Cortical Strokes Vs Subcortical Strokes
Before we dive into the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke, you should know the difference between cortical vssubcortical strokes.
The cerebral cortex/cerebrum is a large part of the brain that includes 4 lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Strokes in these regions are known as a cortical strokes.
Aside from the cerebrum, there are subcortical structures thatlie deep within the brain. Strokes in these areas of the brain are also knownas subcortical strokes.
The arteries that supply the subcortical areas of the brain are smaller and more delicate. Subcortical strokes are often hemorrhagic strokes due to the fragile arteries bursting, often from high blood pressure.
There are many differences between cortical and subcortical strokes. For example, cortical strokes often impact higher level functioning and its uncommon for subcortical strokes to result in language difficulties.
We will discuss other patterns next!
True Or False 40% Of All Nerve Fibers Connected To The Brain Are Linked To The Retina
In fact, half of all neural tissue deals with vision in some way.
The nerve fibers statistic is also cited by Eric Jensen in his book on visual learning titled Brain-Based Learning. In that same paper from 1957 that R.S. Fixot published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology, 50% of our neural tissue is directly or indirectly related to vision, which assists in visual learning.
What Does The Occipital Lobe Do
Studying the brain is a difficult task, particularly since some areas compensate for others when the brain suffers damage. The brains sensitive, dense, and complex nature means that researchers are constantly uncovering new structures within the brain, and new functions for each brain lobe. The occipital lobe is no exception to this rule.
Researchers once thought that the occipital lobe only controlled visual functions. But in recent years, they discovered that some portions of this lobe receive inputs from other brain regions. Specifically, a brain region called the dorsomedial stream receives input both from regions of the brain related to vision, and to areas that are not linked to visual processing. This suggests either that the occipital lobe may perform additional functions, or that researchers have not identified all regions of the brain associated with visual processing.
Although we know that the occipital lobe is dedicated to vision, this process is highly complex, and includes a number of separate functions. Those include:
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What Part Of The Brain Responsible For Vision
The part of the brain responsible for vision is dependent on the receptors. There are two types of cells or nerves that are used. These are called Rods and Cones. Rods are wide and tall and are responsible for seeing in black and white, these can work in less light which is why you often see in black and white at night or in darkness. Cones are responsible for seeing in colour, they can only work in a lot of light and are the most common cause for a migraine other than noise. Men have one less cone than women which is why it is very unlikely for women to ever be colour blind and why men are prone to this.
Although an interesting answer by the previous contributor, he didn’t really answer the question.
Vision in the brain consists of to major elements: the Visual Cortex, which is responsible for image processing, and the Optic Pathways which is the transport mechanism that carriers electrical signals from the eye to the brain . The Optic Pathways is what the previous contributor is delving into, and his explanation is bang on 🙂
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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Which Part Of The Brian Is Affected During Memory Loss
We already mentioned that there is not one single part of the brain that is responsible for learning or memory, so there is not a single region responsible for memory loss either.
The frontal and temporal lobes, the limbic system, and parts of the brain stem that control alertness are all involved in memory and learning. So, if any of these parts get damaged, a person can suffer memory loss or amnesia.
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True Or False More Of Our Neurons Are Dedicated To Vision Than The Other Four Senses Combined
In fact, we may be out-evolving our sense of smell.
According to John Medina in his book Brain Rules, in the fight for more neural real estate thats going on between our olfactory cortex and the visual cortex, vision is winning. He writes: about 60 percent of our smell-related genes have been permanently damaged in this neural arbitrage, and they are marching toward obsolescence at a rate fourfold faster than any other species sampled. Why? In the crowded, zero-sum world of the sub-scalp, Medina said, something has to give. So smell those rosebuds while ye may.
Check out our recent post on the Science of Live Scribing to learn more visual thinking factoids.
The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata
Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.
