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Which Section Of The Brain Helps Regulate Heartbeat And Respiration

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The Autonomic Nervous System

VITAL ORGANS SONG (Brain, Heart, Lungs, Liver, Kidneys)

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many physiological functions. It induces the force of contraction of the heart and its heart rate. In addition, it controls the peripheral resistance of blood vessels. The ANS has both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions that work together to maintain balance.

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The Architecture Of The Brain

The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .

When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.

Regulation Of Salivary Secretion

When overt reflex stimulation is provided by taste and mastication, an enormously increased activity is superimposed upon the resting flow. Various stimuli such as taste and mastication evoke reflex salivary secretion via various receptors such as gustatory and olfactory receptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors. Therefore, not only the volume but also the composition of mixed saliva in the mouth are changeable depending upon the contribution of different glands during reflex stimulation. Different afferent stimuli have been able to change the composition of saliva secreted by a single gland .

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Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.

Show/hide Words To Know

Parts of the Brain: Different Parts of Brain and Their ...

Blood-brain barrier: a protective layer that surrounds the brain and controls what things can move into the area around the brain.

Circadian rhythm: the bodys natural clock that runs on roughly a 24 hour cycle. Many animals have a 24 hour cycle that includes sleeping, eating and doing workmore

CLSM: confocal laser scanning microscope makes high quality images of microscopic objects with extreme detailmore

Metabolism: what living things do to stay alive. This includes eating, drinking, breathing, and getting rid of wastesmore

Puberty: the change from child to adult where the body is able to reproduce.

Vertebra: any of the bones that make up the backbone.

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Can Female Hormones Cause Heart Palpitations

Heart palpitationsfemale hormone estrogenhearthormonecanheartandpalpitationsandStroke volume index is determined by three factors:

  • Preload: The filling pressure of the heart at the end of diastole.
  • Contractility: The inherent vigor of contraction of the heart muscles during systole.
  • Afterload: The pressure against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole.

Where Is The Medulla Oblongata Located

Your medulla oblongata looks like a rounded bulge at the end of your brain stem, or the part of your brain that connects with your spinal cord. It also lies in front of the part of your brain called the cerebellum.

Your cerebellum looks like a tiny brain joined onto the back of your brain. In fact, its name literally translates to little brain from Latin.

The hole in your skull that lets your spinal cord pass through is called your foramen magnum. Your medulla oblongata is located at about the same level or slightly above this hole.

The top of your medulla creates the floor of the fourth ventricle of your brain. Ventricles are cavities filled with cerebral spinal fluid that help provide your brain with nutrients.

cranial nerves originate on this region.

Your brain and spine communicate through columns of nerve fibers that run through your medulla called spinal tracts. These tracts can be ascending or descending .

Each of your spinal tracts carries a specific type of information. For example, your lateral spinothalamic tract carries information related to pain and temperature.

If part of your medulla becomes damaged, it can lead to an inability to relay a specific type of message between your body and brain. The types of information carried by these spinal tracts include:

  • pain and sensation

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Chemicals Regulate Heart Beat

Neurotransmitters are substances or chemicals that activate nerve cells and allow them to communicate with other nerve and muscle cells. Norepinephrine and epinephrine activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause the heart rate to speed up. Acetylcholine stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system and lowers the heart rate. Thyroid hormones, which affect almost all cells in the body, increase the heart rate. During hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone levels are abnormally high and force the heart to beat at a rate that can harm the heart muscle.

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Anatomy Of The Brain And Spine

Respiratory Regulation | Part 2 | Chemoreceptors | Chemical Regulation | Respiratory Physiology

Learn more about the anatomy and the functions of the brain and spine

The brain and spine are vital to keep the body alive and functioning. Everything we do depends on the messages that are sent from the brain, along the spinal cord and on to the rest of the body.

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Brain And Nervous System

Youre in the middle of a meeting at work, but your mind keeps drifting to the parent-teacher conference you have tonight and the car you have to pick up at the shop on the way home and how you wish you hadnt skipped lunch because the rumbling in your stomach is driving you nuts. Then, suddenly, youre back in the moment, hoping nobody noticed your brief departure.

It may seem as if your brain is always on the go. And it is. The brain not only controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk, but also many things youre less aware of such as the beating of your heart, the digestion of your food, and yes, even the amount of stress you feel. Like you, your brain is quite the juggler.

