptors that make you feel pleasure . The hypothalamus is in charge of regulating how you respond to emotions. When excitement or fear causes your heart to beat faster, your blood pressure to rise and your breathing to quicken, it’s the hypothalamus doing its job. The hippocampus turns your short-term memory into long-term memory and also helps you retrieve stored memory . Your memories inform how you respond to the world around you, including what your emotional responses are.
Because different parts of the brain process different emotions in different ways, injury to any part of the brain can potentially change your moods and emotions.
Brain And Emotions: How Anger Fear Or Love Work In Your Brain
The human brain is incredibly complex. Neuroscientists are still uncovering hidden depths to this intriguing organ. and there is still a lot that we dont know about it. However, what we do know about the brain, and the part of it that deals with recognizing and controlling your bodys reaction to emotions is incredibly fascinating.
In this post, we look at our brain and emotions and what different reactions occur in our heads when we feel anger, fear or love.
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Substructures Of The Limbic System
There are two hippocampi, located in each hemisphere of the brain. They are seahorse-shaped and are structures mainly associated as being the memory centres of our brains.
Episodic memories are formed in the hippocampus and then filed away into long-term storage throughout other parts of the cerebral cortex.
The hippocampus always plays a role in spatial navigation and has also been associated with learning and emotions .
The hippocampus is also known as a site where neurogenesis occurs â this means that new nerve cells are made here from adult stem cells.
Due to the hippocampusâs involvement in memory, damage to this area can lead to severe memory impairments.
Damage can also be detrimental to spatial memory, for instance, remembering directions to locations that should be familiar to the individual.
The amygdala is an almond-shaped structure, located right next to the hippocampus. The main function of the amygdala is in emotional responses, including feelings of happiness, fear, anger, and anxiety.
This area is also key for the formation of new memories. The amygdala interacts with the hippocampus by attaching emotional content to memories.
It has a role in how memorable memories can be â memories that have strong emotional components tend to stick, rather than those with little emotional content.âFear learningâ is also an element of the amygdala.
The hypothalamusâ most basic function is in homeostasis .
What Are The Parts Of The Brain
The various parts of the brain work together to conduct everyday thought processes and necessary functions such as breathing. Essentially, the brain is made up of the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. Each part consists of different structures that allow them to conduct different tasks and handle varying responsibilities.
Made up of the cerebrum and the structures within the brain referred to as the inner brain, the forebrain is the largest part of the brain. Connected by bundles of nerves, the cerebrum is made up of two hemispheres, referred to as the right hemisphere and left hemisphere. Activities controlled by the left hemisphere include movements by the right side of the body and the ability to form thoughts. The right side of the brain controls movements on the left side of the body and allows you to think abstractly.
Within each hemisphere of the cerebrum are lobes with specialized functions. Frontal lobes handle planning and scheduling tasks. Parietal lobes allow you to experience taste, touch and temperature. Responsible for processing images and storing them in memory are the occipital lobes. Finally, your temporal lobes allow you to process music and form memories related to musical activities.
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S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions
The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.
The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.
The Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system in humans. It is regulated by the hypothalamus and controls our internal organs and glands, including such processes as pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional circumstances. The ANS is generally thought to be outside of voluntary control.
The ANS can be further subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. When activated, the sympathetic nervous system controls the endocrine glands to prepare the body for emergency action. SNS activation causes the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine , which results in the fight-or-flight response. The fight-or-flight response involves increased blood flow to the muscles, increased heart rate, and other physiological responses that enable the body to move more quickly and feel less pain in situations perceived to be dangerous.
Conversely, the parasympathetic nervous system functions when the body is relaxed or at rest it helps the body store energy for future use. Effects of PN activation include increased stomach activity and decreased blood flow to the muscles.
The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS have complementary functions, and they operate in tandem to maintain the bodys equilibrium. Equilibrium of the body, in which biological conditions are maintained at optimal levels, is known as homeostasis.
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Laughter On The Brain
The physiological study of laughter has its own name — gelotology. And we know that certain parts of the brain are responsible for certain human functions. For example, emotional responses are the function of the brain’s largest region, the frontal lobe. But researchers have learned that the production of laughter is involved with various regions of the brain. While the relationship between laughter and the brain is not fully understood, researchers are making some progress.
For example, Derks traced the pattern of brainwave activity in subjects responding to humorous material. Subjects were hooked up to an electroencephalograph and their brain activity was measured when they laughed. In each case, the brain produced a regular electrical pattern. Within four-tenths of a second of exposure to something potentially funny, an electrical wave moved through the cerebral cortex, the largest part of the brain. If the wave took a negative charge, laughter resulted. If it maintained a positive charge, no response was given, researchers said.
During the experiment, researchers observed the following specific activities:
This is different from what happens with emotional responses. Emotional responses appear to be confined to specific areas of the brain, while laughter seems to be produced via a circuit that runs through many regions of the brain.
Read on to learn more about how the brain and laughter are connected.
Damage To The Limbic System
Damage to the limbic system is dependant on which region is affected. Amygdala damage could affect a personâs fear processing , which could result in more risk-taking behaviors and putting themselves in dangerous situations.
Damage to the hippocampus could lead to deficits in being able to learn anything new, as well as affecting memory.
Hypothalamus damage can affect the production of certain hormones, including those which can affect mood and emotion.
Below is a non-exhaustive list of symptoms associated with limbic system damage:
- Uncontrolled emotions â more aggression, anxiety, and agitation.
- Olfactory impairments
- Alzheimerâs disease
- Movement disorders â Huntingtonâs and Parkinsonâs disease
A potential treatment for limbic impairments is deep brain stimulation . Successful treatment of some cognitive disorders such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder has come from DBS of the amygdala.
DBS has also shown to be useful in targeting the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug addiction .
Similarly, the use of antidepressant medications has shown links with restoring the underlying physiological differences in the limbic system in major depressive disorder .
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The Old Brain: Wired For Survival
The brain stem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. Its designed to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses . The brain stem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla, the area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing. In many cases the medulla alone is sufficient to maintain life animals that have the remainder of their brains above the medulla severed are still able to eat, breathe, and even move. The spherical shape above the medulla is the pons, a structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.
Running through the medulla and the pons is a long, narrow network of neurons known as the reticular formation. The job of the reticular formation is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and to relay the remainder of the signals to other areas of the brain. The reticular formation also plays important roles in walking, eating, sexual activity, and sleeping. When electrical stimulation is applied to the reticular formation of an animal, it immediately becomes fully awake, and when the reticular formation is severed from the higher brain regions, the animal falls into a deep coma.
A Psychological Constructionist Account Of The Brain Basis Of Emotion
A psychological constructionist account of emotion assumes that emotions are psychological events that emerge out of more basic psychological operations that are not specific to emotion. In this view, mental categories such as anger, sadness, and fear are not respected by the brain . A psychological constructionist approach to emotion is as old as the locationist approach, at least in its nascent form . Our contemporary psychological constructionist approach shares much in common with cognitive neuroscience approaches arguing that basic psychological operations are common across diverse task domains . As in the neural context hypothesis, it assumes that the psychological function of individual brain regions is determined, in part, by the network of brain regions it is firing with . It is also consistent with recent evidence that large-scale networks intrinsic to the brain interact to produce psychological events . In philosophy of mind, it is consistent with both a token identity and a supervenience approach to mindbrain correspondence and the mental mechanisms approach . We discuss the psychological constructionist view in somewhat more detail because it is unfamiliar to many readers.
Psychological Constructionist Hypotheses of BrainEmotion Correspondence
A: Lateral view. B: Sagital view at the midline. C: Ventral view. D: Coronal view.
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