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Main Brain Parts And Their Functions Explained
The human brain is a complex organ that holds the most importance in the entire human body. The objective of this article is to give you an introduction about the brain parts and their functions rather than a detailed review of the research that has been done on the brain. The brain weighs just 3 pounds but is responsible for controlling behavior, interpreting the senses and initiating body movement. It is the source of intelligence in our body and is located in a bony shell that is protected by brain fluid. The brain is the reason for all of the qualities we possess that make us human beings.
What Is A Stroke
A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .
During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.
Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.
The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.
Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.
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Where Is The Primary Visual Cortex
Primary visual cortex .
The primary visual cortex is found in the occipital lobe in both cerebral hemispheres. It surrounds and extends into a deep sulcus called the calcarine sulcus. The primary visual cortex makes up a small portion of the visible surface of the cortex in the occipital lobe, but because it stretches into the calcarine sulcus, it makes up a significant portion of cortical surface overall. The primary visual cortex is sometimes also called the striate cortex due to the presence of a large band of myelinated axons that runs along the eges of the calcarine sulcus. These axons, referred to as the line of Gennari in reference to the first researcher who made note of their presence in the late 1700s, make the primary visual cortex appear striped .
Causes Of Neurological Vision Loss
- stroke or brain attack, where part of the brain is damaged by a haemorrhage or blockage in a blood vessel of the brain
- traumatic brain injury for example, after a car accident or fall
- infection, such as meningitis or cytomegalovirus
- lack of oxygen, such as near-drowning or a heart attack, which can interrupt the flow of blood to the brain
- disease, such as a brain tumour or multiple sclerosis.
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Cortical Processing Of Visual Input
From the thalamus, visual input travels to the visual cortex, located at the rear of our brains. The visual cortex is one of the most-studied parts of the mammalian brain, and it is here that the elementary building blocks of our vision detection of contrast, colour and movement are combined to produce our rich and complete visual perception.
Most researchers believe that visual processing in the cortex occurs through two distinct ‘streams’ of information. One stream, sometimes called the What Pathway , is involved in recognising and identifying objects. The other stream, sometimes called the Where Pathway , concerns object movement and location, and so is important for visually guided behaviour.
Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine
Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine
- Information and support
- Anatomy of the brain and spine
The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.
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What Does The Left Frontal Lobe Control
The left side of the brain controls movement related to language, whereas the right side is responsible for nonverbal tasks. Collectively, the frontal lobes are the part of the brain that is home to our emotional regulation centers and controls our personality, for example.
The frontal lobes in general have a huge influence on many aspects of our intellect and behavior, evidenced by the diversity of symptoms that can occur when the area is damaged. The anatomy of the brain is well- defined, but scientists are still learning about its exact functions. Although the left side is more involved in language-based tasks for most people, this does not always have to be the case. Rarely, some young children require the removal of half their brain as a result of a medical condition. Despite this loss, the remaining half of the brain is sometimes able to pick up the slack and do everything the other half did before it was removed.
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How The Eyes Communicate With The Brain
When we decide to look at something, a brainstem structure called the pons is called into action. It controls eye movement, constantly telling our eye muscles to move toward the correct stimulus of light .
When light enters the eye through the pupil, it strikes in the retina called rods and cones. Rod cells are responsible forperipheral vision and night vision, while cone cells react to brighter light, color and fine details.
When light hits its corresponding rod or cone, the cell activates, firing a nerve impulse through the optic nerve the middle man between the eye and the brain.
This impulse travels across countless nerve endings and eventually ends up with our pal the occipital lobe, where its processed and perceived as a visible image. This is eyesight.
Since an image isnt much help without meaning, the occipital lobe sends this visual information to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe. Here its stored as a memory.
All of this happens within the tiniest fraction of a second, allowing us to perceive the world in essentially real time.
The human brain is an incredibly complex web of neurons and synapses. And the more we understand about its mind-boggling ability to process and make sense of random collections of light, the more we can appreciate the equally complex world around us.
STILL HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR BRAIN AND VISION? Talk to an eye doctor near you to schedule an appointment.
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How Your Eyes Work With Your Brain
For instance, when you look at your phone, a particular part of your brain called the pons controls your eye muscles to direct your gaze.