What Controls Heart Rate

Heart rate is controlled by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system . The sympathetic nervous system releases the hormones to accelerate the heart rate. The parasympathetic nervous system releases the hormone acetylcholine to slow the heart rate. Such factors as stress, caffeine, and excitement may temporarily accelerate your heart rate, while meditating or taking slow, deep breaths may help to slow your heart rate. Exercising for any duration will increase your heart rate and will remain elevated for as long as the exercise is continued. At the beginning of exercise, your body removes the parasympathetic stimulation, which enables the heart rate to gradually increase. As you exercise more strenuously, the sympathetic system kicks in to accelerate your heart rate even more. Regular participation in cardiovascular exercise over an extended period of time can decrease your resting heart rate by increasing the hearts size, the contractile strength and the length of time the heart fills with blood. The reduced heart rate results from an increase in activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, and perhaps from a decrease in activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

How Does The Brain Work

PPT

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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Anatomy Of The Nervous System

If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race takes a lot less time than it just took to read about it.

Considering everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and grooves, though, provide it with the additional surface area necessary for storing all of the bodys important information.

The spinal cord, on the other hand, is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and ¾ inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. These make up the peripheral nervous system.

Divisions Of The Reticular Formation

Traditionally, the nuclei are divided into three columns:

  • Raphe nuclei
  • Magnocellular red nucleus
  • Parvocellular reticular nucleus
  • Sagittal division reveals more morphological distinctions. The raphe nuclei form a ridge in the middle of the reticular formation, and directly to its periphery, there is a division called the medial reticular formation. The medial reticular formation is large, has long ascending and descending fibers, and is surrounded by the lateral reticular formation. The lateral reticular formation is close to the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves and mostly mediates their function. The raphe nuclei is the place of synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regulation.

    The medial reticular formation and lateral reticular formation are two columns of neuronal nuclei with ill-defined boundaries that send projections through the medulla and into the mesencephalon . The nuclei can be differentiated by function, cell type, and projections of efferent or afferent nerves. The magnocellular red nucleus is involved in motor coordination, and the parvocellular nucleus regulates exhalation.

    Cross Section of the Pons: A cross section of the lower part of the pons showing the pontine reticular formation labeled as #9.

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    The Bodys Chemicals Help Control Behaviour: The Endocrine System

    The nervous system is designed to protect us from danger through its interpretation of and reactions to stimuli. But a primary function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems is to interact with the endocrine system to elicit chemicals that provide another system for influencing our feelings and behaviours.

    A gland in the endocrine system is made up of groups of cells that function to secrete hormones. A hormone is a chemical that moves throughout the body to help regulate emotions and behaviours. When the hormones released by one gland arrive at receptor tissues or other glands, these receiving receptors may trigger the release of other hormones, resulting in a series of complex chemical chain reactions. The endocrine system works together with the nervous system to influence many aspects of human behaviour, including growth, reproduction, and metabolism. And the endocrine system plays a vital role in emotions. Because the glands in men and women differ, hormones also help explain some of the observed behavioural differences between men and women. The major glands in the endocrine system are shown in Figure 4.19, The Major Glands of the Endocrine System.

    How Does The Nervous System Work

    Yoga Blood Pressure Regulating Breathing: In Synch

    The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.

    All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

    Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. It’s why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.

    In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young child’s brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. That’s why many scientists believe it’s important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

    The Senses

    Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.

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    Pons is an essential part of the brain located above the medulla. It falls in the category of the hindbrain. Pons is very important part of brain for the regulation and control of a number of vital functions. It not only acts as a control center, but also contains nuclei of some important cranial nerves. We can appreciate the importance of pons from the fact that any damage or trauma to pons can cause the immediate death of the person.

    In this educational article, we will talk about the structure and location of pons, its important components, blood supply and development of pons, and its functions. We will also discuss some important lesions of pons along with the diseases caused.

    Answer And Explanation: 1

    The part of the brain that regulates heart rate is the a. medulla.

    The medulla is the lower half of the brainstem that connects the spinal cord to the brain.

    This part of the brainstem is important in controlling autonomic functions and regulates several of the basic functions including respiration, cardiac function, vasodilation, and the reflexes that include coughing, vomiting, swallowing, and sneezing.

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    The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

    Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

    For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

    Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

    NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

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