The image of your phone then gets sent through your pupils. It hits the photoreceptor cells in the macula at the back of the eye, including rods and cones .
Rods and cones fire a nerve impulse through the optic nerve, which carries the impulse to a structure at the back of your brain called the occipital lobe.
The occipital lobe processes the image of your phone. However, this is not the end of the sight process.
Next, the visual data is sent to the parietal lobe, which is responsible for giving awareness of the physical distance between you and the phone and your depth perception.
The visual data is also sent to the temporal lobe, which is associated with memory. It recognizes that what youre looking at is a phone and not a shoe or anything else but a phone.
The temporal lobe is responsible for giving meaning to what we seeits what helps you use your phone for its intended purpose, rather than eating it or using it as a shoehorn.
Also, there is evidence that the frontal lobe, which is the reasoning/thinking part of our brain, is involved in the process of vision. The frontal lobe is responsible for maintaining your focus. In this case, it holds your attention on your phone and only your phone and not anything else around it.
Prosopagnosia: Difficulty Recognizing Faces
After a right hemisphere stroke, some patients may have difficulty recognizing faces a condition known as prosopagnosia.
Many suspect that the inability to recognize faces is linked to damage to the fusiform gyrus , which resides in the right hemisphere of the brain.
Damage in this region may cause right-sided survivors difficulty in recognizing family members faces, which can be distressing to loved ones.
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True Or False Almost 50% Of Our Brain Is Involved In Visual Processing
University of Rochester researchers found that more than half of the surface of our brains, called the cortex, is dedicated to processing visual stimuli. Its why when we work with some of the largest and most ambitious companies in the world, we encourage what we call whole brain thinking, which of course means working visually.
Think of it this way, if you were trying to make the playoffs, would you bench half your team? If youre working without leveraging visuals and imagery, thats effectively what youre doing.
Does The Brain Send It Messages To Move
Motor neurons send messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
Through the article we talked about the Part of the brain that controls muscle movement, we have seen what is its location and what are its structures and functions. In addition to associated pathologies when there is an injury or when it does not work properly.
If you have any questions or comments please let us know!
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Get To Know The Parts Of Your Brain
That three-pound, fatty, squishy, and oddly-shaped blob in your head is truly amazing. Its what makes you, you. Its responsible for your personality and how we sense the world. It lets you relive memories over and over again. It gives you the capacity for language, art, and moral judgments. Your movements, day in and day out are your brains responsibility. That quick scratch of the nose to relieve a pesky itch, or standing up from your couch to stretchyou can thank your brain for that.
But understanding this organ isnt so easy. There are many complex areas that are responsible for an array of functions you take for granted every day. Lets take a look at the primary components and their primary responsibilities of the human brain.
Left Hemisphere Stroke Recovery
Strokes that occur in the left side of the brain often result in language-related impairments along with physical impairments on the right side of the body.
Patients can benefit from participation in physical therapy and speech therapy to help restore these functions.
Every stroke is different, so every recovery will be different. While these guidelines provide a roadmap to recovery, patients should still read up on the other side effects of stroke that may occur as well.
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The Parietal And Temporal Lobes
We cant talk about the occipital lobe without giving a little credit to these two. While the occipital lobe carries most of the visual burden, its the parietal and temporal lobes that help us make sense of what were seeing.
The parietal lobe plays a big role in visuospatial cognition, our ability to recognize and adapt to the physical space around us. This includes abilities like depth perception, navigation and movement.
When you want to change the channel on TV, youre first using the occipital lobe to see the remote. But the parietal lobes visuospatial recognition is used to gauge how much distance is between you and the remote an important detail once you decide to reach for it.
The temporal lobe controls memory it assigns meaning to the images we see. After the occipital lobe registers the image of the TV remote, structures in the temporal lobe subconsciously remind us that the remote is used to change the channel, that it needs to be pointed at the TV, and which button we need to press to get to the channel were seeking.
The frontal lobe is usually not considered to be directly involved with vision, but scientists dont think it should be left out completely. According to the Georgia Institute of Technology, new research actually suggests it might play a role in vision after all.